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Saint-Malo

Saint-Malo

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Saint-Malo is a walled port city in Brittany
Brittany
Brittany is a cultural and administrative region in the north-west of France. Previously a kingdom and then a duchy, Brittany was united to the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province. Brittany has also been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain...

 in northwestern France on the English Channel
English Channel
The English Channel , often referred to simply as the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about long and varies in width from at its widest to in the Strait of Dover...

. It is a sub-prefecture of the Ille-et-Vilaine
Ille-et-Vilaine
Ille-et-Vilaine is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country.- History :Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

.

Demographics


The population can increase to up to 200,000 in the summer tourist season. With the suburbs included, the population is about 135,000.

The population of the commune more than doubled in 1968 with the merging of three communes: Saint-Malo, Saint-Servan (population 14,963 in 1962), and Paramé (population 8811 in 1962).
Inhabitants of Saint-Malo are called Malouins, Malouines.

Breton language


In 2008, 0.55% of the children attended the bilingual schools in primary education.

History


Saint-Malo during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 was a fortified island at the mouth of the Rance River
Rance River
The Rance is a river of northwestern France. It flows into the English Channel between Dinard and Saint-Malo.Before reaching the Channel, its waters are barred by a 750 metre long dam forming the Rance tidal power plant....

, controlling not only the estuary
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

 but the open sea beyond. The promontory fort
Promontory fort
A promontory fort is a defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus utilizing the topography to reduce the ramparts needed. Although their dating is problematic, most seem to date to the Iron Age...

 of Aleth, south of the modern centre in what is now the Saint-Servan
Saint-Servan
Saint-Servan is a town of western France, in Brittany, situated 2 miles from the ferry port of St Malo. It is renowned for its lovely shops and restaurants....

 district, commanded approaches to the Rance even before the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, but modern Saint-Malo traces its origins to a monastic settlement founded by Saint Aaron
Saint Aaron
Saint Aaron of Aleth was a mid-sixth century hermit, monk and abbot at a monastery on Cézembre, a small island near Aleth, opposite Saint-Malo in Brittany, France. Some sources say that he was born of British stock in Armorican Domnonia.Aaron was a Welshman who lived in solitude near Lamballe and...

 and Saint Brendan early in the 6th century. Its name is derived from a man said to have been a follower of Brendan, Saint Malo or Maclou
Saint Malo (saint)
Saint Malo was the mid-6th century founder of Saint-Malo in Brittany, France...

.

Saint-Malo had a tradition of asserting its autonomy in dealings with the French authorities and even with the local Breton authorities. From 1490–1493, Saint-Malo declared itself to be an independent republic, taking the motto "not French, not Breton, but Malouins".

Saint-Malo became notorious as the home of the corsairs, French privateers and sometimes pirates. In the 19th century this "piratical" notoriety was portrayed in Jean Richepin
Jean Richepin
Jean Richepin , French poet, novelist and dramatist, the son of an army doctor, was born at Médéa, French Algeria.At school and at the École Normale Supérieure he gave evidence of brilliant, if somewhat undisciplined, powers, for which he found physical vent in different directions—first as a...

's play Le flibustier and in César Cui
César Cui
César Antonovich Cui was a Russian of French and Lithuanian descent. His profession was as an army officer and a teacher of fortifications; his avocational life has particular significance in the history of music, in that he was a composer and music critic; in this sideline he is known as a...

's eponymous opera
Le Flibustier (opera)
Le flibustier is a comédie lyrique in three acts, composed by César Cui during 1888-1889. Although the title can translate as The Pirate or The Buccaneer, this is no swashbuckling action-drama, but an idyllic domestic comedy of mistaken identity.The opera is based on the like-named play by Jean...

. The corsairs of Saint-Malo not only forced English ships passing up the Channel to pay tribute, but also brought wealth from further afield. Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big...

, who sailed the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence is a large river flowing approximately from southwest to northeast in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. It is the primary drainage conveyor of the Great Lakes Basin...

 and visited the sites of Quebec City
Quebec City
Quebec , also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about to the southwest...

 and Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 – and is thus credited as the discoverer of Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, lived in and sailed from Saint-Malo, as did the first colonists to settle the Falklands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

 – hence the islands' French name Îles Malouines, which gave rise to the Spanish name Islas Malvinas.

In 1758 the Raid on St Malo
Raid on St Malo
The Raid on St Malo took place in June 1758 when an amphibious British naval expedition landed close to the French port of St Malo in Brittany. While the town itself was not attacked, as had been initially planned, the British destroyed large amounts of shipping before re-embarking a week later...

 saw a British expedition land intending to capture the town. However the British made no attempt on St Malo, and instead occupied the nearby town of St Servan where they destroyed 30 privateers before departing.

The commune of Saint-Servan
Saint-Servan
Saint-Servan is a town of western France, in Brittany, situated 2 miles from the ferry port of St Malo. It is renowned for its lovely shops and restaurants....

 was merged, together with Paramé
Paramé
Paramé is a former town and commune of France on the north coast of Britanny. The town merged with Saint-Servan into the commune of Saint-Malo in 1967. Paramé is now a quarter of Saint-Malo and its seaside resort. The city is known for its long sand beach and its sea spa....

