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Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, on the South Saskatchewan River
South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada that flows through the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan....

. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344
Corman Park No. 344, Saskatchewan
The area's German Canadian population is much higher proportionately than the national or provincial averages: 43.4% .-Government of the RM:...

.

Saskatoon is the most populous city in the province
Province
A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.-Etymology:The English word "province" is attested since about 1330 and derives from the 13th-century Old French "province," which itself comes from the Latin word "provincia," which referred to...

 of Saskatchewan, and has been since the mid-1980s when it surpassed the provincial capital of Regina
Regina, Saskatchewan
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox...

. The city had a population of 202,340 in the Canada 2006 Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

, with a civic estimate of 231,900 in 2010. The city's census metropolitan area had a population of 233,923 in the 2006 Census. Statistics Canada estimated Saskatoon's CMA
Saskatoon Metropolitan Area
The Saskatoon Region is the metropolitan area based around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The region has a population in excess of 265,000 as of 2010The area is served by the Saskatoon John G...

 population as 265,000 as of July 1, 2010.

Etymology


The name Saskatoon [in Cree
Cree language
Cree is an Algonquian language spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada. It is also spoken in the U.S. state of Montana...

: sâskwatôn, "Saskatoon" or the locatives: misâskwatôminihk, lit: "at the saskatoon berry", misâskwatôminiskâhk, "at the place of many saskatoon berries", mînisihk "at the berry"] comes from the Cree inanimate noun misâskwatômina "saskatoon berries
Saskatoon berry
Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, saskatoon berry, serviceberry, sarvisberry or juneberry is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north central United States. Historically it was also called "pigeon berry"...

", which refers to the sweet, violet-coloured berry that grows in the area. It is also popularly described as the "Bridge City," for its seven river crossings.

History




In 1882, the Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

-based Temperance Colonization Society was granted 21 sections
Section (United States land surveying)
In U.S. land surveying under the Public Land Survey System , a section is an area nominally one square mile, containing , with 36 sections making up one survey township on a rectangular grid....

 of land straddling the South Saskatchewan River, between what is now Warman
Warman, Saskatchewan
-History:The town of Warman was born when the Canadian National Railway running from Humboldt to North Battleford intersected with the Canadian Pacific Railway running from Regina to Prince Albert. This took place in the fall of 1904....

 and Dundurn
Dundurn, Saskatchewan
-Sites of interest:Blackstrap Provincial park and Blackstrap Ski Hill a conservation area with man made lake as well as a man made mountain is located 7 kilometers or 5 miles to the east of town. In 1969, 1970 Mount Blackstrap was constructed to host the 1971 Canada Winter Games which were awarded...

. The aim of the group was to escape the liquor trade in that city and set up a "dry" community in the Prairie
Prairie
Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type...

 region. The following year settlers, led by John Neilson Lake
John Neilson Lake
John Neilson Lake was originally a preacher for the Methodist Church in Canada and eventually selected the site that became the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada...

, arrived on the site of what is now Saskatoon and established the first permanent settlement. The settlers travelled by railway from Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 to Moose Jaw and then completed the final leg via horse-drawn cart as the railway had yet to be completed to Saskatoon.

In 1885 the Northwest Rebellion affected the tiny community in a variety of ways. Chief Whitecap and Charles Trottier passed through the present day University campus on their way to join Louis Riel
Louis Riel
Louis David Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political and spiritual leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first post-Confederation Prime Minister, Sir John A....

's armed forces at Batoche, Saskatchewan. Following the fighting at the Battle of Fish Creek
Battle of Fish Creek
The Battle of Fish Creek , fought April 24, 1885 at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan, was a major Métis victory over the Dominion forces attempting to quell Louis Riel's North-West Rebellion...

, and the Battle of Batoche
Battle of Batoche
The Battle of Batoche was the decisive battle of the North-West Rebellion. Fought from 9 May to 12 May 1885 at the ad hoc Provisional Government of Saskatchewan capital of Batoche, the greater numbers and superior firepower of Middleton's force could not be successfully countered by the Métis ,...

, wounded Canadian soldiers convalesced at the Marr Residence
Marr Residence
The Marr Residence is a historic site located in the Nutana neighborhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and was part of the original temperance colony that predated the city. Built in 1884 by stonemason Alexander "Sandy" Marr, it is the oldest building in Saskatoon on its original site...

 which is today a historic site. A few died in care and were buried in the Pioneer Cemetery near the Exhibition Grounds.

A town charter for the west side of the river was obtained in 1903 (Nutana
Nutana, Saskatoon
Nutana is a primarily residential neighbourhood located near the center of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It includes the business district of Broadway Avenue. It comprises a nearly even mixture of low-density, single detached dwellings and apartment-style multiple unit dwellings. As of 2009,...

 became a village in that year). In 1906 Saskatoon became a city with a population of 4,500, which included the communities of Saskatoon, Riversdale, and Nutana. In 1955 Montgomery Place and in 1956 the neighbouring town of Sutherland were annexed
Annexation
Annexation is the de jure incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity . Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral, and weaker of the two merging entities, barring physical size...

 by the fast growing City of Saskatoon.

Demographics

Census Population
1901 113
1911 12,004
1921 25,739
1931 43,291
1941 42,320
1951 53,268
1961 95,526
1971 126,449
1981 154,210
1991 186,058
2001 196,811
2006 202,340
Est. 2008 209,400
Est. 2009 218,900
Est. 2010 223,200


The 2006 census listed Saskatoon as the largest city of Saskatchewan with a residential population of 202,340, which grew 2.8 per cent from 2001. A study released in July 2008 found that Saskatoon's population fell by approximately 2,000 people during the previous sixteen months, as more people move out of the city proper and into "bedroom communities" and adjacent Alberta. At the end of 2008, the City of Saskatoon claimed a population of 209,400.

According to the 2006 census, 18% of the population consists of youths under the age of 15, while those over 65 constitute 13% of the population. The median age of Saskatoon residents is 35.5 years of age, four years younger than Canada as a whole.
The above land area figure was provided by the City of Saskatoon in January 2006 and takes into account recent annexations up to that point. It does not include the two large annexations of land that occurred in the summer of 2010. These portions of land have been zoned under the provincial land management acts.

In terms of race, according to the 2001 census, 190,120 or 85.4% of the city's population were white Canadians, 19,900 or 8.9% were Aboriginals, with less than 5% belonging to other visible minorities such as Han Chinese, South Asians, etc. combined.

Some 78.5% of Saskatoon's inhabitants profess to be Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

, mostly Protestant (40.1%) and Roman Catholic (32.5%). Another 19.6% of Saskatoon's inhabitants do not profess a religious faith at all. Minority faiths include Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 (0.7%), Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, and Islam
Islam in Canada
According to Canada's 2001 census, there were 579,740 Muslims in Canada, just under 2% of the population. In 2006, the Muslim population was estimated to be 0.8 million or about 2.6%. In 2010, the Pew Research Center estimates there were about 0.9 million Muslims in Canada. About 65% were Sunni,...

 (0.6%).

Aboriginal peoples


The Saskatoon area was inhabited long before any permanent settlement was established, to which the ongoing archaeological work at Wanuskewin Heritage Park
Wanuskewin Heritage Park
Wanuskewin Heritage Park is a non-profit internationally-recognized award-winning interpretive centre that reflects First Nations culture, history, and values...

 and other locations bears witness. Canada's First Nations
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

 population has been increasingly urbanized, and nowhere is that more apparent than in Saskatoon, where the First Nations population increased by 382% from 1981 to 2001; however, a portion of this increase, possibly as much as half, is believed to be due to more people identifying themselves as Aboriginal in the census rather than migration or birth rate. Saskatoon has a higher percentage of First Nations population than any other major Canadian city at nearly 9%, although Winnipeg and Regina both exceed 8%; in certain neighbourhoods such as Pleasant Hill, this percentage exceeds 40%. Most First Nations residents are of Cree
Cree
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations / Native Americans in North America, with 200,000 members living in Canada. In Canada, the major proportion of Cree live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories, although...

 or Dakota
Sioux
The Sioux are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects...

 cultural background although to a lesser extent Saulteaux
Saulteaux
The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.-Ethnic classification:The Saulteaux are a branch of the Ojibwe nations. They are sometimes also called Anihšināpē . Saulteaux is a French term meaning "people of the rapids," referring to...

, Assiniboine, and Dene
Dene
The Dene are an aboriginal group of First Nations who live in the northern boreal and Arctic regions of Canada. The Dené speak Northern Athabaskan languages. Dene is the common Athabaskan word for "people" . The term "Dene" has two usages...

 communities also exist.

Saskatoon also has a substantial Métis
Métis people (Canada)
The Métis are one of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who trace their descent to mixed First Nations parentage. The term was historically a catch-all describing the offspring of any such union, but within generations the culture syncretised into what is today a distinct aboriginal group, with...

 population and is close to the historically significant Southbranch Settlement
Southbranch Settlement
Southbranch Settlement was the name ascribed to a series of French Métis settlements on the Canadian prairies in the 19th Century, in what is today the province of Saskatchewan...

s to the north, as well as the Prairie Ronde settlement near Dundurn, Saskatchewan.

Health


The Saskatoon Health Region
Saskatoon Health Region
The Saskatoon Health Region is the largest health region in Saskatchewan, Canada. Primarily based in the city of Saskatoon, the health region operates out of 75 facilities, including 10 hospitals, 29 long term care facilities, and numerous primary health care sites, public health centres, mental...

 is responsible for health care delivery in the region. The health region operates three hospitals within the city boundaries, these include Royal University Hospital
Royal University Hospital
Royal University Hospital, often abbreviated RUH, is one of three hospitals in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is located on the University of Saskatchewan campus. RUH is a teaching hospital and closely tied to the College of Medicine within the university. It was opened on May 14, 1955 by...

