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Sacagawea

Sacagawea

Overview
Sacagawea; (c. 1788 – December 20, 1812; see below for other theories about her death) was a Lemhi Shoshone
Lemhi Shoshone
The Lemhi Shoshone are a band of Northern Shoshone, called the Akaitikka, Agaideka, or "Eaters of Salmon." The name "Lemhi" comes from Fort Lemhi, a Mormon mission to this group. They traditionally lived in the Lemhi River Valley and along the upper Salmon River in Idaho...

 woman, who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or ″Corps of Discovery Expedition" was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson and led by two Virginia-born veterans of Indian wars in the Ohio Valley, Meriwether Lewis and William...

, acting as an interpreter and guide, in their exploration of the Western United States
Western United States
.The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time...

. She traveled thousands of miles from North Dakota
North Dakota
North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south and Montana to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S....

 to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 between 1804 and 1806.

She has become an important part of the Lewis and Clark legend in the American public imagination. The National American Woman Suffrage Association
National American Woman Suffrage Association
The National American Woman Suffrage Association was an American women's rights organization formed in May 1890 as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association...

 of the early twentieth century adopted her as a symbol of women's worth and independence, erecting several statues and plaques in her memory, and doing much to spread the story of her accomplishments.

In 2000, the United States Mint
United States Mint
The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. The Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, and placed within the Department of State...

 issued the Sacagawea dollar
Sacagawea dollar
The Sacagawea dollar is a United States dollar coin that has been minted every year since 2000. These coins have a copper core clad by manganese brass, giving them a distinctive golden color. The coin features an obverse by Glenna Goodacre. The reverse design has varied, from 2000 to 2008...

 coin in her honor, depicting Sacagawea and her son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was an American explorer and guide, fur trapper and trader, military scout during the Mexican-American War, alcalde of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and a gold prospector and hotel operator in California. He spoke French and English, and learned German and Spanish...

.
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Sacagawea; (c. 1788 – December 20, 1812; see below for other theories about her death) was a Lemhi Shoshone
Lemhi Shoshone
The Lemhi Shoshone are a band of Northern Shoshone, called the Akaitikka, Agaideka, or "Eaters of Salmon." The name "Lemhi" comes from Fort Lemhi, a Mormon mission to this group. They traditionally lived in the Lemhi River Valley and along the upper Salmon River in Idaho...

 woman, who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or ″Corps of Discovery Expedition" was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson and led by two Virginia-born veterans of Indian wars in the Ohio Valley, Meriwether Lewis and William...

, acting as an interpreter and guide, in their exploration of the Western United States
Western United States
.The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time...

. She traveled thousands of miles from North Dakota
North Dakota
North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south and Montana to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S....

 to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 between 1804 and 1806.

Cultural significance


She has become an important part of the Lewis and Clark legend in the American public imagination. The National American Woman Suffrage Association
National American Woman Suffrage Association
The National American Woman Suffrage Association was an American women's rights organization formed in May 1890 as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association...

 of the early twentieth century adopted her as a symbol of women's worth and independence, erecting several statues and plaques in her memory, and doing much to spread the story of her accomplishments.

In 2000, the United States Mint
United States Mint
The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. The Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, and placed within the Department of State...

 issued the Sacagawea dollar
Sacagawea dollar
The Sacagawea dollar is a United States dollar coin that has been minted every year since 2000. These coins have a copper core clad by manganese brass, giving them a distinctive golden color. The coin features an obverse by Glenna Goodacre. The reverse design has varied, from 2000 to 2008...

 coin in her honor, depicting Sacagawea and her son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was an American explorer and guide, fur trapper and trader, military scout during the Mexican-American War, alcalde of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and a gold prospector and hotel operator in California. He spoke French and English, and learned German and Spanish...

. The face on the coin was modeled on a modern Shoshone
Shoshone
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern....

-Bannock
Bannock (tribe)
The Bannock tribe of the Northern Paiute are an indigenous people of the Great Basin. Their traditional lands include southeastern Oregon, southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and southwestern Montana...

 woman named Randy'L He-dow Teton
Randy'L He-dow Teton
Randy'L He-dow Teton is the Shoshone woman who posed as the model for the US Sacagawea dollar coin, first issued in 2000. She is the only living person whose image appears on American currency.-Biography:...

. No contemporary image of Sacagawea exists.

In 2001, she was given the title of Honorary Sergeant, Regular Army, by then-president Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

.

Early life


Reliable historical information about Sacagawea is very limited. She was born into an Agaidika (Salmon Eater) tribe of Lemhi Shoshone
Shoshone
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern....

 between Kenney Creek and Agency Creek about twenty minutes away from present-day Salmon
Salmon, Idaho
Salmon is a city in Lemhi County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,122 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Lemhi County...

 in Lemhi County
Lemhi County, Idaho
Lemhi County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. The county was established in 1869, named after Fort Lemhi , a remote Mormon missionary settlement from 1855-58 in Bannock and Shoshone territory. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 7,806...

, Idaho
Idaho
Idaho is a state in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States. The state's largest city and capital is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans". Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state....

. In 1800, when she was about twelve, she and several other girls were kidnapped by a group of Hidatsa
Hidatsa
The Hidatsa are a Siouan people, a part of the Three Affiliated Tribes. The Hidatsa's autonym is Hiraacá. According to the tribal tradition, the word hiraacá derives from the word "willow"; however, the etymology is not transparent and the similarity to mirahací ‘willows’ inconclusive...

(also known as Minnetarees) in a battle that resulted in death among the Shoshone of four men, four women and several boys. She was taken as a captive to a Hidatsa village near present-day Washburn, North Dakota
Washburn, North Dakota
Washburn is a city in McLean County, North Dakota in the United States. It is the county seat of McLean County. The population was 1,246 at the 2010 census...

.

At about thirteen years of age, Sacagawea was taken as a wife by Toussaint Charbonneau
Toussaint Charbonneau
Toussaint Charbonneau was a French-Canadian explorer and trader, and a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He is also known as the husband of Sacagawea.-Early years:...

, a Quebecer trapper living in the village. He had also taken another young Shoshone named Otter Woman as a wife. Charbonneau was reported to have purchased both wives from the Hidatsa, or won Sacagawea while gambling.

