Royal Jordanian Land Force

Royal Jordanian Land Force

Encyclopedia
The Royal Jordanian Land Force is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces
Jordanian Armed Forces
The Jordanian Armed Forces , also referred to as The Arab Army , with all of it branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan...

 (JAF). It draws its origins from units first formed in the British Mandate of Transjordan in the 1920s. It has seen combat against Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. The Army also fought the PLO during Black September
Black September
The expression Black September may refer to:* Black September in Jordan, the conflict between Palestinian guerrilla organizations and King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon....

 in 1970.

Origins - 1920–1947



On 10 June 1916 Sherif Hussien Bin Ali prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

 of Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

, had officially declared the Great Arab Revolt
Great Arab Revolt
The Great Arab Revolt may refer to:*The 1916-1918 Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule, led by Sharif Hussein bin Ali*The Iraqi revolt against the British in 1920.*The Great Syrian Revolt of 1924-1927.*The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine....

 against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 to rid Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 nations from the Turkish rule that had lasted about four centuries
Century
A century is one hundred consecutive years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages .-Start and end in the Gregorian Calendar:...

.

On 21 November 1920 Prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

 Abdullah Bin Al-Hussien
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan [‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn] عبد الله الأول بن الحسين born in Mecca, Second Saudi State, was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah...

 (later King) arrived to Ma'an
Ma'an
Ma'an is a town in southern Jordan 218 km away from the capital Amman. It is the capital of Ma'an Governorate. Ma'an has a population of around 50,000. The city had a population of 22,989 in the 1992 census and is estimated as being about 50,000 as of 2007 according to the Ma'an Municipality...

 where he expressed his resolution to drive out the Turkish forces from Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. Later, on 5 December 1920 he proclaimed himself as deputy king
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

 in Syria and appealed to members of the Al-Faissali army to join his forces in Ma'an. His calls had received much attention in the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

 as several prominent Arab nationalists and other Arab princes joined his campaign which later formed the embryonic force of the Arab legion.

When Prince Abdullah came to power in the Emirate
Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir.-Etymology:Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir ....

 of Trans-Jordan at that time the Jordanian Armed Forces
Jordanian Armed Forces
The Jordanian Armed Forces , also referred to as The Arab Army , with all of it branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan...

 included:
  • Cavalry
    Cavalry
    Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

     (Darak) force of 400 men.
  • A mobile
    Mobility (military)
    Mobility in military terms refers to the ability of a weapon system, combat unit or armed force to move toward a military objective. Combat forces with a higher mobility are able to move more quickly, and/or across more hostile terrain, than forces with lower mobility.Mobility is regarded as a...

     (mainly cavalry) force of 150 men.
  • A regular Army battalion of some 200 infantry
    Infantry
    Infantrymen are soldiers who are specifically trained for the role of fighting on foot to engage the enemy face to face and have historically borne the brunt of the casualties of combat in wars. As the oldest branch of combat arms, they are the backbone of armies...

    men.
  • A camelry of 100 men.
  • An Arab force, which was probably the battalion that had accompanied prince Abdullah to Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

     from Ma'an.


Roles of Military Formations in Jordan from the Foundation of the Emirate until the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, known to Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation The war commenced after the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the creation of an independent Israel at midnight on 14 May 1948 when, following a period of civil war, Arab armies invaded...

:



  1. Transjordan Frontier Force
    Transjordan Frontier Force
    The Transjordan Frontier Force was formed, on 1 April 1926, as a para-military border guard to defend Trans-Jordan's northern and southern borders. The TJFF was also an Imperial Service regiment whose Imperial Service soldiers agreed to serve wherever required and not just within the borders of...

    : It had played an important role for the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

     during World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     as it provided protection for British lines of communication extending from Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

     to Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    . It also took part in the fighting against the French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     forces in Syria
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

    .


  2. The Arab Legion
    Arab Legion
    The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.-Creation:...

    : – It was mainly tasked during World War II with maintaining order and law in the country.