, Saskatoon City Hospital
Saskatoon City Hospital
Saskatoon City Hospital is a public hospital in the City Park neighborhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It was originally opened in 1909, and it was the second municipal hospital in Canada. The hospital is operated by the Saskatoon Health Region....

, and St. Paul's Hospital (Saskatoon). Royal University Hospital is a teaching and research hospital that operates in partnership with the University of Saskatchewan. The health region also operates hospitals in smaller neighboring communities. In addition to hospitals the health region operates long-term care facilities, clinics and other health care services.

Recent data suggests that Saskatchewan has the highest rate of new HIV cases in Canada and that 1/4 cases of HIV infected babies are from Saskatchewan. This increase in HIV cases has been in part attributed to growing IV drug use, a gang problem, poverty and prostitution in the city of Saskatoon, which has a higher rate of HIV than other areas.

Economy



The economy of Saskatoon has been associated with potash
Potash
Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. In some rare cases, potash can be formed with traces of organic materials such as plant remains, and this was the major historical source for it before the industrial era...

, oil
Oil
An oil is any substance that is liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. This general definition includes vegetable oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils, and synthetic oils....

 and agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 (specifically wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

), resulting in the moniker POW. Various grains, livestock, oil and gas, potash, uranium, gold, diamond, coal and their spin off industries fuel the economy. The world's largest publicly traded uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

 company, Cameco
Cameco
Cameco Corporation is the world's largest publicly traded uranium company, based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. In 2009, it was the world's second largest uranium producer, accounting for 16% of world production.-History:...

, and the world's largest potash
Potash
Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. In some rare cases, potash can be formed with traces of organic materials such as plant remains, and this was the major historical source for it before the industrial era...

 producer, PotashCorp, have corporate headquarters in Saskatoon. Nearly two-thirds of the world's recoverable potash reserves are located in the Saskatoon region. Innovation Place
Innovation Place Research Park
Innovation Place is the registered business name of the Saskatchewan Opportunities Corporation , a crown corporation in Saskatchewan. SOCO operates a network of three research parks: one located near the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, the second near the University of Regina...

 founded in 1980 brings together almost 150 agriculture, information technology, and environmental, life sciences and agricultural biotechnology industries in a science park
Science park
A research park, science park, or science and technology park is an area with a collection of buildings dedicated to scientific research on a business footing. There are many approximate synonyms for "science park", including research park, technology park, technopolis and biomedical park...

 or technology park setting.

Saskatoon's other nickname, Hub city refers its ideal central location for distribution and logistics. Saskatoon John G. Diefenbaker International Airport with 105,620 aircraft movements in 2008 was listed as the 19th busiest airport in Canada.

Saskatoon is developing the South Central Business District, or block 146, which is called the River Landing Project. Long range planning is underway for an expected population of 270,000 by 2025 (2000 estimate).

Saskatoon is expected to see a 1.7 percent growth in gross domestic product for the year 2009. The city saw a 3.4% growth in 2004, 5.1% increase in 2005 and a 2.8% increase in 2006. Saskatoon held Canada's No. 1 economic growth spot for Canada in 2005 according to the Conference Board of Canada. The Conference Board again predicted the city would rate first for economic increase in 2008, showing a growth rate of 5.2%. The Saskatoon Regional Economic Development Authority (SREDA) has also been ranked amongst Canada's top ten economic growth groups by Site Selection magazine.

Recent provincial government forecasts are calling for a $1.05 Billion deficit for 2009, the second largest deficit of all time, and the Conference Board of Canada is predicting a "near term" employment drop for Saskatoon and area, while nearby Regina is predicted to post the best employment growth in Western Canada.

Pike Lake
Pike Lake Provincial Park
Pike Lake Provincial Park is a primarily recreational park located approximately 32 km southwest of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is located at the southern terminus of Highway 60 on the shore of Pike Lake, an oxbow created by the South Saskatchewan River...

 and Blackstrap Provincial Park
Blackstrap Provincial Park
Blackstrap Provincial Park is a conservation area with a man made lake, a provincial campground, and a man made mountain; Blackstrap Ski Hill. Blackstrap Provincial Park is located east of Dundurn and accessed via Saskatchewan Highway 211 which is approximately 7 km long...

s are 40 km (24.9 mi) south of the city. Blackstrap Park is often used for school field trips. Batoche is located 90 km (55.9 mi) north of the city.

Geography


Saskatoon lies on a long belt of rich, potassic chernozem
Chernozem
Chernozem , also known as "black land" or "black earth", is a black-coloured soil containing a high percentage of humus 7% to 15%, and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia...

 in middle-southern Saskatchewan and is found in the Aspen parkland
Aspen parkland
Aspen parkland refers to a very large area of transitional biome between prairie and boreal forest in two sections; the Peace River Country of northwestern Alberta crossing the border into British Columbia, and a much larger area stretching from central Alberta, all across central Saskatchewan to...

 biome. The lack of surrounding mountainous topography gives the city a relatively flat grid, though the city does sprawl over a few hills and into a few valleys. The lowest point in the city is the river, while the highest point is disputed between the suburb of Sutherland in the east side and the Silverwood-River Heights areas in the city's north end. Saskatoon, on a cross-section from west to east, has a general decline in elevation above sea level heading towards the river, and on the east bank of the river, the terrain is mostly level until outside the city, where it begins to decrease in elevation again.

Saskatoon is divided into east and west sides by the South Saskatchewan River
South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada that flows through the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan....

. It is then divided into Suburban Development Areas (SDA) which are composed of neighbourhoods.

Climate



Saskatoon is in the aspen parkland
Aspen parkland
Aspen parkland refers to a very large area of transitional biome between prairie and boreal forest in two sections; the Peace River Country of northwestern Alberta crossing the border into British Columbia, and a much larger area stretching from central Alberta, all across central Saskatchewan to...

 biome
Biome
Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a...

 and experiences warm summers and very cold winters (plant hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone...

 2B). Its climatic zone is humid continental
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Koppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb).

The city has four distinct seasons. Average temperatures range from −17°C (-1°F) in January to 19°C (66°F) in July. Saskatoon is fairly dry, with the summer being the wettest season. A positive aspect of the low precipitation is that Saskatoon is sunnier than average in Canada as a result, averaging 2,380.8 hours of bright sunshine annually. The extreme temperatures are also more tolerable on account of the typically low humidity. The summer months can get hot at times, but the average summer high is 24°C (75°F). Thunderstorms are common in the summer months and can be severe with torrential rain, hail, high winds, intense lightning and, on rare occasion, tornado
Tornado
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

s. The frost-free growing season generally lasts from mid-May to mid-September, but due to Saskatoon's northerly location, damaging frosts have occurred as late as June 14 and again as early as August.

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Saskatoon was −50°C (-58°F) in 1893. The lowest wind chill ever recorded was −62°C (-80°F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Saskatoon was 40.6°C (105.1°F) on 5 June 1988.

The "Blizzard of 2007" was described by many residents as the worst they had seen and paralyzed the city with its low visibility, extreme cold and large volume of snow. Winds rose to over 90 kilometres per hour and an estimated 25 centimetres (9.8 inches) of snow fell throughout the day. Many area residents took refuge overnight at area work places, shopping centres, hospitals and the university.

Security



The Saskatoon Police Service
Saskatoon Police Service
Saskatoon Police Service is the municipal police force in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and holds both municipal and provincial jurisdiction. Police Chief Clive Weighill is the head of the force. The deputy chiefs are Deputy Chief Gary Broste , and Deputy Chief Bernie Pannell...

 is the primary police service for the city of Saskatoon and holds both Municipal and Provincial Jurisdiction. The following services also have jurisdiction in Saskatoon: Corman Park Police Service, Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

, Canadian National Railway Police Service
CN Police
The Canadian National Railway Police Service is a private police service enforcing all criminal and provincial laws on properties owned, operated and administered by Canadian National Railway...

 and the Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
The Canadian Pacific Police Service is a private police force enforcing safety and policing along Canadian Pacific Railway properties and rail lines in Canada and the United States, including limited sections of the Milton line of GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area.The current head of the CP...

.
As of 2009 the SPS had 475 sworn members and 107 civilian positions. During the 1980s the city saw a large number of situations where the result was a shootout between suspects and the police. It was known as the Shootouts of the Eighties. Probably the most famous incident was the Canarama Mall Shootout
Canarama Mall Shootout
The Canarama Shootout was an armed confrontation on July 5th, 1982, between officers of the Saskatoon Police Service and infamous Saskatoon criminal Harvey Andres, who had escaped from an Edmonton prison just months before the shootout...

. In 1978 Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

 (RCMP) Constable Thomas Brian King was attacked and shot to death in Saskatoon.

Crime


The 2006 census crime data, released July 18, 2007, showed Saskatoon leading Canada in violent crime
Violent crime
A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim. This entails both crimes in which the violent act is the objective, such as murder, as well as crimes in which violence is the means to an end, such as robbery. Violent...

, with 1,606 violent crimes per 100,000 residents annually. However, crime statistics produced by the Saskatoon Police Service
Saskatoon Police Service
Saskatoon Police Service is the municipal police force in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and holds both municipal and provincial jurisdiction. Police Chief Clive Weighill is the head of the force. The deputy chiefs are Deputy Chief Gary Broste , and Deputy Chief Bernie Pannell...

 shows that crime is on the decline. Saskatoon saw a 71% drop in murders last year (a total of 2, compared to 7 in 2007). In 2008 total crimes against people fell 8.06% and total crimes against property fell by 8.22%.