The Lewis and Clark expedition



Sacagawea was pregnant with her first child when the Corps of Discovery arrived near the Hidatsa villages to spend the winter of 1804–05. Captains Meriwether Lewis
Meriwether Lewis
Meriwether Lewis was an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark...

 and William Clark built Fort Mandan
Fort Mandan
Fort Mandan was the name of the encampment at which the Lewis and Clark Expedition wintered in 1804-1805. The encampment was located on the Missouri River approximately twelve miles from Washburn, North Dakota, though the precise location is not known for certain and may be under the nearby...

. They interviewed several trappers who might be able to interpret or guide the expedition up the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

 in the springtime. They agreed to hire Charbonneau as an interpreter when they discovered his wife spoke Shoshone
Shoshone language
Shoshoni or Shoshone is a Native American language spoken by the Shoshone people. Principal dialects of Shoshoni include Western Shoshoni in Nevada, Gosiute in western Utah, Northern Shoshoni in southern Idaho and northern Utah, and Eastern Shoshoni in Wyoming.Shoshoni-speaking Native Americans...

, as they knew they would need the help of Shoshone tribes at the headwaters of the Missouri.

Lewis recorded in his journal on November 4, 1804:
Charbonneau and Sacagawea moved into the expedition's fort a week later. Clark nicknamed her Janey. Lewis recorded the birth of Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was an American explorer and guide, fur trapper and trader, military scout during the Mexican-American War, alcalde of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and a gold prospector and hotel operator in California. He spoke French and English, and learned German and Spanish...

 on February 11, 1805, noting that another of the party's interpreters administered crushed rattlesnake
Rattlesnake
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae . There are 32 known species of rattlesnake, with between 65-70 subspecies, all native to the Americas, ranging from southern Alberta and southern British Columbia in Canada to Central...

 rattles to speed the delivery. Clark and other European Americans nicknamed the boy "Little Pomp" or "Pompy".

In April, the expedition left Fort Mandan and headed up the Missouri River in pirogue
Pirogue
A pirogue is a small, flat-bottomed boat of a design associated particularly with the Cajuns of the Louisiana marsh. In West Africa they were used as traditional fishing boats. These boats are not usually intended for overnight travel but are light and small enough to be easily taken onto land...

s
. They had to be poled against the current and sometimes pulled from the riverbanks. On May 14, 1805, Sacagawea rescued items that had fallen out of a capsized boat, including the journals and records of Lewis and Clark. The corps commanders, who praised her quick action, named the Sacagawea River
Sacagawea River
The Sacagawea River is a tributary of the Musselshell River, approximately 30 mi long, in north-central Montana in the United States. It rises on the plains of northern Fergus County and flows eastward...

 in her honor on May 20.

By August 1805, the corps had located a Shoshone tribe and was attempting to trade for horses to cross the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

. They used Sacagawea to interpret and discovered that the tribe's chief was her brother Cameahwait
Cameahwait
Cameahwait was the brother of Sacagawea, and a Shoshone chief. He was the head of the first group of inhabitants of modern-day Idaho that were encountered by Europeans....

.

Lewis recorded their reunion in his journal:
And Clark in his:
The Shoshone agreed to barter horses to the group, and to provide guides to lead them over the cold and barren Rocky Mountains. The trip was so hard that they were reduced to eating tallow
Tallow
Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. It is solid at room temperature. Unlike suet, tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigeration to prevent decomposition, provided it is kept in an airtight container to prevent oxidation.In industry,...

 candles to survive. When they descended into the more temperate regions on the other side, Sacagawea helped to find and cook camas roots
Camassia
Camassia is a genus of six species native to western North America, from southern British Columbia to northern California, and east to Utah, Wyoming and Montana...

 to help them regain their strength.

As the expedition approached the mouth of the Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 on the Pacific Coast
Pacific Coast
A country's Pacific coast is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.-The Americas:Countries on the western side of the Americas have a Pacific coast as their western border.* Geography of Canada* Geography of Chile* Geography of Colombia...

, Sacagawea gave up her beaded belt to enable the captains to trade for a fur robe they wished to give to President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...

.

Clark's journal entry for November 20, 1805 reads:
When the corps reached the Pacific Ocean, all members of the expedition—including Sacagawea and Clark's black manservant York
York (Lewis and Clark)
York was an African American slave best known for his participation with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. As William Clark's slave, he performed hard manual labor without pay, but participated as a full member of the expedition. Like many other expedition members, his ultimate fate is unclear...

— voted on November 24 on the location for building their winter fort. In January, when a whale
Whale
Whale is the common name for various marine mammals of the order Cetacea. The term whale sometimes refers to all cetaceans, but more often it excludes dolphins and porpoises, which belong to suborder Odontoceti . This suborder also includes the sperm whale, killer whale, pilot whale, and beluga...

's carcass washed up onto the beach south of Fort Clatsop
Fort Clatsop
Fort Clatsop was the encampment of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the Oregon Country near the mouth of the Columbia River during the winter of 1805-1806...

, Sacagawea insisted on her right to go see this "monstrous fish".

On the return trip, they approached the Rocky Mountains in July 1806. On July 6, Clark recorded "The Indian woman informed me that she had been in this plain frequently and knew it well.... She said we would discover a gap in the mountains in our direction..." which is now Gibbons Pass
Gibbons Pass
Gibbons Pass is a high mountain pass in the Rocky Mountains in Montana. It is situated on the North American Continental Divide.-References:*...

. A week later, on July 13, Sacagawea advised Clark to cross into the Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long, in the western United States. Considered the principal tributary of the upper Missouri, the river and its tributaries drain a wide area stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National...

 basin at what is now known as Bozeman Pass
Bozeman Pass
Bozeman Pass is a mountain pass situated approximately 13 miles east of the town of Bozeman, Montana and approximately 15 miles west of the town of Livingston, Montana, and between the Bridger and Gallatin mountain ranges....

. This was later chosen as the optimal route for the Northern Pacific Railway
Northern Pacific Railway
The Northern Pacific Railway was a railway that operated in the west along the Canadian border of the United States. Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former president Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in...

 to cross the continental divide
Continental divide
A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, and the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endorheic, not connected to the open sea...

.

While Sacagawea has been depicted as a guide for the expedition, she is recorded as providing direction in only a few instances. Her work as an interpreter certainly helped the party to negotiate with the Shoshone. However, her greatest value to the mission may have been simply her presence during the arduous journey, which showed their peaceful intent. While traveling through what is now Franklin County, Washington, Clark noted, "The Indian woman confirmed those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a war party of Indians in this quarter," and, "the wife of Shabono our interpeter we find reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of peace."