    Moreover, it extended support to British Forces engaged in military actions in Syria, Iraq and Palestine
    Palestine
    Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

    . A military detachment of this force had participated in the Victory Day
    Victory Day
    Victory Day is a common name of many different public holidays in various countries to commemorate victories in important battles or wars in the countries' history.- April 30 in Vietnam :...

     ceremonies in London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

     on 8 June 1946, and the victory festival of Allied Forces
    Allies of World War II
    The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

     in Jerusalem.


  3. The Desert Force
    Desert Force
    The Desert Force , AKA Desert Patrol, was a paramilitary force of Transjordan. Its main task was to guard Jordanian borders with neighboring Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria as well as to provide protection for oil pipe lines of Iraqi Petroleum Company .It also participated in campaigns of Syria and...

     (Al-Badia Force): AKA Desert Patrol, Its main task was to guard Jordan's borders with neighboring Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria as well as to provide protection for the petroleum
    Petroleum
    Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

     pipelines of the Iraqi Petroleum Company (IPC). Besides that, it participated in the campaigns of Syria and Iraq during World War II.


Pre-1948 War


This army started with an infantry company
Company
A company is a form of business organization. It is an association or collection of individual real persons and/or other companies, who each provide some form of capital. This group has a common purpose or focus and an aim of gaining profits. This collection, group or association of persons can be...

, cavalry company, machine guns unit, signal section
Section (military unit)
A section is a small military unit in some armies. In many armies, it is a squad of seven to twelve soldiers. However in France and armies based on the French model, it is the sub-division of a company .-Australian Army:...

 and military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 band. In 1923, the total number of the army did not exceed 750 men who were combined under the command supervision of British Captain
Captain (British Army and Royal Marines)
Captain is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines. It ranks above Lieutenant and below Major and has a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force...

 Frederick Gerard Peake
Frederick Gerard Peake
Major-General Frederick Gerard Peake, CMG, CBE , known as Peake Pasha, was a British Army and police officer and creator of the Arab Legion.He was son of Lt-Colonel Walter Peake DSO...

.

During 1930, the Arab Legion
Arab Legion
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.-Creation:...

's strength was expanded to approximately 11,000. In 1931, a camel-mounted desert mobile force was organized under the command of John Bagot Glubb
John Bagot Glubb
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC better known as Glubb Pasha , was a British soldier, scholar and author, best known for leading and training Transjordan's Arab Legion 1939-1956 as its commanding general...

 to maintain security and order.

This organization attracted numerous Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 volunteers. In 1933 the first mechanized force was formed. This element consisted of three vehicles and 120 men including the camel-mounted desert mobile force. It undertook the responsibility of maintaining security, preventing the raids among the tribal groups and deterring the raids from the outside.

By the eve of World War II, the legion had been expanded to a force of about 1600 men. This legion took part in operations in Syria during this war. Independent companies were established in addition to a regular battalion which was grown to become later the 1st Brigade.

In 1942 the 2nd battalion was formed, to later become the 2nd Brigade. The army continued its expansion in number and equipment.

1948 War


In 1948, it consisted of two brigades; two garrisons and four battalions were merged to become six battalions. At this time the army consisted of infantry division, artillery brigade, mortar battery, artillery battery, engineer and signal battalion and field aid unit.

After the announcement of the 1947 UN Partition Plan
1947 UN Partition Plan
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was created by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine in 1947 to replace the British Mandate for Palestine with "Independent Arab and Jewish States" and a "Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem" administered by the United...

 and the disclosure of the British decision to leave Palestine on 15 May 1948, both warring sides (the Arabs and the Jews) began to make their military preparations for a forthcoming confrontation they believed would be inevitable.

In May 1948 the Arab countries decided to send their forces to assist the Palestinians. The Arab Legion entered Palestine with other Arab Forces on 15 May 1948 using the Allenby
Allenby
Allenby is a surname of English origin and may refer to:*Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby , a British soldier** Named for the above:**Allenby Street, Tel Aviv, Israel**Allenby Bridge between Jordan and Israel...