There were accusations in the early 1990s that the Saskatoon police were engaging in starlight tours
Starlight tours
A starlight tour is the non-sanctioned police practice of picking up individuals in their cruisers, mostly homeless, drug addicts, or other such marginalized people, and taking them outside of town where they would be beaten and/or abandoned on the side of the road.A suspected case in Canada...

, where officers would arrest Aboriginal men and drive them out of the city in the dead of winter to abandon them. The majority of the accusations turned out to be false however there were several starlight tours which took place.

Main sights


One of the city's landmarks is the Delta Bessborough Hotel, known to locals as the Bez. Built by the Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

, it was among the last railway hotels
Canada's grand railway hotels
Canada’s railway hotels are a series of grand hotels across the country, each a local and national landmark, and most of which are icons of Canadian history and architecture. Each hotel was originally built by the Canadian railway companies, or the railways acted as a catalyst for the hotel’s...

 to be started before the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 of the 1930s brought their era to a close. Although the building was completed in 1932, it did not open its doors until 1935 due to the Depression. The Bessborough and the Mendel Art Gallery
Mendel Art Gallery
The Mendel Art Gallery is a major creative cultural centre in City Park, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, opened in 1964. Housing a permanent collection of works of local, regional and national significance, the Mendel is also known for its public programs for all ages. Its current executive director and...

 are currently the only major structures located on the river side of Spadina Crescent. One of the most frequently circulated photographs depicting Saskatoon is of the hotel framed in one of the arches of the Broadway Bridge
Broadway Bridge (Saskatoon)
Broadway Bridge is an arch bridge that spans across the east and west banks of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.-History:...

. An interesting footnote related to the Bessborough Hotel is that the structure is slowly sliding towards the South Saskatchewan River located directly behind the hotel. It is reported the structure is moving toward the river at approximately 1" per year.

The Meewasin Valley Trail
Meewasin Valley Authority
The Meewasin Valley Authority is a conservation organization created by the Provincial Government of Saskatchewan in Canada and is dedicated to conserving the cultural and natural resources of the South Saskatchewan River Valley. The authorities activities include education, development and...

 follows the South Saskatchewan River through Saskatoon. Summer activities include cycling, jogging and walking through parks and natural areas. Cross-country skiing is popular during the winter months, along with skating in Kiwanis Memorial Park. Access points are found throughout the city with interpretive signage and washrooms located along the route. There are parks throughout the Meewasin Valley, with washrooms, picnic facilities, and lookout points along the river bank.

In the winter the Meewasin Skating Rink is open free to the public; it is located in Kiwanis Memorial Park beside the Delta Bessborough hotel. The outdoor rink has been open since 1980.

For years, a parcel of land west of the Victoria Bridge, south of 19th Street, and east of Avenue C has been the subject of on-again, off-again redevelopment plans. The site formerly held the Saskatoon Arena, a power plant, a branch of the Royal Canadian Legion
Royal Canadian Legion
The Royal Canadian Legion is a non-profit Canadian ex-service organization founded in 1925, with more than 400,000 members worldwide. Membership includes people who have served as current and former military, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, provincial and municipal police, direct relatives of...

, and the head offices of the Saskatoon Public School Division
Saskatoon Public School Division
Saskatoon Public Schools is the largest school system in Saskatoon and is the second largest in Saskatchewan.Saskatoon Public Schools has approximately 22,000 students with 44 elementary schools and 9 high schools. The offices of the Saskatoon School Board are housed in the Eaton's Building. ...

; all these structures have been demolished to make way for redevelopment, with plans for same dating back to the 1980s. The most recent version of the plan called River Landing is ongoing. Calgary developer Lake Placid has proposed a 200 million dollar mega hotel/condo project to be built on the site although Lake Placid had difficulty securing financing and missed an October 30, 2009, deadline to submit a 4.5 million dollar payment for the parcel of land which seemingly killed the deal. On November 16, 2009, it was revealed by Lake Placid that the financing should be secure within a week. In April 2010, Saskatoon City Council voted in favour of entering new negotiations with Lake Placid over the site.

As of May 2010, landscaping and the development of the Frank & Ellen Remai Arts Centre
Frank & Ellen Remai Arts Centre
Frank & Ellen Remai Arts Centre is a performing arts centre in the River Landing area of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The centre is owned by and the main venue for the Persephone Theatre. Constructed in 2007 at a cost of $11 Million Canadian, the main theatre seats 450, with a second smaller...

 a new performance venue for the Persephone Theatre
Persephone Theatre
Persephone Theatre, is a theatre company based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The theatre company was founded in 1974 by Janet and Susan Wright and named after the greek goddess Persephone. The first season performances were held at the Mendel Art Gallery, with the second season at the...

 had been completed on River Landing, joining a senior citizens residence that had been built in River Landing in the 1990s. The Saskatoon Farmers' Market
Saskatoon Farmers' Market
The Saskatoon Farmers' Market is a public Farmers' market housed in a former electrical warehouse and garage in the Riversdale, district of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The building was renovated and a outdoor market plaza created as part of the River Landing redevelopment. The market and...

 and some commercial sites have also been developed. Future plans separate from Lake Placid include the development of a new art gallery to replace the Mendel Art Gallery by 2014.

Other landmarks in the city include the iconic Traffic Bridge (which as of summer 2011 is expected to be demolished and replaced by a new structure), the University of Saskatchewan campus, and the large Viterra grain terminal which has dominated the western skyline of the city for decades and is large enough to be visible from Pike Lake Provincial Park
Pike Lake Provincial Park
Pike Lake Provincial Park is a primarily recreational park located approximately 32 km southwest of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is located at the southern terminus of Highway 60 on the shore of Pike Lake, an oxbow created by the South Saskatchewan River...

 32 km away.

Transportation


Saskatoon is located on the Yellowhead Highway
Yellowhead Highway
The Yellowhead Highway is a major east-west highway connecting the four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Although part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, the highway should not be confused with the more southerly, originally-designated...

 spur of the Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins the ten provinces of Canada. It is, along with the Trans-Siberian Highway and Australia's Highway 1, one of the world's longest national highways, with the main route spanning 8,030 km...

 system, also known as Highway 16
Saskatchewan Highway 16
Highway 16 is a provincial paved highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is the Saskatchewan section of the Yellowhead Highway, and also the Trans-Canada Highway Yellowhead section. The main purpose of this highway is to connect Saskatchewan with Canadian cities such as Edmonton and...

, which connects Saskatchewan, Manitoba
Manitoba
Manitoba is a Canadian prairie province with an area of . The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other...

, Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

, and British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

. Highways 5
Saskatchewan Highway 5
This article focuses on the current designated Saskatchewan Highway 5, for Provincial Highway 5, Evergreen route portion, north west of Saskatoon see Saskatchewan Highway 16....

, 7
Saskatchewan Highway 7
Saskatchewan Highway 7 is a major paved undivided provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, running from the Alberta border to Saskatoon...

, 11
Saskatchewan Highway 11
Highway 11 is a major north-south highway in Saskatchewan, Canada that connects the province's three largest cities: Regina, Saskatoon and Prince Albert. It is a structural pavement major arterial highway which is approximately long. It is also known as the Louis Riel Trail after the 19th century...

, 12
Saskatchewan Highway 12
Highway 12 is a major highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It begins in Saskatoon at the intersection of Idylwyld Drive and 22nd Street, initially running north on Idylwyld concurrently with Highway 11. Just outside Saskatoon's northern city limits, Highway 11 branches off and Highway...

, 14
Saskatchewan Highway 14
Highway 14 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from the intersection of Idylwyld Drive and 22nd Street in downtown Saskatoon, westward to the Albertan border where it becomes Highway 13. It is approximately 261 km long.Prior to the 1970's, Highway 14 ran the width...

, 41
Saskatchewan Highway 41
Highway 41 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 5 in Saskatoon to Highway 6/Highway 3 in Melfort. Highway 41 is about . long....

, 219
Saskatchewan Highway 219
Highway 219 is a secondary highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, running from Saskatoon south to the vicinity of the Gardiner Dam development and the north end of Lake Diefenbaker....

, 684
Saskatchewan Highway 684
Highway 684 is the name given to two different highways in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.The northwestern Highway 684 is approximately 57 km long. It begins near Waseca, at Highway 16, and it ends at Highway 3....

, and 762
Saskatchewan Highway 762
Highway 762 is a provincial secondary highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 7 near Vanscoy to Saskatoon. The highway is approximately 30 km long....

 all meet at Saskatoon, with highway 60
Saskatchewan Highway 60
Highway 60 is a provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 7 near Saskatoon to Pike Lake Provincial Park. The highway is approximately 26 km long....

 terminating just west of the city limits.

The following bridges cross the South Saskatchewan River
South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada that flows through the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan....

 in Saskatoon (in order from upstream):
  • Grand Trunk Bridge
    Grand Trunk Bridge (Saskatoon)
    The Grand Trunk Bridge is a Canadian steel trestle railway bridge that spans the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It was built in 1908 as part of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway project...

     (rail)
  • Circle Drive South Bridge
    Circle Drive South Bridge
    Circle Drive South Bridge spans the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada. It is a steel girder bridge, under construction as part of the Circle Drive freeway system in southern Saskatoon. At the time of construction, it was projected to cost $272.5 million to build. It is...