As he traveled downriver from Fort Mandan at the end of the journey, Clark wrote to Charbonneau:

Later life and death


After the expedition, Charbonneau and Sacagawea spent three years among the Hidatsa before accepting William Clark's invitation to settle in St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

, Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

 in 1809. They entrusted Jean-Baptiste's education to Clark, who enrolled the young man in the Saint Louis Academy
Saint Louis University High School
St. Louis University High School , a Jesuit Catholic high school for boys founded in 1818, is the oldest secondary educational institution in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River, and one of the largest private high schools in Missouri. It is located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint...

 boarding school.

Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lizette, sometime after 1810. According to Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker" Butterfield, historical documents suggest Sacagawea died in 1812 of an unknown sickness:
"An 1811 journal entry made by Henry Brackenridge, a fur dealer at Fort Manuel Lisa Trading Post on the Missouri River, stated that both Sacagawea and Charbonneau were living at the fort. He recorded that Sacagawea "…had become sickly and longed to revisit her native country." The following year, John Luttig, a clerk at Fort Manuel Lisa recorded in his journal on December 20, 1812, that "…the wife of Charbonneau, a Snake Squaw [the common term used to denote Shoshone Indians], died of putrid fever." He went on to say that she was "aged about 25 years. She left a fine infant girl". Documents held by Clark show that her son Baptiste had already been entrusted by Charbonneau into Clark's care for a boarding school education, at Clark's insistence (Jackson, 1962)."


A few months later, fifteen men were killed in an Indian attack on Fort Lisa
Fort Lisa (North Dakota)
The first Fort Lisa , also known as the Fort Manuel Lisa Trading Post and as Fort Manuel, was started by the notable fur trader Manuel Lisa of the Missouri Fur Company in 1809. It was located near the Gros Ventres village located between the mouth of the Little Missouri and that of the Big Knife...

, then located at the mouth of the Bighorn River
Bighorn River
The Bighorn River is a tributary of the Yellowstone, approximately long, in the western United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. The river was named in 1805 by fur trader François Larocque for the Bighorn Sheep he saw along its banks as he explored the Yellowstone River.The upper...

. John Luttig and Sacagawea's young daughter were among the survivors. Toussaint Charbonneau was mistakenly thought to have been killed at this time, but he apparently lived to at least eighty. He had signed over formal custody of his son to Clark in 1813.

As further proof that Sacagawea died in 1812, Butterfield writes:
"An adoption document made in the Orphans Court Records in St. Louis, Missouri states, 'On August 11, 1813, William Clark became the guardian of 'Tousant Charbonneau, a boy about ten years, and Lizette Charbonneau, a girl about one year old.' For a Missouri State Court at the time, to designate a child as orphaned and to allow an adoption, both parents had to be confirmed dead in court papers."

The last recorded document citing Sacagawea's existence appears in William Clark's original notes written between 1825-1826. He lists the names of each of the expedition members and their last known whereabouts. For Sacagawea he writes: "Se car ja we au- Dead." (Jackson, 1962)."

There is no later record of Lizette among Clark's papers. It is believed that she died in childhood.

Sacagawea's son Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau continued a restless and adventurous life. He carried lifelong celebrity status as the infant who went with the explorers to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 and back. When he was 18, he was befriended by a German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

, who took him to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. There, Jean-Baptiste spent 6 years living among royalty
Royal family
A royal family is the extended family of a king or queen regnant. The term imperial family appropriately describes the extended family of an emperor or empress, while the terms "ducal family", "grand ducal family" or "princely family" are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning...

 while learning 4 languages and fathering a child in Germany named Anton Fries.

After his infant son died, Jean-Baptiste came back from Europe in 1829 to live the life of a Western
Western United States
.The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time...

 frontiersmen. He became a gold miner, hotel clerk, and in 1846, he led a group of Mormons
Mormons
The Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, a religion started by Joseph Smith during the American Second Great Awakening. A vast majority of Mormons are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints while a minority are members of other independent churches....

 to California. While in California he became a magistrate
Magistrate
A magistrate is an officer of the state; in modern usage the term usually refers to a judge or prosecutor. This was not always the case; in ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest government officers and possessed both judicial and executive powers. Today, in common law systems, a...

 for the San Luis Rey Mission. He did not like the way Indians were treated in the Missions
Mission (station)
A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work.While primarily a Christian term, the concept of the religious "mission" is also used prominently by the Church of Scientology and their Scientology Missions International....

 and left to become a hotel clerk in Auburn, California
Auburn, California
Auburn is the county seat of Placer County, California. Its population at the 2010 census was 13,330. Auburn is known for its California Gold Rush history.Auburn is part of the Greater Sacramento area.- History :...

, once the center of gold rush activity.

After working 6 years in Auburn, the restless son of Sacagawea left in search of riches in the gold mines of Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

. He was 61 years old, and the trip was too much for him. He became ill with pneumonia
Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung—especially affecting the microscopic air sacs —associated with fever, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space on a chest X-ray. Pneumonia is typically caused by an infection but there are a number of other causes...

 and died in a remote area near Danner, Oregon
Danner, Oregon
Danner is an unincorporated community located in Malheur County, Oregon, United States, near Jordan Valley.-History:The old Idaho-Oregon-Nevada highway ran through Danner, following the route of the Skinner Toll Road which opened the area for settlement in 1863.Danner is the location of the grave...

 on May 16, 1866.

An 1884 death?


Some American Indian oral traditions relate that rather than dying in 1812, Sacagawea left her husband Charbonneau, crossed the Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

 and married into a Comanche
Comanche
The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose historic range consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, northeastern Arizona, southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. Historically, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers, with a typical Plains Indian...

 tribe. She was said to have returned to the Shoshone in Wyoming, where she died in 1884.

The question of Sacagawea's final resting place caught the attention of national suffragists seeking voting rights for women, according to author Raymond Wilson. Wilson argues that Sacagawea became a role model whom suffragettes pointed to "with pride." Wilson goes on to note:
"Interest in Sacajawea peaked and controversy intensified when Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard
Grace Raymond Hebard
Grace Raymond Hebard gained prominence as a Wyoming historian, suffragist, pioneering scholar, prolific writer, political economist and noted University of Wyoming educator. Hebard's standing as a historian in part rose from her years trekking Wyoming's high plains and mountains seeking first-hand...

, professor of political economy at the University of Wyoming in Laramie and an active supporter of the Nineteenth Amendment, campaigned for federal legislation to erect an edifice honoring Sacajawea's death in 1884."



In 1925, Dr. Charles Eastman
Charles Eastman
Charles Alexander Eastman was a Native American physician, writer, national lecturer, and reformer. He was of Santee Sioux and Anglo-American ancestry...

