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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

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The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien ("KVA") is one of the Royal Academies
Swedish Royal Academies
The Royal Academies are independent organisations, founded on Royal command, that act to promote the arts, culture, and science in Sweden. The Swedish Academy and Academy of Sciences are also responsible for the selection of Nobel Prize laureates in Literature, Physics, Chemistry, and the Prize in...

 of Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

. The Academy is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which acts to promote the sciences, primarily the natural science
Natural science
The natural sciences are branches of science that seek to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by using empirical and scientific methods...

s and mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

.

The Academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer
Jonas Alströmer
Jonas Alströmer was a pioneer of agriculture and industry in Sweden.Born Jonas Toresson in the town of Alingsås in Västergötland, in 1707 he became a clerk for Stockholm merchant Alberg in London...

, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald
Mårten Triewald
Mårten Triewald , sometimes referred to as Mårten Triewald the Younger, was a Swedish merchant, engineer and amateur physicist....

, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke
Sten Carl Bielke
Sten Carl Bielke, born March 14, 1709 in Stockholm, Sweden, deceased July 13, 1753, was a Swedish Freiherr, official, scientist and member of the Swedish parliament...

 and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm
Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm
Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, Freiherr and Chamberlain , born 1705, died 1769. His father was the royal adviser Josias Cederhielm and his mother was Anna Åkerhielm....

, and politician Anders Johan von Höpken
Anders Johan von Höpken
Count Anders Johan von Höpken , Swedish statesman, was the son of Daniel Niklas von Höpken, one of Arvid Horn's most determined opponents and a founder of the Hat party....

.

The purpose of the academy was to focus on practically useful knowledge, and to publish in Swedish
Swedish language
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along its coast and on the Åland islands. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish...

 in order to widely disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
The Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala , is the oldest of the royal academies in Sweden. The society has, by royal decree of 1906, 50 Swedish fellows and 100 foreign....

, which had been founded in 1719 and published in Latin. The location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital (which unlike Uppsala
Uppsala
- Economy :Today Uppsala is well established in medical research and recognized for its leading position in biotechnology.*Abbott Medical Optics *GE Healthcare*Pfizer *Phadia, an offshoot of Pharmacia*Fresenius*Q-Med...

 did not have a university at this time) was also intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, France, which some of the founding members were familiar with.

Committees of the Academy act as selection boards for international prizes:
  • Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

    s in Physics
    Nobel Prize in Physics
    The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others are the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and...

     and Chemistry
    Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature,...

  • Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (also known as the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics)
  • Crafoord Prize
    Crafoord Prize
    The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord...

    s in astronomy
    Astronomy
    Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth...

     and mathematics
    Mathematics
    Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

    , geosciences, bioscience
    BioScience
    BioScience is a peer-reviewed monthly sometimes daily scientific journal that is published by the American Institute of Biological Sciences . The content is written and edited for accessibility to researchers, educators, and students alike...

    s (with an emphasis on ecology
    Ecology
    Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

    ), and polyarthritis
    Polyarthritis
    Polyarthritis is any type of arthritis which involves 5 or more joints simultaneously. It is usually associated with autoimmune conditions.Polyarthritis may be experienced at any age and is not gender specific.-Causes:...

     (rheumatoid arthritis)
  • Rolf Schock Prizes in logic
    Logic
    In philosophy, Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science...

     and philosophy
    Philosophy
    Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

  • Gregori Aminoff Prize
    Gregori Aminoff Prize
    The Gregori Aminoff Prize is an international prize awarded since 1979 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in the field of crystallography, rewarding "a documented, individual contribution in the field of crystallography, including areas concerned with the dynamics of the formation and...

     in crystallography
    Crystallography
    Crystallography is the experimental science of the arrangement of atoms in solids. The word "crystallography" derives from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and grapho = write.Before the development of...

  • Oskar Klein medal
    Oskar Klein Memorial Lecture
    The Oskar Klein Memorial Lecture at Stockholm University, dedicated to the memory of the Swedish physicist Oskar Klein , is held annually since 1988 by a prominent physicist, who also receives the Oskar Klein Medal...


and national prizes:
  • Göran Gustafsson Prizes
    Göran Gustafsson Prizes
    Göran Gustafsson Prize is a national Swedish prize for outstanding scientific achievement awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Chemistry, Mathematics, Medicine, Molecular Biology and Physics...

     for research in the natural sciences and medicine
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

  • Söderberg Prize in economics
    Economics
    Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek from + , hence "rules of the house"...

     or jurisprudence
    Jurisprudence
    Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal theorists , hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions...

  • Tage Erlander Prize
    Tage Erlander Prize
    The Tage Erlander Prize is a prize awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Science "for research in Natural Sciences and Technology"in four fields...

     in physics
    Physics
    Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

    , chemistry
    Chemistry
    Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

    , technology
    Technology
    Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

    , and biology
    Biology
    Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

  • Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics.

List of permanent secretaries


The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the Academy:
  • Anders Johan von Höpken
    Anders Johan von Höpken
    Count Anders Johan von Höpken , Swedish statesman, was the son of Daniel Niklas von Höpken, one of Arvid Horn's most determined opponents and a founder of the Hat party....