     (Under Construction)
  • Senator Sid Buckwold Bridge
  • Traffic Bridge (closed indefinitely as of August 24, 2010)
  • Broadway Bridge
    Broadway Bridge (Saskatoon)
    Broadway Bridge is an arch bridge that spans across the east and west banks of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.-History:...

  • University Bridge
    University Bridge (Saskatoon)
    University Bridge spans the South Saskatchewan River between Clarence Avenue and College Drive on the east shore with 25th Street on the west in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada. The bridge is also known as the 25th Street Bridge and is a major commuter route between the two halves of Saskatoon...

  • CPR Bridge (rail)
  • Circle Drive Bridge
    Circle Drive Bridge (Saskatoon)
    Circle Drive Bridge spans the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada. It is a steel girder bridge, built in 1983 as part of the Circle Drive freeway system in northeast Saskatoon. At the time of construction, it cost $11.8 million to build...




Construction of Saskatoon's ring road, Circle Drive
Circle Drive
Circle Drive is a major road constructed as a ring road in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The northeastern portion of the road is part of the Yellowhead Highway.-History:...

, began in the mid-1960s, and is yet to be completed as of mid-2010. Its remaining missing link is in the southwest; on June 20, 2008, the mayor announced that funding for the $300 million project from the federal, provincial and city governments is now in place to build the Circle Drive South Bridge
Circle Drive South Bridge
Circle Drive South Bridge spans the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada. It is a steel girder bridge, under construction as part of the Circle Drive freeway system in southern Saskatoon. At the time of construction, it was projected to cost $272.5 million to build. It is...

, a six-lane bridge and 7 km of freeway to complete the south portion of the road. Construction of the project, which will include a new river crossing and several interchanges, commenced in 2010 and is expected to be completed in 2012.

The Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 and the Canadian National Railway have connections to Saskatoon. Both railways operate intermodal facilities
Intermodal freight transport
Intermodal freight transport involves the transportation of freight in an intermodal container or vehicle, using multiple modes of transportation , without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. The method reduces cargo handling, and so improves security, reduces damages and...

 and trans-load centers; while Canadian National Railway also operates an automotive transfer facility. Saskatoon is a stop on The Canadian
The Canadian
The Canadian is a Canadian transcontinental passenger train originally operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway between 1955 and 1978. It is currently operated as an Inter-city rail service by Via Rail Canada with service between Union Station in Toronto, Ontario and Pacific Central Station in...

 passenger transcontinental rail route operated by Via Rail
VIA Rail
Via Rail Canada is an independent crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail services in Canada. It is headquartered near Montreal Central Station at 3 Place Ville-Marie in Montreal, Quebec....

. The Saskatoon railway station
Saskatoon railway station
The Saskatoon railway station is currently the only rail station in operation in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and is located eight kilometers from the central business district. The station is serviced by The Canadian three times per week. The station is equipped with a ticket...

 is located in the west end of the city; it was opened in the late 1960s as a replacement for Saskatoon's original main station which was located on 1st Avenue downtown—the relocation of the station sparked a major redevelopment of the downtown that included the construction of the Midtown Plaza
Midtown Plaza (Saskatoon)
Midtown Plaza is a shopping mall in Downtown Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, that is owned by the Oxford Properties Group. The two main anchors are Sears Canada and The Bay and the shopping centre has a total store count of approximately 130 stores, making it the largest shopping centre in...

, TCU Place
TCU Place
TCU Place, formerly known as the Saskatoon Centennial Auditorium, is a convention and arts centre in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Situated in the Central Business District it is located next to Midtown Plaza....

 (aka Centennial Auditorium) and other developments. The many provincial transportation connections and geographic location of Saskatoon give it one of its nicknames The Hub City. The Saskatchewan Railway Museum
Saskatchewan Railway Museum
The Saskatchewan Railway Museum is a railway museum located west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan at the intersection of the Pike Lake Highway and the Canadian National Railway tracks...

 is located just outside the city. Recent debates about moving all the railways out of the city are raising questions about a future LRT
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system, but the city's Mayor says the population is too small.

Saskatoon/John G. Diefenbaker International Airport provides scheduled and charter airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

 service for the city, and is a significant hub for mining and remote locations in Northern Saskatchewan. Non-stop scheduled destinations include Calgary, Chicago, Denver, Edmonton, Las Vegas, Minneapolis, Ottawa, Prince Albert, Regina, Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg. Seasonal and Charter service is provided to Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Churchill, MB. Air Canada
Air Canada
Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a...

, Westjet
WestJet
WestJet Airlines Ltd. is a Canadian low-cost carrier that provides scheduled and charter air service to 71 destinations in Canada, the United States, Mexico and the Caribbean. Founded in 1996, WestJet is currently the second largest Canadian air carrier, behind Air Canada, operating an average of...

 and Purolator Courier
Purolator Courier
Purolator Courier Ltd. is a Canadian courier that is 91% owned by Canada Post Corporation, 7% owned by Barry Lapointe Holdings Ltd. and 2% by others....

 all have cargo facilities at the airport. Saskatoon/Corman Air Park
Saskatoon/Corman Air Park
Saskatoon/Corman Air Park, , is located southeast of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.The airport is home to the Light Flight Flying Club. The club owns three aircraft, two ultra-light Husky Norseman and one Piel Super Emeraude. The Norseman were locally built at the airport in 1988...

 is a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport located 15 km south-east of Saskatoon.

Transit
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 services in Saskatoon are provided by Saskatoon Transit
Saskatoon Transit
Saskatoon Transit is the public transport arm of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It operates a fleet of diesel buses. A total of 23 bus routes serve every area of the city, carrying approximately 11 million passengers in 2008...

. The route system was revamped on July 2, 2006, creating increased access to most parts of the city. An up to date schedule is posted at Saskatoon Transit Route & Schedule Adjustments

The Saskatchewan Transportation Company
Saskatchewan Transportation Company
The Saskatchewan Transportation Company is a Crown Corporation of the Government of Saskatchewan, created in 1946 by an Order in Council....

 connects Saskatoon via bus service to nearly 200 towns and villages in the province. The Saskatoon bus terminal is also served by Greyhound Canada inter-provincial service between Manitoba and Alberta.

Education




Saskatoon has a number of higher education
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

 institutions:
  • University of Saskatchewan
    University of Saskatchewan
    The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

  • St. Thomas More College is a Catholic
    Catholic
    The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

     federated college of the University of Saskatchewan. Affiliated with the University of Saskatchewan are the Lutheran Theological Seminary
    Lutheran Theological Seminary, Saskatoon
    Lutheran Theological Seminary Saskatoon is a degree-granting theological school affiliated with the University of Saskatchewan.The seminary was originally created to prepare candidates for Lutheran ministry in Western Canada. It is owned by the four synods of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada...

    , College of Emmanuel and St. Chad (Anglican Church of Canada
    Anglican Church of Canada
    The Anglican Church of Canada is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French name is l'Église Anglicane du Canada. The ACC is the third largest church in Canada after the Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada, consisting of 800,000 registered members...

    ), and St. Andrew's College (United Church of Canada
    United Church of Canada
    The United Church of Canada is a Protestant Christian denomination in Canada. It is the largest Protestant church and, after the Roman Catholic Church, the second-largest Christian church in Canada...

    ). All three are located on the university campus.
  • The First Nations University of Canada
    First Nations University of Canada
    The First Nations University of Canada is a university in Saskatchewan, Canada with campuses in Regina, Saskatoon, and Prince Albert...

     Saskatoon campus is located at the corner of 7th Ave. N. & Duke St., with the main campus in Regina
    Regina, Saskatchewan
    Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox...

    .
  • Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology
  • Gabriel Dumont Institute
    Gabriel Dumont Institute
    The Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research is a post-secondary educational institution in Saskatchewan, Canada. It is administered by and services the Métis population of Saskatchewan...

  • SBC: Saskatoon Business College
  • Western Academy of Broadcasting
  • Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies
    Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies
    The Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies is a post-secondary institution offering training and educational programs to First Nations adults in Saskatchewan, Canada.-Governance:...



Saskatoon has 78 elementary schools and 14 high schools, serving about 37,000 students. Saskatoon has three main school boards, The Saskatoon Public School Division
Saskatoon Public School Division
Saskatoon Public Schools is the largest school system in Saskatoon and is the second largest in Saskatchewan.Saskatoon Public Schools has approximately 22,000 students with 44 elementary schools and 9 high schools. The offices of the Saskatoon School Board are housed in the Eaton's Building. ...

, the Saskatoon Catholic School Division and the Conseil des Ecoles Fransaskoises.

Saskatoon is home to six units of the Canadian Cadet Movement
Canadian Cadet Movement
The Canadian Cadet Organizations, marketed under the term Cadets Canada, are youth cadet programs known as the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, Army Cadets, and Air Cadets...

:
  • 45 Sea Cadet Corps
  • 107 Air Cadet Squadron
  • 328 Medical Cadet Corps - Homepage
  • 702 Air Cadet Squadron
  • 2293 The North Saskatchewan Regiment Royal Canadian Army Cadet Corps - Homepage
  • 3071 The North Saskatchewan Regiment Royal Canadian Army Cadet Corps - Homepage


The western annexation of what is now called the Blairmore SDA
Blairmore SDA, Saskatoon
Blairmore Suburban Development Area is an area in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan . It is a part of the west side community of Saskatoon. It lies north of the outskirts of the City and the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344, west of downtown Saskatoon, and the Core Neighbourhoods SDA, south of...

 also brought the Yarrow Youth Farm within the city limits; operated by the Province of Saskatchewan, this is a correction facility for at-risk youth. The City's current Projected Growth Map indicates that the farm is expected to be incorporated within planned development of the region.