, a Dakota Sioux physician, was hired by the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the US Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American...

 to locate Sacagawea's remains. Eastman visited many different Native American tribes to interview elderly individuals who might have known or heard of Sacagawea, and learned of a Shoshone woman at the Wind River Reservation with the Comanche name Porivo (chief woman). Some of the people he interviewed said that she spoke of a long journey where she had helped white men, and that she had a silver Jefferson peace medal
Indian Peace Medal
The term Indian Peace Medals is most commonly associated with circular silver medallions distributed to Native American tribal representatives by representatives of the United States government. They were designed and created by a man named John Reich. They were made in three sizes: small, medium...

 of the type carried by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He found a Comanche woman called Tacutine who said that Porivo was her grandmother. She had married into a Comanche tribe and had a number of children, including Tacutine's father Ticannaf. Porivo left the tribe after her husband Jerk-Meat was killed.

According to these narratives, Porivo lived for some time at Fort Bridger
Fort Bridger
Fort Bridger was originally a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 on Blacks Fork of the Green River and later a vital resupply point for wagon trains on the Oregon Trail, California Trail and Mormon Trail. The Army established a military post here in 1858 during the Utah War until...

 in Wyoming with her sons Bazil and Baptiste, who each knew several languages, including English and French. Eventually she found her way back to the Lemhi Shoshone at the Wind River Indian Reservation
Wind River Indian Reservation
Wind River Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation shared by the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans in the central western portion of the U.S. state of Wyoming...

, where she was recorded as "Bazil's mother". This woman died on April 9, 1884, and a Reverend John Roberts officiated at her funeral.

It was Eastman's conclusion that Porivo was Sacagawea. In 1963 a monument to "Sacajawea of the Shoshonis" was erected at Fort Washakie
Fort Washakie
Fort Washakie was a U.S Army fort in what is now the U.S. state of Wyoming. The fort was established in 1869 and named Camp Augur afterGeneral Christopher C. Augur, commander of the Department of the Platte. In 1870 the camp was renamed Camp Brown in honor of Captain Frederick H. Brown who was...

 on the Wind River reservation near Lander, Wyoming
Lander, Wyoming
Lander is a city in, and the county seat of, Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. Named for transcontinental explorer Frederick W. Lander, Lander is located in central Wyoming, along the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River. A tourism center with several dude ranches nearby, Lander is located just...

 on the basis of this claim.

The belief that Sacagawea lived to old age and died in Wyoming was widely disseminated in the United States in the 1933 biography Sacajawea by University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

 professor and historian Grace Raymond Hebard
Grace Raymond Hebard
Grace Raymond Hebard gained prominence as a Wyoming historian, suffragist, pioneering scholar, prolific writer, political economist and noted University of Wyoming educator. Hebard's standing as a historian in part rose from her years trekking Wyoming's high plains and mountains seeking first-hand...

. Hebard's 30 years of research which led to the biography of the Shoshone woman is called into question by critics. Hebard presents a stout-hearted woman in her portrayal of Sacajawea that is "undeniably long on romance and short on hard evidence, suffering from a sentimentalization of Indian culture".

In her novel Sacajawea (1984), Anna Lee Waldo
Anna Lee Waldo
Anna Lee Waldo is an American historical fiction author. She is most noted for her novel, Sacajawea.-Biography:Anna Lee Waldo was born in 1925 in Great Falls, Montana, growing up in Whitefish...

 explored the story of Sacajawea's returning to Wyoming 50 years after her departure. The author was well aware of the historical research supporting an 1812 death, but she chose to explore the oral tradition.

Name


A long-running controversy has surrounded the correct spelling, pronunciation, and etymology
Etymology
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

 of the woman's name. However, linguists working on Hidatsa
Hidatsa language
Hidatsa is an endangered Siouan language, closely related to the Crow language. It is spoken by the Hidatsa tribe, primarily in North Dakota and South Dakota....

 since 1870s have always considered the name's Hidatsa etymology essentially indisputable. The name is a compound
Compound (linguistics)
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word formation that creates compound lexemes...

 of two common Hidatsa noun
Noun
In linguistics, a noun is a member of a large, open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition .Lexical categories are defined in terms of how their members combine with other kinds of...

s, cagáàga tsaɡáàɡa 'bird' and míà [míà] 'woman'. The compound is written as Cagáàgawia 'Bird Woman' in modern Hidatsa orthography
Orthography
The orthography of a language specifies a standardized way of using a specific writing system to write the language. Where more than one writing system is used for a language, for example Kurdish, Uyghur, Serbian or Inuktitut, there can be more than one orthography...

, and pronounced tsaɡáàɡawia (/m/ is pronounced [w] between vowels in Hidatsa). The double /aa/ in the name indicates a long vowel
Vowel
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

 and the diacritic
Diacritic
A diacritic is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Greek διακριτικός . Diacritic is both an adjective and a noun, whereas diacritical is only an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute and grave are often called accents...

s a falling pitch
Pitch accent
Pitch accent is a linguistic term of convenience for a variety of restricted tone systems that use variations in pitch to give prominence to a syllable or mora within a word. The placement of this tone or the way it is realized can give different meanings to otherwise similar words...

 pattern. Hidatsa is a pitch-accent language that does not have stress
Stress (linguistics)
In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense.The stress placed...

, therefore in the Hidatsa pronunciation all syllables in [tsaɡáàɡawia] are pronounced with roughly the same relative emphasis. However, most English speakers perceive the accented syllable (the long /aa/) as stressed. In faithful rendering of the name Cagáàgawia to other languages, it is advisable to emphasize the second, long syllable, not the last, as is common in English.

The name has several spelling traditions in English. The origin of each tradition is described in the following sections.

Sacagawea


Sacagawea (səˌkɑːɡəˈwiːə) is the most widely used spelling of her name, and is pronounced with a hard "g" sound, rather than a soft "g" or "j" sound. Lewis and Clark's original journals mention Sacagawea by name seventeen times, spelled eight different ways, each time with a "g". Clark used Sahkahgarwea, Sahcahgagwea, Sarcargahwea and Sahcahgahweah, while Lewis used Sahcahgahwea, Sahcahgarweah, Sahcargarweah and Sahcahgar Wea.

The spelling Sacagawea was established in 1910 as the proper usage in government documents by the United States Bureau of American Ethnology
Bureau of American Ethnology
The Bureau of American Ethnology was established in 1879 by an act of Congress for the purpose of transferring archives, records and materials relating to the Indians of North America from the Interior Department to the Smithsonian Institution...