    , 1739–1740, 1740–1741
  • Augustin Ehrensvärd
    Augustin Ehrensvärd
    Field marshal count Augustin Ehrensvärd was a Swedish military officer, military architect, artist, creator of the Sveaborg fortress and the Swedish Archipelago fleet,...

    , April–June 1740
  • Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744
  • Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749
  • Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin
    Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin
    Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin , Swedish astronomer and demographer....

    , 1749–1783
  • Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796
  • Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803
  • Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803-1808; Sjöstén was removed 1808 for negligence of his duties
  • Jöns Svanberg, 1809–1811
  • Olof Swartz
    Olof Swartz
    Olof Peter Swartz was a Swedish botanist and taxonomist. He is best known for his taxonomic work and studies into pteridophytes...

    , 1811–1818
  • Jöns Jacob Berzelius, 1818–1848
  • Peter Fredrik Wahlberg
    Peter Fredrik Wahlberg
    Peter Fredrik Wahlberg was a Swedish entomologist and professor at the University College of Stockholm....

    , 1848–1866
  • Georg Lindhagen, 1866–1901
  • Christopher Aurivillius, 1901–1923
  • Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum
    Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum
    Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum, born March 12, 1862 in Kalmar, died 1933, was a Swedish chemist and secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1923 to 1933....

    , 1923–1933
  • Henning Pleijel, 1933–1943
  • Arne Westgren, 1943–1959
  • Erik Rudberg, 1959–1972
  • Carl Gustaf Bernhard
    Carl Gustaf Bernhard
    Carl Gustaf Bernhard was a Swedish physician, neurophysiologist and academic.-Early life:He contracted tuberculosis as a youth. After years of treatment, he recovered. This experience led him to want to become a doctor.He was awarded a Ph.D...

    , 1973–1981
  • Tord Ganelius, 1981–1989
  • Carl-Olof Jacobson, 1989–1997
  • Erling Norrby, 1997 - 30 June 2003
  • Gunnar Öquist
    Gunnar Öquist
    Gunnar Öquist, born 1941, is a Swedish biologist and professor of plant physiology at Umeå University, and served as the permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 2003 to 2010....

    , 1 July 2003 - 30 June 2010
  • Staffan Normark
    Staffan Normark
    Jan Staffan Normark, born 1945, is a Swedish physician, microbiologist and infectious disease researcher. He grew up in Umeå and was awarded his Ph.D. at Umeå University in 1971. At the end of the 1970s, he was one of the first Swedish scientists to utilise the new genetic engineering tools in...

    , appointed from 1 July 2010

Publications



The transactions of the Academy (Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar) were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974. In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone:
  • Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar (1844–1903)
  • Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar (1872–1902)
  • Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok (1903–1969)


The Academy started to publish annual reports in physics and chemistry (1826), technology (1827), botany (1831), and zoology (1832). These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single Bihang series (meaning: supplement to the transactions). Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections (afdelning), which in 1903 became independent scientific journal
Scientific journal
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past...

s of their own, titled "Arkiv för..." (archive for...), among them
  • Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik
    Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik
    Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik was a scientific journal edited by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . It covered mathematics, astronomy and physics....

    (1903–1949).

Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974.

The Academy's first online-only (born digital) journal is Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence or "ETAI" . It was founded in 1997 by Erik Sandewall
Erik Sandewall
Erik Sandewall is a Swedish Professor in the Chair of Computer Science at Linköping University since 1975. He is known for his pioneering research in artificial intelligence.- Education :Erik Sandewall received the B.A. and Ph.D...

, professor of computer science at Linköping University
Linköping University
Linköping University is a state university in Linköping, Sweden. Linköping University was granted full university status in 1975 and is now one of Sweden's larger academic institutions. Education, research and PhD training are the mission of four faculties: Arts and Sciences, Educational...

.

Current publications:
  • Ambio (1972-)
  • Acta Mathematica
    Acta Mathematica
    Acta Mathematica is a journal publishing original research papers in all fields of mathematics. The journal was founded by Gösta Mittag-Leffler in 1882 and is published by Institut Mittag-Leffler, a research institute for mathematics belonging to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences...

    (1882-)
  • Arkiv för matematik (1949- with this title; 1903-1949 also including physics and astronomy)
  • Acta Zoologica (1920-)
  • Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter (1869-), biographies of deceased members
  • Physica Scripta
    Physica Scripta
    Physica Scripta is an international scientific journal for experimental and theoretical physics. It was established in 1970 and is published jointly by Institute of Physics Publishing on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences jointly with other Academies of Sciences and Physical Societies...

    (1970-), jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
    Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
    The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters is a learned society based in Oslo, Norway.-History:The University of Oslo was established in 1811. The idea of a learned society in Christiania surfaced for the first time in 1841. The city of Throndhjem had no university, but had a learned...

  • Porträttmatrikel (1971-), portraits of current members
  • Zoologica Scripta
    Zoologica Scripta
    Zoologica Scripta is a bi-monthly scientific journal on systematic zoology, published by Blackwell Publishing Limited, on behalf of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences...

    (1972-), jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
  • ETAI (1997-)

See also


  • Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

External links