Galleries and museums



The Mendel Art Gallery
Mendel Art Gallery
The Mendel Art Gallery is a major creative cultural centre in City Park, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, opened in 1964. Housing a permanent collection of works of local, regional and national significance, the Mendel is also known for its public programs for all ages. Its current executive director and...

 is situated on the bank of the South Saskatchewan River. Its permanent collection exceeds 5,000 works of art. In 2005, it began a major renovation project that will expand the size of the gallery by seventy per cent. In September 2005, however, the City of Saskatoon announced that it had entered discussions with the Mendel to the end of having the Mendel abandon its renovation/expansion project in favor of instead relocating the facility to a new arts and culture centre that is planned for the south downtown area.

The Art Gallery of Saskatchewan was announced in April 2009 as the replacement for the Mendal Art Gallery, which will be constructed at River Landing, around the previously constructed Remai Arts Centre, which houses the Persephone Theatre company. The Art Gallery will be built matching contributions of $13 million from the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan. The City of Saskatoon and other key partners have also committed funding in support of this project. The total estimated costs for the Gallery, which will serve as the destination centre for the River Landing project, will be approximately $51 million.

Currently, the City of Saskatoon is waiting for design proposals on the Art Gallery of Saskatchewan. According to the Mendal Art Gallery website, the new Gallery will be a multi-storey building, adjacent to Persephone Theatre, in the range of 80000 square feet (7,432.2 m²). The facility will allow up to three times the present available gallery space and will include studio and classroom space for education programs including an adaptive community studio and lecture theatre, meeting rooms and space for administrative functions. Emphasis will be placed on meeting functional requirements while also providing an appropriate signature architectural presence in the city’s south downtown. The atrium that is visualized for the front of the Gallery will provide not only adequate space for Gallery functions and activities and special public events but will also be a gathering place at River landing and will include visitor services and a gift shop. There will also be a bistro, restaurant and catering support and the site will incorporate 250-stall underground parking. The decision to drop the Mendel name has been controversial.

The Ukrainian Museum of Canada is also located on the banks of the South Saskatchewan River. The foremost attraction for Ukrainian culture in Saskatoon, it houses various artifacts such as textiles, tools, musical instruments and clothing, and displays them for public viewing. It has branches in Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg and Toronto.

The Meewasin Valley Centre
Meewasin Valley Authority
The Meewasin Valley Authority is a conservation organization created by the Provincial Government of Saskatchewan in Canada and is dedicated to conserving the cultural and natural resources of the South Saskatchewan River Valley. The authorities activities include education, development and...

, in Friendship Park, has information on Saskatoon's history, the South Saskatchewan River, and the future of the Meewasin Valley.

Saskatoon is also home of the Saskatchewan Western Development Museum
Saskatchewan Western Development Museum
The Saskatchewan Western Development Museum is a network of four museums in Saskatchewan, Canada preserving and recording the social and economic development of the province. The museum has branches in Moose Jaw, North Battleford, Saskatoon and Yorkton. Respectively, each branch focuses on a...

. This museum, one of four throughout the province, documents early pioneer life in Saskatchewan. It is noted for its interior recreation of a "Boom Town" main street, including one original building relocated from its original site. The Saskatchewan Railway Museum
Saskatchewan Railway Museum
The Saskatchewan Railway Museum is a railway museum located west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan at the intersection of the Pike Lake Highway and the Canadian National Railway tracks...

 is located just outside the city and includes displays of rolling stock and historic railway buildings from various parts of the province.

The Forestry Farm Park and Zoo
Forestry Farm Park and Zoo
The Forestry Farm Park and Zoo is a forested park and zoo located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada. The park was originally established as the Dominion Forest Nursery Station and later Sutherland Forest Nursery Station. Between 1913-1966 was responsible for growing and shipping 147 million trees...

 is a National Historic Site situated in the north east region of the city. The Forestry Farm was a historic nursery (dating from 1913) responsible for growing many of the trees planted within the prairie provinces. In 1966 the nursery operations were discontinued and part of the region turned into a municipal park. The city zoo is also housed within the park and features over 80 species of animals.
Wanuskewin Heritage Park is a National Historic Site situated five km to the north of Saskatoon. It is an Aboriginal
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

 archaeological site and features displays, special events, and activities, recent renovations are on hold due to a lack of funds during the renovations.


Events and festivals


Saskatoon's major arts venue is TCU Place
TCU Place
TCU Place, formerly known as the Saskatoon Centennial Auditorium, is a convention and arts centre in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Situated in the Central Business District it is located next to Midtown Plaza....

, which is located adjacent to Midtown Plaza downtown. Since opening in 1967, it has hosted scores of concerts, theatrical performances, live events such as the Telemiracle telethon, high school graduation and university convocation
Convocation
A Convocation is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose.- University use :....

 ceremonies, and conventions. It is also home to the Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra
Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra
The Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra is a professional orchestra based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan administered by the non-profit Saskatoon Symphony Society. The orchestra was founded in 1927 as an amateur orchestra, but today has 10 core members and up to 50 sessional musicians...

. It recently underwent a multi-million dollar renovation to its main theatre (named in honor of former mayor and senator Sidney Buckwold
Sidney Buckwold
Sidney Labe Buckwold, O.C., B.Comm., LL.D. was a Canadian senator and mayor of Saskatoon.Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba to Harry Buckwold and Dorothy Friedman , he moved to Saskatoon in 1925...

).

For rock concerts and major shows, Credit Union Centre
Credit Union Centre
Credit Union Centre is an arena, located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Situated near the city's northern entrance, the facility opened in February, 1988 with a seating capacity of around 7,800. It was expanded to 11,330 for the World Junior Hockey Championships in 1990...

 is the main venue. It is Saskatchewan's largest arena, with a capacity of 15,000 for sporting events and 14,000 for concerts. Musical acts from Saskatoon include Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell, CC is a Canadian musician, singer songwriter, and painter. Mitchell began singing in small nightclubs in her native Saskatchewan and Western Canada and then busking in the streets and dives of Toronto...

, Kyle Riabko
Kyle Riabko
Kyle Riabko is a Canadian pop singer, guitarist, and actor who was born in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. He resides in New York City....

, Wide Mouth Mason
Wide Mouth Mason
Wide Mouth Mason is a Canadian blues-based rock band, consisting of Shaun Verreault , Safwan Javed , and Gordie Johnson . Former bassist Earl Pereira was also co-founder of Wide Mouth Mason...

, The Northern Pikes
The Northern Pikes
The Northern Pikes are a Canadian rock band formed in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1984. The original members were Bryan Potvin, Jay Semko, Merl Bryck and Glen Hollingshead. Hollingshead left the band in 1985, and was replaced by Don Schmid in 1986...

, The Sheepdogs
The Sheepdogs
The Sheepdogs are a Canadian rock band from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, consisting of Ewan Currie on vocals and guitar, Leot Hanson on guitar, Ryan Gullen on bass and Sam Corbett on drums....

, and The Deep Dark Woods
The Deep Dark Woods
The Deep Dark Woods are a Canadian alternative country band from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, currently signed to Sugar Hill Records in the United States and Six Shooter Records in Canada...

, as well as countless others popular at both local and regional levels.

Saskatoon hosts many festivals and events in the summer, including the Shakespeare on the Saskatchewan Festival
Shakespeare on the Saskatchewan
Shakespeare on the Saskatchewan is an annual summer Shakespeare in the park theatre festival founded in 1985, which takes place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada...

, the Jazz Festival
Sasktel Saskatchewan Jazz Fest
SaskTel Saskatchewan Jazz Festival is an annual outdoor music, food and fun event in the province of Saskatchewan hosted by Saskatchewan Jazz Festival, Inc. . Normally staged during June, it is host to a range of Canadian and International jazz musicians who travel from across the world to take part...

, the Saskatchewan Children's Festival, the Saskatoon Fringe Theatre Festival
Saskatoon Fringe Theatre Festival
The newly named PotashCorp Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual fringe theatre festival in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. A fringe festival is not censored, and not juried, and provides live theatre inexpensively, and a public busking forum for musicians...

 (a showcase of alternative theatre), Saskatoon Folkfest (a cultural festival), Doors Open Saskatoon
Doors Open Saskatoon
Doors Open Saskatoon is a biannual event held in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, that gives the public access to many of the city's unique or historically significant buildings. Admission is free of charge. The one day even occurs every two years. The fifth doors open even occurred...

 and the Canada Remembers Airshow.

For over 25 years, Saskatoon has hosted a gathering of antique automobiles, (mainly from the 1960s) that has grown into an event called "Cruise Weekend". The event is usually held on the last weekend (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) in August. Activities include a poker derby, dances, and a show 'N' shine with over 800 cars from all over western Canada. No admission is charged and everyone is free to walk around and enjoy the atmosphere.

The city's annual exhibition (now called the Saskatoon Exhibition but also known in previous years as Pioneer Days and "The Ex") is held every August at Prairieland Park
Prairieland Park
Prairieland Park is an events centre in the south-eastern portion of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The park is located in the Exhibition neighborhood of Saskatoon. Each year the park hosts an annual Saskatoon Exhibition called "The Ex". During the remainder of the year most of the park venues are...

. In the late 1990s, the Saskatoon Exhibition was rescheduled to August so that it no longer was in direct competition with the Calgary Stampede
Calgary Stampede
The Calgary Stampede is an annual rodeo, exhibition and festival held every July in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The ten-day event, which bills itself as "The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth", attracts over one million visitors per year and features one of the world's largest rodeos, a parade, midway,...

, which frequently overlapped the event.