, and is the spelling adopted by the United States Mint
United States Mint
The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. The Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, and placed within the Department of State...

 for use with the dollar coin
Sacagawea dollar
The Sacagawea dollar is a United States dollar coin that has been minted every year since 2000. These coins have a copper core clad by manganese brass, giving them a distinctive golden color. The coin features an obverse by Glenna Goodacre. The reverse design has varied, from 2000 to 2008...

, as well as the United States Board on Geographic Names
United States Board on Geographic Names
The United States Board on Geographic Names is a United States federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the U.S. government.-Overview:...

 and the U.S. National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

. The spelling is used by a large number of historical scholars.

Sakakawea


Sakakawea səˌkɑːkəˈwiːə is the next most widely adopted spelling, and the most often accepted among specialists. Proponents say the name comes from the Hidatsa language
Hidatsa language
Hidatsa is an endangered Siouan language, closely related to the Crow language. It is spoken by the Hidatsa tribe, primarily in North Dakota and South Dakota....

 tsakáka wía, "bird woman". Charbonneau told expedition members that his wife's name meant "Bird Woman", and in May 1805 Lewis used the Hidatsa meaning in his journal:
"a handsome river of about fifty yards in width discharged itself into the shell river...this stream we called Sah-ca-gah-we-ah or bird woman’s River, after our interpreter the Snake woman."


Sakakawea is the official spelling of her name according to the Three Affiliated Tribes, which include the Hidatsa
Hidatsa
The Hidatsa are a Siouan people, a part of the Three Affiliated Tribes. The Hidatsa's autonym is Hiraacá. According to the tribal tradition, the word hiraacá derives from the word "willow"; however, the etymology is not transparent and the similarity to mirahací ‘willows’ inconclusive...

, and is widely used throughout North Dakota
North Dakota
North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south and Montana to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S....

 (where she is considered a state heroine), notably in the naming of Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea
Lake Sakakawea is a reservoir in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Shoshone-Hidatsa woman Sakakawea, it is the third largest man-made lake in the United States, after Lake Mead and Lake Powell. The lake lies in parts of six counties in western North Dakota: Dunn,...

, the extensive reservoir of Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam
Garrison Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota. At over two miles in length, it is the fifth-largest earthen dam in the world, constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1947-53...

 on the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

.

The North Dakota State Historical Society
State Historical Society of North Dakota
The State Historical Society of North Dakota is an agency that preserves and presents history through museums and historic sites in the state of North Dakota...

 quotes Russell Reid's book Sakakawea: The Bird Woman:
Her Hidatsa name, which Charbonneau stated meant "Bird Woman," should be spelled "Tsakakawias" according to the foremost Hidatsa language authority, Dr. Washington Matthews
Washington Matthews
Washington Matthews was a surgeon in the United States Army, ethnographer, and linguist known for his studies of Native American peoples, especially the Navajo.-Early life and education:...

. When this name is anglicized for easy pronunciation, it becomes Sakakawea, "Sakaka" meaning "bird" and "wea" meaning "woman." This is the spelling adopted by North Dakota. The spelling authorized for the use of Federal agencies by the United States Geographic Board is Sacagawea. Although not closely following Hidatsa spelling, the pronunciation is quite similar and the Geographic Board acknowledged the name to be a Hidatsa word meaning "Bird Woman."


However, Irving W. Anderson, president of the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, argued:
...the Sakakawea spelling similarly is not found in the Lewis and Clark journals. To the contrary, this spelling traces its origin neither through a personal connection with her nor in any primary literature of the expedition. It has been independently constructed from two Hidatsa Indian words found in a dictionary titled Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians, published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1877. Compiled by a United States Army surgeon, Dr. Washington Matthews, 65 years following Sacagawea's death, the words appear verbatim in the dictionary as "tsa-ka-ka, noun; a bird," and "mia [wia, bia], noun; a woman.

Sacajawea


The name Sacajawea or Sacajewea ˌsækədʒəˈwiːə, in contrast to the Hidatsa etymology, is said to be derived from Shoshone
Shoshone language
Shoshoni or Shoshone is a Native American language spoken by the Shoshone people. Principal dialects of Shoshoni include Western Shoshoni in Nevada, Gosiute in western Utah, Northern Shoshoni in southern Idaho and northern Utah, and Eastern Shoshoni in Wyoming.Shoshoni-speaking Native Americans...

 Saca-tzaw-meah, meaning "boat puller" or "boat launcher". It is the preferred spelling used by the Lemhi Shoshone people, some of whom claim that her Hidatsa captors merely reinterpreted her existing Shoshone name in their own language, and pronounced it in their own dialect -- they heard a name that approximated "tsakaka" and "wia", and interpreted it as "bird woman", substituting the hard "g/k" pronunciation for the softer "tz/j" sound that did not exist in the Hidatsa language.

The usage of this spelling almost certainly originated from the use of the "j" spelling by Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle (banker)
Nicholas Biddle was an American financier who served as the president of the Second Bank of the United States.-Ancestry and early life:...

, who annotated the Lewis and Clark Expedition's journals for publication in 1814. This usage became more widespread with the publication of the 1902 novel, The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark, written by Eva Emery Dye
Eva Emery Dye
Eva Emery Dye was an American writer, historian, and prominent member of the Women's Suffrage movement. As the author of several historical novels, fictional yet thoroughly researched, she is credited with "romanticizing the historic West, turning it into a poetic epic of expanding civilization."...

. It is likely Dye used Biddle's secondary source for the spelling, and her highly popular book made it ubiquitous throughout the United States (previously most non-scholars had never even heard of Sacagawea).

Rozina George, great-great-great-great-granddaughter of Cameahwait
Cameahwait
Cameahwait was the brother of Sacagawea, and a Shoshone chief. He was the head of the first group of inhabitants of modern-day Idaho that were encountered by Europeans....

, says the Agaidika tribe of Lemhi Shoshone do not recognize the spelling or pronunciation Sacagawea, and schools and other memorials erected in the area surrounding her birthplace use the spelling Sacajawea.
"The Lemhi Shoshone call her Sacajawea. It is derived from the Shoshone word for her name, Saca tzah we yaa. In his Cash Book, William Clark spells Sacajawea with a “J”. Also, William Clark and Private George Shannon explained to Nicholas Biddle (Published the first Lewis and Clark Journals in 1814) about the pronunciation of her name and how the tz sounds more like a “j”. What better authority on the pronunciation of her name than Clark and Shannon who traveled with her and constantly heard the pronunciation of her name? We do not believe it is a Minnetaree (Hidatsa) word for her name. Sacajawea was a Lemhi Shoshone not a Hidatsa."