 (King Hussein) bridge as they were advancing to cover the approaches from Jenin
Jenin
Jenin is the largest town in the Northern West Bank, and the third largest city overall. It serves as the administrative center of the Jenin Governorate and is a major agricultural center for the surrounding towns. In 2007, the city had a population of 120,004 not including the adjacent refugee...

, in the north to Alaffoula and from Al-Majame'a bridge on the Jordan River to Bissan Alaffoula.

Units of the Arab Legion were engaged in several battles with the Jewish forces including the following:
  • Battles of Beit Nabala – 14 December 1947
  • Battle of Haifa
    Haifa
    Haifa is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 268,000. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, Daliyat al-Karmel and Nesher...

     – 9 February 1948
  • Battle of prophet Jacob settlement- 18 April 1948
  • Battle of Gaisher settlement in late April 1948
  • Battle of Kfar Aitsion 7–13 May 1948.

1949–1967


King Hussein spared no pains at all to improve the army in terms of cadre and equipment, and in the early 1956 dismissed Glubb and Arab commanders assumed leadership posts in the army, most notably Habis Al-Majali
Habis Al-Majali
Field Marshal Habis al-Majali . A noted Jordanian soldier from the southern city of Kerak, Habis served as Chief of Staff, Jordanian Armed Forces 1958-1975, Minister of Defence 1967-1968, and 20-year member of the Jordanian Senate 1981?-2001.-Life and career:Habis Pasha he is the son of Sheik...

.

In 1957, His Majesty King Hussein ordered to establish the 4th infantry brigade and another field artillery. In 1958, the heavy artillery was entered, In the same year the armor brigade was recognized to become an armor division and in 1961 it become the armour corps. During this period the 40th Armoured Brigade, 60th Armoured Brigade and the Royal Guard Brigade were established.

Battles - 1956


On 11 September, an Israeli force infiltrated the Jordanian territories in, Al-Rahwa, Hebron sector, and attacked the police station there. After long clashes with a Jordanian unit from the Desert Guards, the Israeli force was forced to withdraw repulsed.

On 10 October 1956 an enemy force, estimated at a motorized infantry brigade, supported by medium-range artillery and 10 combat aircraft, attacked the Arab towns of Hubla, Al-Nabi Illias and Azroun. The assaulting troops fought the Arab legion west of Al-Nabi Illias and were forced to withdraw to Qalqilia hills.

EQUIPMENT-1956:-
  • 24 Charioteer FV4101 MK-VII 20PDR gun MBT\TD
  • 36 Archer 17PDR gun TD
  • 72 Marmon-Harrington FV-MK-IV 2PDR gun 4x4 ARVs South Africa
  • 53 Marmon-Harrington FV-MK-III 4x4 ARVs South Africa
  • 2PDR ATG
  • 6PDR ATG
  • 17PDR ATG
  • Marmon-Harrington 3.7 inch 4x4 SPH South Africa
  • RO 25PDR TH\TFG
  • 3 inch Mortar
  • 2 inch Mortar
  • P.I.A.T Light ATRL.((UK))
  • 16 De-Havilland Vampire FB-9(9)\T55(2)\FB52(7)
  • 10 NAA AT-6 Harvard
  • 5 AOP-3\5

The Royal Jordanian Land Force is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces
Jordanian Armed Forces
The Jordanian Armed Forces , also referred to as The Arab Army , with all of it branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan...

 (JAF). It draws its origins from units first formed in the British Mandate of Transjordan in the 1920s. It has seen combat against Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. The Army also fought the PLO during Black September
Black September
The expression Black September may refer to:* Black September in Jordan, the conflict between Palestinian guerrilla organizations and King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon....

 in 1970.