Saskatoon was the 2007 host city for the Juno Awards
Juno Awards of 2007
The Juno Awards of 2007 were hosted in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada on the weekend ending 1 April 2007. These ceremonies honoured music industry achievements in Canada during most of 2006...

, Canada's foremost music industry honours.

Live theatre


Live theatre is a central, vibrant part of Saskatoon's culture. Saskatoon is host to a number of live theatre venues such as the Persephone Theatre, which is located in the Remai Arts Centre at River Landing in downtown Saskatoon, The Refinery and the Saskatchewan Native Theatre Company. Saskatoon is also home to performance groups such as: Shakespeare on the Saskatchewan, Saskatoon Opera Association, Live Five, Troup du Jour, Saskatoon Gateway Players and Saskatoon Summer Players. Local improv groups such as The No-No's and Saskatoon Soaps have weekly and monthly performances respectively at various venues around the city.

Saskatoon also boasts the only burlesque group in the Prairies, the Rosebud Burlesque.

Movie theatres


Saskatoon, given its size, has few movie theatres. There is only one single-screen theatre in the city - the Broadway Theatre
Broadway Theatre (Saskatoon)
The Broadway Theatre is an art film and performance theatre located on Broadway Avenue in the Nutana neighborhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada...

, which primarily shows arthouse films
Art film
An art film is the result of filmmaking which is typically a serious, independent film aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience...

 - while the two-screen Roxy Theatre
Roxy Theatre (Saskatoon)
The Roxy Theatre is a movie theatre located in the Riversdale neighborhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Built during the onset of the Great Depression. The interior was decorated in a Spanish Villa style with the walls covered with small balconies, windows and towers that gave the...

 is an "atmospheric-style" second-run theatre that reopened in 2005 after sitting unused for over a decade. The remainder of the city's theatres are multiplexes
Multiplex (movie theater)
A multiplex is a movie theater complex with multiple screens, typically three or more. They are usually housed in a specially designed building. Sometimes, an existing venue undergoes a renovation where the existing auditoriums are split into smaller ones, or more auditoriums are added in an...

. The only movie theatre in the downtown
Central Business District, Saskatoon
The Central Business District is one of seven suburban development districts in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The central business district is Ward 6 of a Mayor-Council government represented by councillor Charlie Clark. Formerly called West Saskatoon, this area arose when the steam engines...

 core is the Galaxy Cinemas
Cineplex Entertainment
Cineplex Entertainment LP , is the largest film exhibitor in Canada and owns, leases or has a joint-venture interest in 130 theatres with 1,351 screens. Headquartered in Toronto, Canada, Cineplex operates theatres from British Columbia to Quebec...

; the Capitol 4
Empire Theatres
Empire Theatres Limited is the second-largest movie theatre chain in Canada, and the only major circuit operating in Atlantic Canada. A subsidiary of Empire Company Ltd., the family-owned parent of the Sobeys supermarket chain presently owns and operates 51 locations in 8 of 10 provinces, from...

 shut down on April 3, 2008. The city's other movie theatres are the Rainbow Cinemas (a second-run cinema) and the Centre Cinemas, located adjacent to each other in The Centre
The Centre (Saskatoon)
The Centre is a major shopping centre located east of the junction of Circle Drive and 8th Street in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is currently anchored by Zellers, SportChek, Safeway, Rainbow Cinemas, the Centre Cinemas, Petcetera, Shoppers Drug Mart and Dollarama. Until 2002-2003, Canadian Tire...

 mall on the city's east side.

Royal presence


Saskatoon has welcomed members of Canada's Royal Family since 1919. The Queen most recently visited for the a gala concert at Credit Union Centre, before a live audience of 12,000 and television viewers nationwide in 2005. The Queen was presented with the key to the city on the same visit, after touring the Canadian Light Source Synchrotron
Canadian Light Source Synchrotron
The Canadian Light Source is a third-generation 2.9 GeV synchrotron located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It opened on October 22, 2004 after three years of construction and cost C$173.5 million. One of forty-two such facilities in the world, it occupies a footprint the size of a football...

 and greeting thousands of well-wishers on a walkabout at the University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

. Sovereigns and consorts who have visited include Edward VIII
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from 20 January to 11 December 1936.Before his accession to the throne, Edward was Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay...

 as Prince of Wales in 1919, King George Vl
George VI of the United Kingdom
George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death...

 and Queen Elizabeth in 1939, and Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Elizabeth II. He is the United Kingdom's longest-serving consort and the oldest serving spouse of a reigning British monarch....

, as Princess Elizabeth in 1951 and afterwards as Queen in 1959, 1978, 1987 and 2005. Other members of the Royal Family who have visited include Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II and the younger daughter of King George VI....

 in 1980, the Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

 (Charles) in 2001, the Princess Anne
Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Anne, Princess Royal , is the only daughter of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

 in 1982 and (as Princess Royal) in 2004, the Duke
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO , is the second son, and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

 and Duchess of York
Sarah, Duchess of York
Sarah, Duchess of York is a British charity patron, spokesperson, writer, film producer, television personality and former member of the British Royal Family. She is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, whom she married from 1986 to 1996...

 (Andrew and Sarah) in 1989, and the Prince Edward
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO is the third son and fourth child of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh...

 in 1978. Governors General
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

 and Lieutenant Governors
Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan
The Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan is the viceregal representative in Saskatchewan of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the...

 also pay regular visits to Saskatoon. Saskatonian Ray Hnatyshyn
Ray Hnatyshyn
Ramon John Hnatyshyn , commonly known as Ray Hnatyshyn, was a Canadian politician and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 24th since Canadian Confederation....

 is credited with popularising his office as Governor General from 1990 to 1995. Lieutenant Governors Barnhart
Gordon Barnhart
-See also:*Monarchy in Saskatchewan*Government House - External Links :* -Sources:* by Sarah Macdonald, The Leader-Post, July 31, 2006, retrieved August 1, 2006,* retrieved December 18, 2006,***-References:...

, Fedoruk
Sylvia Fedoruk
Sylvia Olga Fedoruk, OC, SOM is a Canadian scientist, curler and the 17th Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan.Born in Canora, Saskatchewan, of Ukrainian immigrants, she received a Bachelor of Arts degree in physics at the University of Saskatchewan, in 1949, and a M.A...

, McNab, Monroe, Porteous
George Porteous
George Porteous, CM, MBE was the 14th Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan, Canada from 1976 to 1978.-Early life:George Porteous was born in Douglas, Lanarkshire, Scotland on 7 April, 1903. His family emigrated to Canada in 1910 and he attended secondary school in Saskatoon, going on to the...

 and Worobetz
Stephen Worobetz
Stephen Worobetz, OC, MC, SOM, FRCS was a Canadian physician and the 13th Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan....

 were all former residents of Saskatoon.

Connections to the crown include the royal namesakes of about one hundred neighbourhoods, parks, streets, schools and other places. These include King George
King George, Saskatoon
King George is an older inner city neighbourhood located near the center of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It consists mostly of low-density, single detached dwellings. As of 2006, the area is home to 1,885 residents...

, Queen Elizabeth and Massey Place neighbourhoods, and Victoria, Coronation and Princess Diana parks. It was at one time considered that Saskatoon's Broadway Bridge would be renamed George V Bridge. Landmarks and institutions also have connections and these include the Royal University Hospital
Royal University Hospital
Royal University Hospital, often abbreviated RUH, is one of three hospitals in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is located on the University of Saskatchewan campus. RUH is a teaching hospital and closely tied to the College of Medicine within the university. It was opened on May 14, 1955 by...

, one of four royal designations in Saskatchewan. Grade schools named for royals include Ecole Victoria School, King George School, Queen Elizabeth School, Prince Philip School and Princess Alexandra School. Existing and historic hotels with royal namesakes include the King George Hotel, the King Edward Hotel, the Queen's Hotel and the Patricia Hotel. The Hotel Bessborough
Hotel Bessborough
The Delta Bessborough hotel is a three star , ten-story hotel located in downtown Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The hotel is a historical landmark in Saskatoon and is known for its castle-like appearance. The hotel was built by the Canadian National Railway from 1928 to 1932 and is designed in...

 was named for a Canadian Governor General who visited the landmark under construction in the 1930s. The Queen Elizabeth Power Station
Queen Elizabeth Power Station
Queen Elizabeth Power Station is a natural gas fired station owned by SaskPower, located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The station was called the South Saskatchewan River Generating Station until it was commissioned in 1959 by Queen Elizabeth II when the name was changed.- Description :The...

 is located within the city and named after Queen Elizabeth. The Prince of Wales Promenade along the South Saskatchewan River
South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada that flows through the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan....

 is a focal point on the riverfront trails. In 2002, 378 Saskatoon residents were presented with Canada's Golden Jubilee Medal
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
The Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal was a commemorative medal created in 2002 to mark the 50th anniversary of the accession to the throne of Queen Elizabeth II...

 by vice-regals to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Queen's accession to the throne.

Sports and recreation



Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 is one of the most popular sports in Saskatoon and is home to numerous amateur teams such as the Saskatoon Blades
Saskatoon Blades
The Saskatoon Blades are a junior ice hockey team in the Eastern Division of the Western Hockey League. They are based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, playing at the 15,195 seat Credit Union Centre.-History:...

 of the WHL
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada...

, who host their games in Credit Union Centre (formerly known as Saskatchewan Place). Saskatoon is also home to amateur teams at the Junior B and Midget AAA levels, as well as several youth teams. Saskatoon was a major league hockey city from 1921 to 1926 when the WCHL/WHL
Western Canada Hockey League
The Western Canada Hockey League , founded in 1921, was a major professional ice hockey league originally based in the prairies of Canada. It was renamed the Western Hockey League in 1925 and disbanded in 1926.-History:...