, and became the commune of Saint-Malo in 1967.

Saint Malo was the site of an Anglo-French summit in 1998 which led to a significant agreement regarding European defence policy
European Security and Defence Policy
The Common Security and Defence Policy , formerly known as the European Security and Defence Policy , is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects...

.

Food


Saint-Malo has one of the highest concentration of seafood restaurants in Europe. It is famous for its local oysters from the nearby village of Cancale
Cancale
Cancale is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in north-western France. It is known as the birthplace of Saint Jeanne Jugan.-Demographics:Inhabitants of Cancale are called Cancalais....

.

Transport


Saint-Malo is a terminal for ferry services to Poole
Poole
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is east of Dorchester, and Bournemouth adjoins Poole to the east. The Borough of Poole was made a unitary authority in 1997, gaining administrative independence from Dorset County Council...

, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Portsmouth is the second largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire on the south coast of England. Portsmouth is notable for being the United Kingdom's only island city; it is located mainly on Portsea Island...

 and Weymouth in England via the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
The Channel Islands are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey...

. It also has a railway station, Gare de Saint-Malo
Gare de Saint-Malo
Gare de Saint-Malo is a railway station serving the town Saint-Malo, Ille-et-Vilaine department, western France.The station is situated on the Rennes–Saint-Malo railway.-Services:-References:*...

, offering direct TGV
TGV
The TGV is France's high-speed rail service, currently operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the French national rail operator....

 service to Rennes, Paris and several regional destinations. There is a bus service provided by Keolis. The town is served by the Dinard – Pleurtuit – Saint-Malo Airport.

Sites of interest




Now inseparably attached to the mainland
Mainland
Mainland is a name given to a large landmass in a region , or to the largest of a group of islands in an archipelago. Sometimes its residents are called "Mainlanders"...

, Saint-Malo is the most visited place in Brittany. Sites of interest include:
  • The walled city (La Ville Intra-Muros)
  • The château of Saint-Malo, part of which is now the town museum.
  • The Solidor Tower
    Solidor Tower
    Solidor Tower is a strengthened keep with three linked towers, located in the estuary of the river Rance in Brittany....

     in Saint-Servan
    Saint-Servan
    Saint-Servan is a town of western France, in Brittany, situated 2 miles from the ferry port of St Malo. It is renowned for its lovely shops and restaurants....

     is a 14th-century building that holds a collection tracing the history of voyages around Cape Horn
    Cape Horn
    Cape Horn is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island...

    . Many scale models, nautical instruments and objects made by the sailors during their crossing or brought back from foreign ports invoke thoughts of travel aboard extraordinary tall ship
    Tall ship
    A tall ship is a large, traditionally-rigged sailing vessel. Popular modern tall ship rigs include topsail schooners, brigantines, brigs and barques. "Tall Ship" can also be defined more specifically by an organization, such as for a race or festival....

    s at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
  • The tomb of the writer Chateaubriand
    François-René de Chateaubriand
    François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature.-Early life and exile:...

     on the Ile du Grand Bé
    Grand Bé
    Grand Bé is a tidal island near Saint-Malo, France. It is located at the mouth of the Rance River, a few hundred meters from the walls of Saint-Malo. At low tide the island can be reached on foot from the nearby Bon-Secours beach...

  • The Petit Bé
    Petit Bé
    Petit Bé is a tidal island near Saint-Malo, France, close to the larger island of Grand Bé. At low tide the island can be reached on foot from the nearby Bon-Secours beach.-Fort:...

  • The Cathedral
    Cathedral
    A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

     of St. Vincent
    Vincent Ferrer
    Saint Vincent Ferrer was a Valencian Dominican missionary and logician.-Early life:Vincent was the fourth child of the Anglo-Scottish nobleman William Stewart Ferrer and his Spanish wife, Constantia Miguel. Legends surround his birth...

     (see Saint-Malo Cathedral
    Saint-Malo Cathedral
    Saint-Malo Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to Saint Vincent of Saragossa, and a national monument of France, in Saint-Malo, Brittany....

    )
  • The Privateer's House ("La Demeure de Corsaire"), a ship-owner's town house built in 1725, shows objects from the history of privateering, weaponry and ship models.
  • The Great Aquarium Saint-Malo
    Great Aquarium Saint-Malo
    The Great Aquarium – Saint-Malo is one of the major aquariums in France. It opened in 1996 and now belongs to the group Compagnie des Alpes, which also owns many other parks in France and Europe....

    , one of the major aquaria in France.
  • The labyrinthe du Corsaire, (an actraction park in Saint Malo)
  • The Pointe de la Varde, Natural Park.
  • The City of Alet, in front of Saint Malo Intra Muros.
  • Fort National
    Fort National
    Fort National is a Fort just outside the walled city of Saint-Malo. It was built in 1689.-Sources:* *...


Notable people


Saint-Malo was the birthplace of:
  • Jacques Cartier
    Jacques Cartier
    Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big...