Idaho native John Rees explored the "boat launcher" etymology in a long letter to the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs written in the 1920s; it was republished in 1970 by The Lemhi County Historical Society as a pamphlet titled "Madame Charbonneau" and contains many of the arguments in favor of the Shoshone derivation of the name.

The spelling Sacajawea, though widely taught until the late 20th century, is generally considered incorrect in modern academia. Linguistics professor Dr. Sven Liljeblad from the Idaho State University
Idaho State University
Idaho State University is a public university located in Pocatello, Idaho. It has outreach programs in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Boise, and Twin Falls....

 in Pocatello
Pocatello, Idaho
Pocatello is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principal city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock...

 has concluded that "it is unlikely that Sacajawea is a Shoshoni word.... The term for 'boat' in Shoshoni is saiki, but the rest of the alleged compound would be incomprehensible to a native speaker of Shoshoni." The spelling has subsided from general use, although the corresponding "soft j" pronunciation persists in American culture.

Fiction



Two early twentieth-century novels shaped much of the public perception of Sacagawea. The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark, was written by American suffragist
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

 Eva Emery Dye
Eva Emery Dye
Eva Emery Dye was an American writer, historian, and prominent member of the Women's Suffrage movement. As the author of several historical novels, fictional yet thoroughly researched, she is credited with "romanticizing the historic West, turning it into a poetic epic of expanding civilization."...

 and published in 1902 in anticipation of the expedition's centennial. The National American Woman Suffrage Association
National American Woman Suffrage Association
The National American Woman Suffrage Association was an American women's rights organization formed in May 1890 as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association...

 embraced her as a female hero, and numerous stories and essays about her appeared in ladies' journals. A few decades later, Sacagawea (1933) by Grace Hebard was published to even greater success.

Sacagawea has since become a popular figure in historical and young adult novels, including the long 1984 novel Sacajawea by Anna Lee Waldo
Anna Lee Waldo
Anna Lee Waldo is an American historical fiction author. She is most noted for her novel, Sacajawea.-Biography:Anna Lee Waldo was born in 1925 in Great Falls, Montana, growing up in Whitefish...

.

Some fictional accounts of the expedition speculate that Sacagawea was romantically involved with Lewis or Clark during their expedition. While the journals show that she was friendly with Clark and would often do favors for him, the idea of a romantic liaison was created by novelists who wrote about the expedition much later. This fiction was perpetuated in the 1955 Western
Western (genre)
The Western is a genre of various visual arts, such as film, television, radio, literature, painting and others. Westerns are devoted to telling stories set primarily in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West, hence the name. Some Westerns are set as early as the Battle of...

 film The Far Horizons.

Film


Several movies, both documentaries and fiction, have been made about Sacagawea.
  • Night at the Museum 2: Battle of the Smithsonian (2009) - played by Mizuo Peck
    Mizuo Peck
    Mizuo Peck is an American actress best known for playing Sacagawea in the film Night at the Museum and its sequel.-Life and career:Peck was born in New York City, New York of Japanese, Irish, English, and Cherokee descent...

  • The Spirit of Sacajawea (2007)
  • Night at the Museum
    Night at the Museum
    Night at the Museum is a 2006 fantasy adventure-comedy film based on the 1993 children's book The Night at the Museum by Milan Trenc. It follows a divorced father trying to settle down, impress his son, and find his destiny...

    (2006) - played by Mizuo Peck
    Mizuo Peck
    Mizuo Peck is an American actress best known for playing Sacagawea in the film Night at the Museum and its sequel.-Life and career:Peck was born in New York City, New York of Japanese, Irish, English, and Cherokee descent...

  • Bill and Meriwether's Excellent Adventure (2006) - played by Crystal Lysne
  • Journey of Sacagawea (2004)
  • Jefferson's West (2003) - played by Cedar Henry
  • Lewis & Clark: Great Journey West (2002) - played by Alex Rice
    Alex Rice
    Alexandrea Kawisenhawe Rice born in 1972 in Kahnawake, Quebec, Canada, is a First Nation actress.-Early life:Alex Rice is a Kanien'kehaka born in 1972 in Kahnawake, Quebec, and is proud of her Mohawk heritage. She is also a member of the Rice family of Kahnawake, having descended from Edmund...

  • The Far Horizons
    The Far Horizons (1955 film)
    The Far Horizons is a 1955 Western directed by Rudolph Maté, starring Fred MacMurray, Charlton Heston, Donna Reed and Barbara Hale. An expedition led by Lewis and Clark is sent to survey the territory that the United States has just acquired in the Louisiana Purchase from France...

    (1955) - played by Donna Reed
    Donna Reed
    Donna Reed was an American film and television actress.With appearances in over 40 films, Reed received the 1953 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as the tramp Lorene in the war drama From Here to Eternity. She is also noted for her role in the perennial Christmas...


Music


Sacagewea is referenced in the Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
Stevland Hardaway Morris , better known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and activist...

 song "Black Man", from the album Songs in the Key of Life
Songs in the Key of Life
Songs in the Key of Life is the 13th album by American recording artist Stevie Wonder, released September 28, 1976, on Motown Records. It was the culmination of his "classic period" albums. An ambitious double LP with a 4-song bonus EP, Songs in the Key of Life became among the best-selling and...

. In the "Piano Concerto No. 2 after Lewis & Clark", by Philip Glass
Philip Glass
Philip Glass is an American composer. He is considered to be one of the most influential composers of the late 20th century and is widely acknowledged as a composer who has brought art music to the public .His music is often described as minimalist, along with...

, the second movement is titled "Sacagawea".

Memorials

  • Sacagawea River
    Sacagawea River
    The Sacagawea River is a tributary of the Musselshell River, approximately 30 mi long, in north-central Montana in the United States. It rises on the plains of northern Fergus County and flows eastward...

  • Lake Sakakawea
    Lake Sakakawea
    Lake Sakakawea is a reservoir in the Missouri River basin in central North Dakota. Named for the Shoshone-Hidatsa woman Sakakawea, it is the third largest man-made lake in the United States, after Lake Mead and Lake Powell. The lake lies in parts of six counties in western North Dakota: Dunn,...

  • USS Sacagawea
    USS Sacagawea
    USS Sacagawea has been the name of several ships of the United States Navy. These ships operated by the Navy have been named for Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who acted as guide and interpreter for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They are among the few U.S...