 Sheiks/Crescents
Saskatoon Sheiks
The Saskatoon Sheiks were a professional ice hockey team in the Western Canada Hockey League and Prairie Hockey League from 1922 to 1928. The team was based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, except for the end of the 1922 season, when they played in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan.The team entered the WCHL in...

 played. They made it as far as the league semi-finals twice, not far enough to challenge for the Stanley Cup. The biggest chance for a return of major professional hockey came in 1982. Bill Hunter, a local sports promoter, attempted to purchase the St. Louis Blues of the NHL
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 and move it to Saskatoon, but the move was prevented by the league. This was due to Saskatchewan's and especially Saskatoon's small size in relation to both St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

 and the other cities in the NHL at the time. However, it did cause the building of the Credit Union Centre, on the city's northern edge. Credit Union Centre
Credit Union Centre
Credit Union Centre is an arena, located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Situated near the city's northern entrance, the facility opened in February, 1988 with a seating capacity of around 7,800. It was expanded to 11,330 for the World Junior Hockey Championships in 1990...

 Recent renovations will increase seating capacity to over 15,000 for hockey games in time for the facililty to host the 2010 World Junior Hockey tournament,as well as several new box suites to be added. A proposal by Ice Edge Holdings, who are the front runners to buy the Phoenix Coyotes
Phoenix Coyotes
The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They play their home games at Jobing.com Arena....

, would move some of the Coyotes' home games to Saskatoon. Also in 2004 with Edmonton looking for a new WHL team, Oilers President and CEO Patrick Laforge offered the Edmonton Roadrunners franchise of the American Hockey League
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a 30-team professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League...

 to the city of Saskatoon in exchange for the Saskatoon Blades franchise. However the deal never worked out, with the Roadrunners suspending operations and remaining dormant until 2010 when the team moved to Oklahoma City.

As for women's hockey, there is a strong youth female hockey presence in Saskatoon with a Midget AAA team and several youth teams in the city.

Canadian football
Canadian football
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played exclusively in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area...

 is one of the most successful on field sports in Saskatoon. The University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

 Huskies
Saskatchewan Huskies
The University of Saskatchewan began in 1907 and has operated teams that compete with others since 1911. The term Huskie Athletics is defined as those student athletes from the University of Saskatchewan that compete in elite interuniversity competition administered by Canadian Interuniversity...

 are one of the top University football programs in Canada, with three Vanier Cup
Vanier Cup
The Vanier Cup is the name of the championship of Canadian Interuniversity Sport football and the name of the trophy awarded to the victorious team. It is currently played between the winners of the Uteck Bowl and the Mitchell Bowl...

 national championships and 19 Hardy Trophy
Hardy Trophy
The Hardy Trophy is a Canadian sport trophy, presented annually to the winner of the Canada West Universities Athletic Association Football Conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport federation...

 Canada West championships. The Huskies have made nine Vanier Cup
Vanier Cup
The Vanier Cup is the name of the championship of Canadian Interuniversity Sport football and the name of the trophy awarded to the victorious team. It is currently played between the winners of the Uteck Bowl and the Mitchell Bowl...

 appearances since 1990, and were the first team from outside of Ontario to host the Vanier Cup, hosting the game in 2006. As well, the Saskatoon Hilltops
Saskatoon Hilltops
The Saskatoon Hilltops are a Canadian Junior Football team based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The Hilltops play in the six-team Prairie Football Conference, which itself is part of the Canadian Junior Football League and competes annually for the national title known as the Canadian Bowl. The team...

 of the Canadian Junior Football League
Canadian Junior Football League
The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 19 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. The teams compete annually for the Canadian Bowl...

 host their games at Gordie Howe Bowl
Gordie Howe Bowl
Gordie Howe Bowl is a football stadium located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It was opened September 30, 1960. It is the home of the Saskatoon Hilltops, who play in the Prairie Football Conference of the Canadian Junior Football League and is also used for high school football. It is located...

. The Hilltops have won 12 national junior championships throughout their history. As well, many Saskatonians support the Saskatchewan Roughriders
Saskatchewan Roughriders
The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a Canadian Football League team based in Regina, Saskatchewan. They were founded in 1910. They play their home games at 2940 10th Avenue in Regina, which has been the team's home base for its entire history, even prior to the construction of Mosaic Stadium at Taylor...

 of the CFL
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

.

The Saskatoon Yellow Jackets
Saskatoon Yellow Jackets
The Saskatoon Yellow Jackets are a baseball team which plays in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The team is a member of the Western Major Baseball League, a collegiate summer baseball league operating in the prairie provinces of Canada....

 college summer league baseball team is a member of the Western Major Baseball League
Western Major Baseball League
The Western Major Baseball League or WMBL is a collegiate summer baseball league. The league can trace its roots back to 1948, as it has gone by many names over the years, including the Alberta-Saskatchewan Baseball league, Western Canadian Baseball League and Saskatchewan Baseball League before...

 and play their games at Cairns Field
Cairns Field
Cairns Field is a stadium in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is primarily used for baseball and is the home of the Saskatoon Yellow Jackets of the Western Major Baseball League and the Saskatoon Tigers of Saskatoon Senior Baseball League...

. They are not affiliated with any Major League Baseball team nor do they carry any professional players. In the past other teams have attempted to grace Saskatoon's professional sports landscape including the Saskatoon Riot
Saskatoon Riot
The Saskatoon Riot were a professional baseball team that played at Cairns Field in the North Central League in 1994, in their first season their record was 32-38 under manager Ron Malcolm. The following season the team moved to the Prairie League and finished third in the Canadian division with a...

, (named after the Toronto Blue Jays won the World Series in 1993)Saskatoon Smokin' Guns
Saskatoon Smokin' Guns
The Saskatoon Smokin' Guns, formerly known as the Saskatoon Riot were a baseball team based out of the Prairie League in 1996. The first half of the inaugural season saw the Guns' challenge for the division league but their first season under the new name they finished in 7th place with a 30-47...

, Saskatoon Stallions
Saskatoon Stallions
The Saskatoon Stallions, formerly known as the Saskatoon Smokin' Guns, was a minor league baseball team that played in the Prairie League in 1997 and had a record of 38-28 with as manager. The teams attendance for the season was 28,288....

 and the latest being the Saskatoon Legends
Saskatoon Legends
The Saskatoon Legends were a minor league baseball team during the 2003 season. They played in the Canadian Baseball League, which was not a part of Minor League Baseball and therefore not affiliated with Major League Baseball or its member clubs. The Legends played out of Cairns Field. The team...

. However, there is hope that the Golden Baseball League
Golden Baseball League
The Golden Baseball League, based in San Ramon, California, was an independent baseball league. It later merged with the Northern League and the United Baseball League to form the North American League in the western United States, western Canada and Mexico....

 will find an owner for its proposed Saskatoon franchise and begin play in 2010 or 2011 at Cairns Field
Cairns Field
Cairns Field is a stadium in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is primarily used for baseball and is the home of the Saskatoon Yellow Jackets of the Western Major Baseball League and the Saskatoon Tigers of Saskatoon Senior Baseball League...

.

The University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

 Huskies
Saskatchewan Huskies
The University of Saskatchewan began in 1907 and has operated teams that compete with others since 1911. The term Huskie Athletics is defined as those student athletes from the University of Saskatchewan that compete in elite interuniversity competition administered by Canadian Interuniversity...

 play Canadian Interuniversity Sport
Canadian Interuniversity Sport
Canadian Interuniversity Sport is the national governing body of university sport in Canada, comprising the majority of degree granting universities in the country. Its equivalent body for organized sports at colleges in Canada is The Canadian Colleges Athletic Association...

 league games at the University Campus. Their facilities include 4,997 seat Griffiths Stadium
Griffiths Stadium
Griffiths Stadium is a stadium located on the grounds of the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The current stadium was opened on June 23, 1967 to host the Saskatchewan Huskies football team...

, 700 seat Rutherford Arena
Rutherford Arena
The University of Saskatchewan Rutherford Arena is a hockey rink constructed in 1929, with its official opening in January, 1930. The rink is used by the Saskatchewan Huskies hockey team.-See also:*University of Saskatchewan Kinesiology...

, and the state-of-the-art Physical Activity Complex, which is completely new with the exception of a small swimming pool which was not updated, that opened in August 2003 with the opening of the new College of Kinesiology Building. The Huskies participate in twelve sports at the CIS level and have been most successful in football(Conference champions 18 times/National champions 3 times), men's volleyball(Conference champions 11 times/National champions 4 times) and men's and women's Track and Field(Conference champions 37 times/ National champions 12 times).

In 2007, two new sports teams came into being in Saskatoon, the Saskatchewan SWAT of the Rocky Mountain Lacrosse League
Rocky Mountain Lacrosse League
The Rocky Mountain Lacrosse League is the name of the box lacrosse leagues in Alberta with one team in Saskatchewan and as of 2011 one in Manitoba. It is sanctioned by the Alberta Lacrosse Association. It organizes all senior and junior play in the province...

 and the Saskatoon Accelerators in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League
Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League
The Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League or CMISL is a professional indoor soccer league that began full league play in January 2008. The league's president is Mel Kowalchuk...