Origins - 1920–1947



On 10 June 1916 Sherif Hussien Bin Ali prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

 of Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

, had officially declared the Great Arab Revolt
Great Arab Revolt
The Great Arab Revolt may refer to:*The 1916-1918 Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule, led by Sharif Hussein bin Ali*The Iraqi revolt against the British in 1920.*The Great Syrian Revolt of 1924-1927.*The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine....

 against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 to rid Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 nations from the Turkish rule that had lasted about four centuries
Century
A century is one hundred consecutive years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages .-Start and end in the Gregorian Calendar:...

.

On 21 November 1920 Prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

 Abdullah Bin Al-Hussien
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan [‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn] عبد الله الأول بن الحسين born in Mecca, Second Saudi State, was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah...

 (later King) arrived to Ma'an
Ma'an
Ma'an is a town in southern Jordan 218 km away from the capital Amman. It is the capital of Ma'an Governorate. Ma'an has a population of around 50,000. The city had a population of 22,989 in the 1992 census and is estimated as being about 50,000 as of 2007 according to the Ma'an Municipality...

 where he expressed his resolution to drive out the Turkish forces from Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. Later, on 5 December 1920 he proclaimed himself as deputy king
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

 in Syria and appealed to members of the Al-Faissali army to join his forces in Ma'an. His calls had received much attention in the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

 as several prominent Arab nationalists and other Arab princes joined his campaign which later formed the embryonic force of the Arab legion.

When Prince Abdullah came to power in the Emirate
Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir.-Etymology:Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir ....

 of Trans-Jordan at that time the Jordanian Armed Forces
Jordanian Armed Forces
The Jordanian Armed Forces , also referred to as The Arab Army , with all of it branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan...

 included:
  • Cavalry
    Cavalry
    Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

     (Darak) force of 400 men.
  • A mobile
    Mobility (military)
    Mobility in military terms refers to the ability of a weapon system, combat unit or armed force to move toward a military objective. Combat forces with a higher mobility are able to move more quickly, and/or across more hostile terrain, than forces with lower mobility.Mobility is regarded as a...

     (mainly cavalry) force of 150 men.
  • A regular Army battalion of some 200 infantry
    Infantry
    Infantrymen are soldiers who are specifically trained for the role of fighting on foot to engage the enemy face to face and have historically borne the brunt of the casualties of combat in wars. As the oldest branch of combat arms, they are the backbone of armies...

    men.
  • A camelry of 100 men.
  • An Arab force, which was probably the battalion that had accompanied prince Abdullah to Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

     from Ma'an.


Roles of Military Formations in Jordan from the Foundation of the Emirate until the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, known to Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation The war commenced after the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the creation of an independent Israel at midnight on 14 May 1948 when, following a period of civil war, Arab armies invaded...

:



  1. Transjordan Frontier Force
    Transjordan Frontier Force
    The Transjordan Frontier Force was formed, on 1 April 1926, as a para-military border guard to defend Trans-Jordan's northern and southern borders. The TJFF was also an Imperial Service regiment whose Imperial Service soldiers agreed to serve wherever required and not just within the borders of...

    : It had played an important role for the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

     during World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     as it provided protection for British lines of communication extending from Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

     to Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    . It also took part in the fighting against the French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     forces in Syria
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

    .


  2. The Arab Legion
    Arab Legion
    The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.-Creation:...

    : – It was mainly tasked during World War II with maintaining order and law in the country.

    Moreover, it extended support to British Forces engaged in military actions in Syria, Iraq and Palestine
    Palestine
    Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

    . A military detachment of this force had participated in the Victory Day
    Victory Day
    Victory Day is a common name of many different public holidays in various countries to commemorate victories in important battles or wars in the countries' history.- April 30 in Vietnam :...

     ceremonies in London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

     on 8 June 1946, and the victory festival of Allied Forces
    Allies of World War II
    The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

     in Jerusalem.


  3. The Desert Force
    Desert Force
    The Desert Force , AKA Desert Patrol, was a paramilitary force of Transjordan. Its main task was to guard Jordanian borders with neighboring Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria as well as to provide protection for oil pipe lines of Iraqi Petroleum Company .It also participated in campaigns of Syria and...