    , one of several United States ships named in her honor
  • Sacagawea dollar
    Sacagawea dollar
    The Sacagawea dollar is a United States dollar coin that has been minted every year since 2000. These coins have a copper core clad by manganese brass, giving them a distinctive golden color. The coin features an obverse by Glenna Goodacre. The reverse design has varied, from 2000 to 2008...

  • Mount Sacagawea
    Mount Sacagawea
    Mount Sacagawea is the seventh highest peak in Wyoming and the sixth highest in the Wind River Range. It was named after Sacagawea, the female Shoshone who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Upper Fremont Glacier is located southeast and the Sacagawea Glacier is northeast of the mountain...

    , Fremont County, Wyoming, and the associated Sacagawea Glacier
    Sacagawea Glacier
    Sacagawea Glacier is located east of the Continental Divide in the northern Wind River Range in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The glacier is located in the Fitzpatrick Wilderness of Shoshone National Forest, and is among the largest grouping of glaciers in the American Rocky Mountains...

  • Sacajawea Peak
    Sacajawea Peak
    Sacajawea Peak is a peak in the Wallowa Mountains, in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is in the Eagle Cap Wilderness and the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest.-Description:...

    , Wallowa County, Oregon
  • Sacagawea Peak, Gallatin County, Montana
  • Sacagawea Peak, Custer County, Idaho
  • Sacajawea Patera
    Sacajawea Patera
    Sacajawea Patera is a large, elongate caldera located in Western Ishtar Terra on the smooth plateau of Lakshmi Planum, on the planet Venus. The image is centered at 64.5 degrees North latitude and 337 degrees East longitude. It is approximately wide at the base...

    , a caldera on Venus

The Sacajawea Center


The Sacajawea Interpretive, Cultural, and Educational Center is a 71 acres (287,327.1 m²) park located in Salmon, Idaho
Salmon, Idaho
Salmon is a city in Lemhi County, Idaho, United States. The population was 3,122 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Lemhi County...

 by the rivers and mountains of Sacajawea’s homeland. It is "owned and operated by the City of Salmon, in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers America's public lands, totaling approximately , or one-eighth of the landmass of the country. The BLM also manages of subsurface mineral estate underlying federal, state and private...

, Idaho Governor's Lewis & Clark Trail Committee, Salmon-Challis National Forest
Salmon-Challis National Forest
Salmon-Challis National Forest is located in east central sections of the U.S. state of Idaho. At 4,235,940 acres it is one of the largest national forests in the lower 48 states and also has most of the land area of the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, which is the largest wilderness...

, Idaho Department of Fish & Game, and numerous non-profit and volunteer organizations".

In sculpture


  • Astoria, Oregon
    Astoria, Oregon
    Astoria is the county seat of Clatsop County, Oregon, United States. Situated near the mouth of the Columbia River, the city was named after the American investor John Jacob Astor. His American Fur Company founded Fort Astoria at the site in 1811...

    , at Netul Landing in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: Bronze statue of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste.
  • Bismarck, North Dakota
    Bismarck, North Dakota
    Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 108,779...

    , by Leonard Crunelle
    Leonard Crunelle
    Leonard Crunelle was an American sculptor.After immigrating to the United States, he was a coal miner.Lorado Taft discovered him. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago with Taft.-External links:*...

     (1910): A statue of Sacagawea and baby Pomp appears on the grounds of the North Dakota State Capitol. Interestingly, a North Dakota law, on the books for over a century, prohibits any statuary whatsoever on State-owned grounds, so a special law had to be passed in order to permit the display on the Capitol grounds, where it occupies a place of prestige on the lawn in front of the state capitol building. In 2003 a replica was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection
    National Statuary Hall Collection
    The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol comprises statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history...

     in the United States Capitol Visitor Center
    United States Capitol Visitor Center
    The United States Capitol Visitor Center is a large underground addition to the United States Capitol complex which serves as a gathering point for up to 4,000 tourists and an expansion space for the US Congress. It is located below the East Front of the Capitol and its plaza, between the Capitol...

    .
  • Boise, Idaho
    Boise, Idaho
    Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River, it anchors the Boise City-Nampa metropolitan area and is the largest city between Salt Lake City, Utah and Portland, Oregon.As of the 2010 Census Bureau,...

    : Installed in front of the Idaho History Museum in July 2003.
  • Charlottesville, Virginia
    Charlottesville, Virginia
    Charlottesville is an independent city geographically surrounded by but separate from Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States, and named after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the queen consort of King George III of the United Kingdom.The official population estimate for...

    , by Charles Keck
    Charles Keck
    Charles Keck was an American sculptor, born in New York City. He studied in the National Academy of Design and Art Students League with Philip Martiny and was an assistant to Augustus Saint-Gaudens from 1893 to 1898. He also attended the American Academy in Rome. He is best known for his...

     (1919): A statue of Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and Sacagawea.
  • Cheney, Washington
    Cheney, Washington
    Cheney is a city in Spokane County, Washington, United States. The full time resident population was 10,590 as of 2010 census. Eastern Washington University is located in Cheney, and its population grows to approximately 17,600 people on a temporary basis when classes at Eastern Washington...

    , by Harold Balazs
    Harold Balazs
    Harold Balazs is an American sculptor and artist whose work has been featured in exhibits and public art installations throughout the Inland Northwest. He is known for creating large, abstract metal sculptures, but also creates murals, jewelry, furniture and drawings...

     (1960): A statue of Sacagawea is displayed in the rose garden in front of the President’s House at Eastern Washington University
    Eastern Washington University
    Eastern Washington University is an American public, coeducational university located in Cheney, Washington.Founded in 1882, the university is academically divided into four colleges: Arts and Letters; Business and Public Administration; Science, Health and Engineering; and Social & Behavioral...

    .
  • Cody, Wyoming
    Cody, Wyoming
    Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody, primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Cody's part in the creation of the original town. The population was 9,520 at the 2010 census...

    , by Harry Jackson
    Harry Jackson
    Harry Jackson was the first man to be convicted in the United Kingdom via fingerprint evidence.On June 27, 1902, a burglary occurred in a house in Denmark Hill, London, and some billiard balls were stolen. The investigating officer noticed a number of fingerprints on a freshly painted windowsill,...