     (1491–1557), explorer of Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

  • Philippe Cattiau
    Philippe Cattiau
    Philippe Cattiau was a French fencer who won a total of eight Olympic medals between 1920 and 1936.He was born in Saint-Malo in Brittany....

     (1892–1962), Olympic medalist in fencing
    Fencing
    Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games...

  • Jacques Gouin de Beauchene
    Jacques Gouin de Beauchene
    Jacques Gouin de Beauchêne was a French explorer. His name is also spelled as Beauchesne. He was born in Saint-Malo in Brittany, and died there at 78 years of age....

     (1652–1730), explorer of the Falkland Islands
    Falkland Islands
    The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

  • René Duguay-Trouin
    René Duguay-Trouin
    René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called René Duguay-Trouin, was a famous French corsair of Saint-Malo. He had a brilliant privateering and naval career and eventually became "Lieutenant-General of the Naval Armies of the King" , and a Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis...

     (1673–1736) French corsair and Admiral that captured the city of Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

     in 1711
  • Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698–1759), mathematician
    Mathematician
    A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

     and astronomer
    Astronomer
    An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

  • Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais
    Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais
    Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais was a French naval officer and administrator, in the service of the French East India Company.-Biography:...

     (1699–1753), sailor and administrator
  • François-René de Chateaubriand
    François-René de Chateaubriand
    François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature.-Early life and exile:...

     (1768–1848), writer and diplomat
  • Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne
    Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne
    Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne , with the surname sometimes spelt Dufresne, was a French explorer who made important discoveries in the south Indian Ocean, in Tasmania and in New Zealand, where he died...

     (1724–1772), explorer
  • Julien Offray de La Mettrie
    Julien Offray de La Mettrie
    Julien Offray de La Mettrie was a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment...

     (1709–1751), physician and philosopher
  • Robert Surcouf
    Robert Surcouf
    Robert Surcouf was a famous French corsair. During his legendary career, he captured 47 ships and was renowned for his gallantry and chivalry, earning the nickname of Roi des Corsaires .- Youth :...

     (1773–1827), sailor, trader
    Merchant
    A merchant is a businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others, in order to earn a profit.Merchants can be one of two types:# A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between producer and retail merchant...

    , ship-owner
    Ship-owner
    A shipowner is the owner of a merchant vessel . In the commercial sense of the term, a shipowner is someone who equips and exploits a ship, usually for delivering cargo at a certain freight rate, either as a per freight rate or based on hire...

     and corsair
    Corsair
    Corsairs were privateers, authorized to conduct raids on shipping of a nation at war with France, on behalf of the French Crown. Seized vessels and cargo were sold at auction, with the corsair captain entitled to a portion of the proceeds...

  • Hughes Felicité Robert de Lamennais
    Hughes Felicité Robert de Lamennais
    Hugues-Félicité Robert de Lamennais , was a French priest, and philosophical and political writer.-Youth:Félicité de Lamennais was born at Saint-Malo on June 19, 1782, the son of a wealthy merchant...

     (1782–1854), priest, philosophical and political writer
  • Louis Duchesne
    Louis Duchesne
    Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne was a French priest, philologist, teacher and a critical historian of Christianity and Roman Catholic liturgy and institutions....

     (1843–1922), historian, French academician
  • Colin Clive
    Colin Clive
    Colin Clive was an English stage and screen actor best remembered for his portrayal of Dr...

     (1900–1937), actor

Twin towns – Sister cities


Saint-Malo is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Port-Louis, Mauritius (1999) Gaspé, Quebec
Gaspé, Quebec
Gaspé is a city at the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula in the Gaspésie–Îles-de-la-Madeleine region of eastern Quebec, Canada. As of the 2006 census, the city had a total population of 14,819....

, Canada (2009) Saint-Malo, Quebec
Saint-Malo, Quebec
Saint-Malo is a municipality which has the highest elevation in Quebec. At 640 metres, local residents live in an environment of forests, farms, and waterways that supply their livelihood. Every September, they revive the traditions of their ancestors with a Harvest Festival that includes a...

, Canada St. Malo, Manitoba, Canada Cowes
Cowes
Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east Bank...

, Isle of Wight, Great Britain Gniezno
Gniezno
Gniezno is a city in central-western Poland, some 50 km east of Poznań, inhabited by about 70,000 people. One of the Piasts' chief cities, it was mentioned by 10th century A.D. sources as the capital of Piast Poland however the first capital of Piast realm was most likely Giecz built around...

, Poland

See also


  • Saint-Servan
    Saint-Servan
    Saint-Servan is a town of western France, in Brittany, situated 2 miles from the ferry port of St Malo. It is renowned for its lovely shops and restaurants....

  • Rothéneuf
    Rothéneuf
    Rothéneuf is a village in the north west of France, situated north-east from Saint-Malo, about five kilometres alongside the coast. Administratively, it is part of the commune of Saint-Malo, in the département of Ille-et-Vilaine....

  • Mont-Saint-Michel
  • Battle for Brest
    Battle for Brest
    The Battle for Brest was one of the fiercest battles fought during Operation Cobra, the Allied breakout of Normandy which began on 27 July 1944, during the Battle of Normandy during World War II....

  • Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department

External links