     (Al-Badia Force): AKA Desert Patrol, Its main task was to guard Jordan's borders with neighboring Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria as well as to provide protection for the petroleum
    Petroleum
    Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

     pipelines of the Iraqi Petroleum Company (IPC). Besides that, it participated in the campaigns of Syria and Iraq during World War II.


Pre-1948 War


This army started with an infantry company
Company
A company is a form of business organization. It is an association or collection of individual real persons and/or other companies, who each provide some form of capital. This group has a common purpose or focus and an aim of gaining profits. This collection, group or association of persons can be...

, cavalry company, machine guns unit, signal section
Section (military unit)
A section is a small military unit in some armies. In many armies, it is a squad of seven to twelve soldiers. However in France and armies based on the French model, it is the sub-division of a company .-Australian Army:...

 and military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 band. In 1923, the total number of the army did not exceed 750 men who were combined under the command supervision of British Captain
Captain (British Army and Royal Marines)
Captain is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines. It ranks above Lieutenant and below Major and has a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force...

 Frederick Gerard Peake
Frederick Gerard Peake
Major-General Frederick Gerard Peake, CMG, CBE , known as Peake Pasha, was a British Army and police officer and creator of the Arab Legion.He was son of Lt-Colonel Walter Peake DSO...

.

During 1930, the Arab Legion
Arab Legion
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.-Creation:...

's strength was expanded to approximately 11,000. In 1931, a camel-mounted desert mobile force was organized under the command of John Bagot Glubb
John Bagot Glubb
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC better known as Glubb Pasha , was a British soldier, scholar and author, best known for leading and training Transjordan's Arab Legion 1939-1956 as its commanding general...

 to maintain security and order.

This organization attracted numerous Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 volunteers. In 1933 the first mechanized force was formed. This element consisted of three vehicles and 120 men including the camel-mounted desert mobile force. It undertook the responsibility of maintaining security, preventing the raids among the tribal groups and deterring the raids from the outside.

By the eve of World War II, the legion had been expanded to a force of about 1600 men. This legion took part in operations in Syria during this war. Independent companies were established in addition to a regular battalion which was grown to become later the 1st Brigade.

In 1942 the 2nd battalion was formed, to later become the 2nd Brigade. The army continued its expansion in number and equipment.

1948 War


In 1948, it consisted of two brigades; two garrisons and four battalions were merged to become six battalions. At this time the army consisted of infantry division, artillery brigade, mortar battery, artillery battery, engineer and signal battalion and field aid unit.

After the announcement of the 1947 UN Partition Plan
1947 UN Partition Plan
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was created by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine in 1947 to replace the British Mandate for Palestine with "Independent Arab and Jewish States" and a "Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem" administered by the United...

 and the disclosure of the British decision to leave Palestine on 15 May 1948, both warring sides (the Arabs and the Jews) began to make their military preparations for a forthcoming confrontation they believed would be inevitable.

In May 1948 the Arab countries decided to send their forces to assist the Palestinians. The Arab Legion entered Palestine with other Arab Forces on 15 May 1948 using the Allenby
Allenby
Allenby is a surname of English origin and may refer to:*Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby , a British soldier** Named for the above:**Allenby Street, Tel Aviv, Israel**Allenby Bridge between Jordan and Israel...

 (King Hussein) bridge as they were advancing to cover the approaches from Jenin
Jenin
Jenin is the largest town in the Northern West Bank, and the third largest city overall. It serves as the administrative center of the Jenin Governorate and is a major agricultural center for the surrounding towns. In 2007, the city had a population of 120,004 not including the adjacent refugee...

, in the north to Alaffoula and from Al-Majame'a bridge on the Jordan River to Bissan Alaffoula.