     (1980): Painted bronze, 114 inches. The statue is located in the Greever Cashman Garden at the Buffalo Bill Historical Center
    Buffalo Bill Historical Center
    The Buffalo Bill Historical Center is a complex of museums displaying artifacts and art of the American West located in Cody, Wyoming. Founded in 1917, the Buffalo Bill Historical Center is the oldest museum in the West...

    .
  • Cody, Wyoming
    Cody, Wyoming
    Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody, primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Cody's part in the creation of the original town. The population was 9,520 at the 2010 census...

    , by Richard V. Greeves (2005): Bronze, 72 inches. The sculpture is in the Robbie Powwow Garden at the Buffalo Bill Historical Center
    Buffalo Bill Historical Center
    The Buffalo Bill Historical Center is a complex of museums displaying artifacts and art of the American West located in Cody, Wyoming. Founded in 1917, the Buffalo Bill Historical Center is the oldest museum in the West...

    .
  • Fort Benton, Montana
    Fort Benton, Montana
    Fort Benton is a city in and the county seat of Chouteau County, Montana, United States. A portion of the city was designated as a National Historic Landmark District in 1961. Established a full generation beforethe U.S...

    , by Robert Scriver
    Robert Scriver
    Robert "Bob" Macfie Scriver was a Montana sculptor who was born on the Blackfeet reservation of Anglophone Quebec parents. Scriver was a scholar of Blackfoot Indian culture and history, and knew and associated with Blackfoot historian James Willard Schultz in the earlier part of his life.He...

    : A sculpture of Sacagawea and her baby, and Captains Lewis and Clark, in the riverside sculpture park.
  • Fort Worth, Texas
    Fort Worth, Texas
    Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

    , by Glenna Goodacre
    Glenna Goodacre
    Glenna Maxey Goodacre is a sculptor well known for having designed the obverse of the Sacagawea dollar that entered circulation in the United States in 2000...

     (2001): Sacajawea statue outside the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame.
  • Godfrey, Illinois
    Godfrey, Illinois
    Godfrey is a village in Madison County, Illinois, United States. The population was 18000 at the 2010 census. Godfrey is located within the Greater St...

    , by Glenna Goodacre
    Glenna Goodacre
    Glenna Maxey Goodacre is a sculptor well known for having designed the obverse of the Sacagawea dollar that entered circulation in the United States in 2000...

    : At Lewis and Clark Community College
    Lewis and Clark Community College
    Lewis and Clark Community College is a comprehensive community college in the Metro-East region of Illinois in Godfrey, enrolling 13,500 credit students and more than 33,000 total students annually....

    ; by the same artist who designed the image on the Sacagawea dollar.
  • Great Falls, Montana
    Great Falls, Montana
    Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, Montana, United States. The population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cascade County...

    , by Robert Scriver
    Robert Scriver
    Robert "Bob" Macfie Scriver was a Montana sculptor who was born on the Blackfeet reservation of Anglophone Quebec parents. Scriver was a scholar of Blackfoot Indian culture and history, and knew and associated with Blackfoot historian James Willard Schultz in the earlier part of his life.He...

    : Bronze 3/4 scale statue of Sacagawea, her baby Jean-Baptise, Lewis, Clark, and the Newfoundland dog Seaman, at the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Interpretive Center in Great Falls, Montana.
  • Kansas City, Missouri
    Kansas City, Missouri
    Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

    , by Eugene L. Daub
    Eugene L. Daub
    Eugene L. Daub is a recognized contemporary figure sculptor. He attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and taught there...

     (2000): "Corps of Discovery Monument" including life size figures of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste, York, and Seaman on the bluff at Clark's Point overlook (Case Park, Quality Hill)
  • Lander, Wyoming
    Lander, Wyoming
    Lander is a city in, and the county seat of, Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. Named for transcontinental explorer Frederick W. Lander, Lander is located in central Wyoming, along the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River. A tourism center with several dude ranches nearby, Lander is located just...

    : In local cemetery . Fourteen miles West on US 287 & then two miles West (after a turn). Turnoff about three miles South of Fort Washakie. There is a tall statue of Sacagawea (six feet) with tombstones downhill of her, husband, & two children. There is also a monument on site.
  • Lewiston, Idaho
    Lewiston, Idaho
    Lewiston is a city in and also the county seat of Nez Perce County in the Pacific Northwest state of Idaho. It is the second-largest city in the northern Idaho region, behind Coeur d'Alene and ninth-largest in the state. Lewiston is the principal city of the Lewiston, ID - Clarkston, WA...

    : Multiple statues, including one along the main approach to the city.
  • Longview, Washington
    Longview, Washington
    Longview is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. It is the principal city of the "Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area", which encompasses all of Cowlitz County. Longview's population was 36,648 at the time of the 2010 census and is the largest city in Cowlitz County...

    , a statue of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste was placed in Lake Sacajawea Park near the Hemlock St. footbridge in 2005.
  • Portland, Oregon
    Portland, Oregon
    Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

    , by Alice Cooper
    Alice Cooper (sculptor)
    Alice Cooper was an American sculptor.Born in Glenwood, Iowa, and based in Denver, Colorado, Cooper studied under Preston Powers then at the Art Institute of Chicago with Lorado Taft and the Art Students League of New York through about 1901.Cooper is best known for her bronze figure of Sacajawea...

     (1905): A statue of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste was unveiled July 6, 1905 and moved to Washington Park, April 6, 1906
  • Portland, Oregon
    Portland, Oregon
    Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

    , by Glenna Goodacre
    Glenna Goodacre
    Glenna Maxey Goodacre is a sculptor well known for having designed the obverse of the Sacagawea dollar that entered circulation in the United States in 2000...

    : at Lewis & Clark College
    Lewis & Clark College
    Lewis & Clark College is a private institution of higher learning located in Portland, Oregon. Made up of an undergraduate College of Arts and Sciences, a School of Law, and a Graduate School of Education and Counseling. Lewis & Clark is a member of the Annapolis Group of colleges with athletic...

    , permanently installed on September 5, 2004.
  • St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

    , by Harry Weber
    Harry Weber (sculptor)
    -Early life:Harry Weber was born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1942 where he attended St. Louis Country Day School and educated at Princeton University where he studied art history....

     (2002): A statue of Sacagawea with her baby in a cradle board is included in the diorama
    Diorama
    The word diorama can either refer to a nineteenth century mobile theatre device, or, in modern usage, a three-dimensional full-size or miniature model, sometimes enclosed in a glass showcase for a museum...

    of the Lewis & Clark expedition that is on display in the lobby of the St. Louis Drury Plaza Hotel, located in the historical International Fur Exchange building.