. The Accelerators play at Credit Union Centre, while the SWAT split their games between Credit Union Centre and Kinsmen Arena in their first season, eventually moving to Archibald Arena in 2009.
Motor racing is a popular sport in Saskatoon. Saskatchewan International Raceway
Saskatchewan International Raceway
Saskatchewan International Raceway, also known as SIR, is a drag racing facility located 13 kilometers south of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada...

 has been in operation for over 40 years; SIR is home to 1/4 mile NHRA drag racing and holds racing events from May to September. As well, just north of the city lies Auto Clearing Motor Speedway
Auto Clearing Motor Speedway
Auto Clearing Motor Speedway is a paved oval auto racing facility located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is owned and operated by the Saskatoon Stock Car Racing Association Ltd...

; the track is home to local stock car racing, as well as races for several different Western Canadian series. 2009 saw the NASCAR Canadian Tire Series
NASCAR Canadian Tire Series
The NASCAR Canadian Tire Series , commonly abbreviated as NCATS, is a national NASCAR racing series in Canada that is based from the old CASCAR Super Series which was founded in 1981.-History:...

 make its inaugural stop at Auto Clearing Motor Speedway, signaling a move to a larger profile track in Saskatoon.

For horse racing fans, Marquis Downs
Marquis Downs
Marquis Downs is a horse race track in the Exhibition subdivision of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It features both thoroughbred and standardbred horse racing.-History:...

 at Prairieland Park offers live horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 from May to October.

Saskatoon is also home to two full size soccer facilities. Saskatoon Soccer Centre
Saskatoon Soccer Centre
Saskatoon Soccer Centre Inc. is a soccer facility located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It has two facilities:*SaskTel Sports Centre...

 controls both buildings. Henk Ruys has four hardcourt indoor fields while the Sasktel Soccer Centre has two outdoor full size fields and one indoor full sized field as well as two tiled fields.

On the recreation side, Lions Skatepark was built in the Riversdale area in 2003. As well Saskatoon is home to several golf courses and various parks which include tennis courts, ball diamonds and soccer pitches for spring, summer and fall use and outdoor rinks for winter use. Blackstrap Ski Hill
Blackstrap Ski Hill
Blackstrap Ski Hill, is a man-made skiing and snowboarding hill located 30 minutes south of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada east of Highway 11, the Louis Riel Trail. It is one of only a few man-made mountains in the world. It is a unique feature on Saskatchewan's prairie landscape...

 is also located 30 minutes south of the city, however, has been closed for both 2006 and 2007 seasons due to financial difficulty.

See: List of Sports Franchises in Saskatoon

Facilities and services



Shopping centres



  • Midtown Plaza
    Midtown Plaza (Saskatoon)
    Midtown Plaza is a shopping mall in Downtown Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, that is owned by the Oxford Properties Group. The two main anchors are Sears Canada and The Bay and the shopping centre has a total store count of approximately 130 stores, making it the largest shopping centre in...

  • Market Mall
    Market Mall (Saskatoon)
    Market Mall is a shopping centre located in the Nutana Suburban Centre area on the east side of Saskatoon. Built in the 1960s as Saskatoon's first enclosed shopping centre, it has undergone four major expansions since the late 1970s and now houses approximately 90 stores and services, anchored by...

  • The Centre
    The Centre (Saskatoon)
    The Centre is a major shopping centre located east of the junction of Circle Drive and 8th Street in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is currently anchored by Zellers, SportChek, Safeway, Rainbow Cinemas, the Centre Cinemas, Petcetera, Shoppers Drug Mart and Dollarama. Until 2002-2003, Canadian Tire...

  • The Mall at Lawson Heights
    The Mall at Lawson Heights
    The Mall at Lawson Heights is a shopping centre located at the junction of Warman Road and Primrose Drive in north Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is anchored by Zellers, Safeway and London Drugs, and has almost 100 shops and services. The mall opened in the early 1980s during a period of rapid growth...

  • Confederation Mall
    Confederation Mall
    Confederation Mall is a shopping mall located at 22nd Street and Circle Drive in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The mall was originally named Confederation Park Plaza when it opened in the early 1970s, at which time its anchor tenants were Canada Safeway and Woolco....

  • Preston Crossing
  • College Park Mall
    College Park Mall (Saskatoon)
    The College Park Mall is a strip mall complex at the corner of 8th Street and McKercher Drive in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It features a Sobeys grocery store as its anchor, as well as restaurants, a gas station, confectionery, and assorted retail outlets....

  • Mount Royal Mall
  • Antique Mall
  • Stonegate Shopping Centre
    Stonegate Power Centre (Saskatoon)
    Stonegate is a big box shopping area in the Stonebridge neighbourhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located at Clarence Avenue South and Circle Drive and is the second major big box shopping area in Saskatoon, after Preston Crossing.-History:...

  • Scotia Centre Mall
    Scotia Centre Mall (Saskatoon)
    Scotia Centre Mall is a small shopping mall in downtown Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, owned by the Dundee Realty Management Group. This site also comprises a twin-tower commercial office complex and a small food court...

  • River City Mall
    River City Centre (Saskatoon)
    River City Centre is a type of a "big box" shopping centre or power centre in the north industrial area of Saskatoon. Some of the anchors are Sport Mart , Sears Home , Scott's Parable Christian Stores, Dollarama, and Staples Business Depot...



Law and order

  • Saskatoon Police Service
    Saskatoon Police Service
    Saskatoon Police Service is the municipal police force in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and holds both municipal and provincial jurisdiction. Police Chief Clive Weighill is the head of the force. The deputy chiefs are Deputy Chief Gary Broste , and Deputy Chief Bernie Pannell...

     (Primary)
  • Saskatoon Correctional Centre
    Saskatoon Correctional Centre
    The Saskatoon Correctional Centre is an adult male, provincial correctional centre located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is one of four provincial correctional centres in the province including the Regina Correctional Centre, the Prince Albert Correctional Centre and the only female...

  • Corman Park Police Service (In Partnership with SPS)
  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

     (In Partnership with SPS)

Hospitals

  • Royal University Hospital
    Royal University Hospital
    Royal University Hospital, often abbreviated RUH, is one of three hospitals in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is located on the University of Saskatchewan campus. RUH is a teaching hospital and closely tied to the College of Medicine within the university. It was opened on May 14, 1955 by...

  • Saskatoon City Hospital
    Saskatoon City Hospital
    Saskatoon City Hospital is a public hospital in the City Park neighborhood of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It was originally opened in 1909, and it was the second municipal hospital in Canada. The hospital is operated by the Saskatoon Health Region....

  • St. Paul's Hospital

Sister cities


Umeå
Umeå
- Transport :The road infrastructure in Umeå is well-developed, with two European highways passing through the city. About 4 km from the city centre is the Umeå City Airport...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about south of Beijing...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Tampere
Tampere
Tampere is a city in southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in any of the Nordic countries. The city has a population of , growing to approximately 300,000 people in the conurbation and over 340,000 in the metropolitan area. Tampere is the third most-populous municipality in...

, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi is the administrative center of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine. The city is situated on the upper course of the River Prut, a tributary of the Danube, in the northern part of the historic region of Bukovina, which is currently divided between Romania and Ukraine...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Midland, Texas
Midland, Texas
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, Texas, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. As of 2010, the population of Midland was 111,147. It is the principal city of the Midland, Texas...

, USA Kitahiroshima, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 Oxford
Oxford
The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 Sangsar, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...



Saskatoon in popular culture


Farley Mowat
Farley Mowat
Farley McGill Mowat, , born May 12, 1921 is a conservationist and one of Canada's most widely-read authors.His works have been translated into 52 languages and he has sold more than 14 million books. He achieved fame with the publication of his books on the Canadian North, such as People of the...

's 1961 novella
Novella
A novella is a written, fictional, prose narrative usually longer than a novelette but shorter than a novel. The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America Nebula Awards for science fiction define the novella as having a word count between 17,500 and 40,000...

, Owls in the Family
Owls in the Family
Owls in the Family is a children's novel written by Farley Mowat first published in 1962.-Plot summary:The story concerns two Great Horned Owls found by Billy, Bruce and Murray in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The owls become part of a larger pet collection. Wol is the larger bird and is a lighter...

, is set in Saskatoon and includes references to several area landmarks, including The Railroad Bridge
McDonald Bridge (Saskatoon)
The CPR Bridge is a Canadian railway bridge that spans the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.The bridge was built by the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1908 and is referred to by locals as the CPR Bridge or CP Railway Bridge, or simply the Train Bridge or Railway Bridge...

. His 1957 book The Dog Who Wouldn't Be concerns his childhood in Saskatoon in the 1920s and 1930s.

"Runnin' Back to Saskatoon
Runnin' Back to Saskatoon
"Runnin' Back to Saskatoon" is a popular rock and roll song written by Burton Cummings and Kurt Winter.The song was recorded by the Canadian rock group The Guess Who on May 22, 1972 for the album Live at the Paramount, and is also included on the 1974 album The Best of the Guess Who, Vol...

" is a 1972 song by The Guess Who
The Guess Who
The Guess Who are a Canadian rock band from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Initially gaining recognition in Canada, they also found international success from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s with numerous hit singles, including "American Woman", "These Eyes" and "Share the Land"...

. Saskatoon is also mentioned in the City and Colour
City and Colour
City and Colour is the recording alias for Juno Award-winning Canadian singer-songwriter Dallas Green, who was also the guitarist and vocalist of the post-hardcore band Alexisonfire. He plays melodic acoustic and folk music and is often accompanied by a rotating number of Canadian indie rock...

 song "Comin' Home
Comin' Home
"Comin' Home" is the title of a song written and recorded by Canadian acoustic artist City and Colour. It was released in 2006 as the second single from the album Sometimes.-Content:...

".

Surrounding communities


Saskatoon is surrounded by several smaller communities, a number of which make up the larger Saskatoon census metropolitan area.

External links