Units of the Arab Legion were engaged in several battles with the Jewish forces including the following:
  • Battles of Beit Nabala – 14 December 1947
  • Battle of Haifa
    Haifa
    Haifa is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 268,000. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, Daliyat al-Karmel and Nesher...

     – 9 February 1948
  • Battle of prophet Jacob settlement- 18 April 1948
  • Battle of Gaisher settlement in late April 1948
  • Battle of Kfar Aitsion 7–13 May 1948.

1949–1967


King Hussein spared no pains at all to improve the army in terms of cadre and equipment, and in the early 1956 dismissed Glubb and Arab commanders assumed leadership posts in the army, most notably Habis Al-Majali
Habis Al-Majali
Field Marshal Habis al-Majali . A noted Jordanian soldier from the southern city of Kerak, Habis served as Chief of Staff, Jordanian Armed Forces 1958-1975, Minister of Defence 1967-1968, and 20-year member of the Jordanian Senate 1981?-2001.-Life and career:Habis Pasha he is the son of Sheik...

.

In 1957, His Majesty King Hussein ordered to establish the 4th infantry brigade and another field artillery. In 1958, the heavy artillery was entered, In the same year the armor brigade was recognized to become an armor division and in 1961 it become the armour corps. During this period the 40th Armoured Brigade, 60th Armoured Brigade and the Royal Guard Brigade were established.

Battles - 1956


On 11 September, an Israeli force infiltrated the Jordanian territories in, Al-Rahwa, Hebron sector, and attacked the police station there. After long clashes with a Jordanian unit from the Desert Guards, the Israeli force was forced to withdraw repulsed.

On 10 October 1956 an enemy force, estimated at a motorized infantry brigade, supported by medium-range artillery and 10 combat aircraft, attacked the Arab towns of Hubla, Al-Nabi Illias and Azroun. The assaulting troops fought the Arab legion west of Al-Nabi Illias and were forced to withdraw to Qalqilia hills.

EQUIPMENT-1956:-
  • 24 Charioteer FV4101 MK-VII 20PDR gun MBT\TD
  • 36 Archer 17PDR gun TD
  • 72 Marmon-Harrington FV-MK-IV 2PDR gun 4x4 ARVs South Africa
  • 53 Marmon-Harrington FV-MK-III 4x4 ARVs South Africa
  • 2PDR ATG
  • 6PDR ATG
  • 17PDR ATG
  • Marmon-Harrington 3.7 inch 4x4 SPH South Africa
  • RO 25PDR TH\TFG
  • 3 inch Mortar
  • 2 inch Mortar
  • P.I.A.T Light ATRL.((UK))
  • 16 De-Havilland Vampire FB-9(9)\T55(2)\FB52(7)
  • 10 NAA AT-6 Harvard
  • 5 AOP-3\5

The Royal Jordanian Land Force is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces
Jordanian Armed Forces
The Jordanian Armed Forces , also referred to as The Arab Army , with all of it branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan...

 (JAF). It draws its origins from units first formed in the British Mandate of Transjordan in the 1920s. It has seen combat against Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. The Army also fought the PLO during Black September
Black September
The expression Black September may refer to:* Black September in Jordan, the conflict between Palestinian guerrilla organizations and King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon....

 in 1970.

Origins - 1920–1947



On 10 June 1916 Sherif Hussien Bin Ali prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

 of Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

, had officially declared the Great Arab Revolt
Great Arab Revolt
The Great Arab Revolt may refer to:*The 1916-1918 Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule, led by Sharif Hussein bin Ali*The Iraqi revolt against the British in 1920.*The Great Syrian Revolt of 1924-1927.*The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine....

 against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 to rid Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 nations from the Turkish rule that had lasted about four centuries
Century
A century is one hundred consecutive years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages .-Start and end in the Gregorian Calendar:...

.

On 21 November 1920 Prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

 Abdullah Bin Al-Hussien
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan [‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn] عبد الله الأول بن الحسين born in Mecca, Second Saudi State, was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah...

 (later King) arrived to Ma'an
Ma'an
Ma'an is a town in southern Jordan 218 km away from the capital Amman. It is the capital of Ma'an Governorate. Ma'an has a population of around 50,000. The city had a population of 22,989 in the 1992 census and is estimated as being about 50,000 as of 2007 according to the Ma'an Municipality...

 where he expressed his resolution to drive out the Turkish forces from Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. Later, on 5 December 1920 he proclaimed himself as deputy king
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

 in Syria and appealed to members of the Al-Faissali army to join his forces in Ma'an. His calls had received much attention in the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

 as several prominent Arab nationalists and other Arab princes joined his campaign which later formed the embryonic force of the Arab legion.

When Prince Abdullah came to power in the Emirate
Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir.-Etymology:Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir ....

 of Trans-Jordan at that time the Jordanian Armed Forces
Jordanian Armed Forces
The Jordanian Armed Forces , also referred to as The Arab Army , with all of it branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan...

 included:
  • Cavalry
    Cavalry
    Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

     (Darak) force of 400 men.
  • A mobile
    Mobility (military)
    Mobility in military terms refers to the ability of a weapon system, combat unit or armed force to move toward a military objective. Combat forces with a higher mobility are able to move more quickly, and/or across more hostile terrain, than forces with lower mobility.Mobility is regarded as a...

     (mainly cavalry) force of 150 men.
  • A regular Army battalion of some 200 infantry
    Infantry
    Infantrymen are soldiers who are specifically trained for the role of fighting on foot to engage the enemy face to face and have historically borne the brunt of the casualties of combat in wars. As the oldest branch of combat arms, they are the backbone of armies...

    men.
  • A camelry of 100 men.
  • An Arab force, which was probably the battalion that had accompanied prince Abdullah to Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

     from Ma'an.


Roles of Military Formations in Jordan from the Foundation of the Emirate until the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, known to Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation The war commenced after the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the creation of an independent Israel at midnight on 14 May 1948 when, following a period of civil war, Arab armies invaded...

:



  1. Transjordan Frontier Force
    Transjordan Frontier Force
    The Transjordan Frontier Force was formed, on 1 April 1926, as a para-military border guard to defend Trans-Jordan's northern and southern borders. The TJFF was also an Imperial Service regiment whose Imperial Service soldiers agreed to serve wherever required and not just within the borders of...

    : It had played an important role for the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

     during World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     as it provided protection for British lines of communication extending from Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

     to Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    . It also took part in the fighting against the French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     forces in Syria
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

    .


  2. The Arab Legion
    Arab Legion
    The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.-Creation:...

    : – It was mainly tasked during World War II with maintaining order and law in the country.

    Moreover, it extended support to British Forces engaged in military actions in Syria, Iraq and Palestine
    Palestine
    Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

    . A military detachment of this force had participated in the Victory Day
    Victory Day
    Victory Day is a common name of many different public holidays in various countries to commemorate victories in important battles or wars in the countries' history.- April 30 in Vietnam :...

     ceremonies in London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

     on 8 June 1946, and the victory festival of Allied Forces
    Allies of World War II
    The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

     in Jerusalem.


  3. The Desert Force
    Desert Force
    The Desert Force , AKA Desert Patrol, was a paramilitary force of Transjordan. Its main task was to guard Jordanian borders with neighboring Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria as well as to provide protection for oil pipe lines of Iraqi Petroleum Company .It also participated in campaigns of Syria and...

     (Al-Badia Force): AKA Desert Patrol, Its main task was to guard Jordan's borders with neighboring Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Syria as well as to provide protection for the petroleum
    Petroleum
    Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

     pipelines of the Iraqi Petroleum Company (IPC). Besides that, it participated in the campaigns of Syria and Iraq during World War II.


Pre-1948 War


This army started with an infantry company
Company
A company is a form of business organization. It is an association or collection of individual real persons and/or other companies, who each provide some form of capital. This group has a common purpose or focus and an aim of gaining profits. This collection, group or association of persons can be...

, cavalry company, machine guns unit, signal section
Section (military unit)
A section is a small military unit in some armies. In many armies, it is a squad of seven to twelve soldiers. However in France and armies based on the French model, it is the sub-division of a company .-Australian Army:...

 and military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 band. In 1923, the total number of the army did not exceed 750 men who were combined under the command supervision of British Captain
Captain (British Army and Royal Marines)
Captain is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines. It ranks above Lieutenant and below Major and has a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force...

 Frederick Gerard Peake
Frederick Gerard Peake
Major-General Frederick Gerard Peake, CMG, CBE , known as Peake Pasha, was a British Army and police officer and creator of the Arab Legion.He was son of Lt-Colonel Walter Peake DSO...

.

During 1930, the Arab Legion
Arab Legion
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.-Creation:...

's strength was expanded to approximately 11,000. In 1931, a camel-mounted desert mobile force was organized under the command of John Bagot Glubb
John Bagot Glubb
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC better known as Glubb Pasha , was a British soldier, scholar and author, best known for leading and training Transjordan's Arab Legion 1939-1956 as its commanding general...

 to maintain security and order.

This organization attracted numerous Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 volunteers. In 1933 the first mechanized force was formed. This element consisted of three vehicles and 120 men including the camel-mounted desert mobile force. It undertook the responsibility of maintaining security, preventing the raids among the tribal groups and deterring the raids from the outside.

By the eve of World War II, the legion had been expanded to a force of about 1600 men. This legion took part in operations in Syria during this war. Independent companies were established in addition to a regular battalion which was grown to become later the 1st Brigade.

In 1942 the 2nd battalion was formed, to later become the 2nd Brigade. The army continued its expansion in number and equipment.

1948 War


In 1948, it consisted of two brigades; two garrisons and four battalions were merged to become six battalions. At this time the army consisted of infantry division, artillery brigade, mortar battery, artillery battery, engineer and signal battalion and field aid unit.

After the announcement of the 1947 UN Partition Plan
1947 UN Partition Plan
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was created by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine in 1947 to replace the British Mandate for Palestine with "Independent Arab and Jewish States" and a "Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem" administered by the United...

 and the disclosure of the British decision to leave Palestine on 15 May 1948, both warring sides (the Arabs and the Jews) began to make their military preparations for a forthcoming confrontation they believed would be inevitable.

In May 1948 the Arab countries decided to send their forces to assist the Palestinians. The Arab Legion entered Palestine with other Arab Forces on 15 May 1948 using the Allenby
Allenby
Allenby is a surname of English origin and may refer to:*Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby , a British soldier** Named for the above:**Allenby Street, Tel Aviv, Israel**Allenby Bridge between Jordan and Israel...

 (King Hussein) bridge as they were advancing to cover the approaches from Jenin
Jenin
Jenin is the largest town in the Northern West Bank, and the third largest city overall. It serves as the administrative center of the Jenin Governorate and is a major agricultural center for the surrounding towns. In 2007, the city had a population of 120,004 not including the adjacent refugee...

, in the north to Alaffoula and from Al-Majame'a bridge on the Jordan River to Bissan Alaffoula.

Units of the Arab Legion were engaged in several battles with the Jewish forces including the following:
  • Battles of Beit Nabala – 14 December 1947
  • Battle of Haifa
    Haifa
    Haifa is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 268,000. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, Daliyat al-Karmel and Nesher...

     – 9 February 1948
  • Battle of prophet Jacob settlement- 18 April 1948
  • Battle of Gaisher settlement in late April 1948
  • Battle of Kfar Aitsion 7–13 May 1948.

1949–1967


King Hussein spared no pains at all to improve the army in terms of cadre and equipment, and in the early 1956 dismissed Glubb and Arab commanders assumed leadership posts in the army, most notably Habis Al-Majali
Habis Al-Majali
Field Marshal Habis al-Majali . A noted Jordanian soldier from the southern city of Kerak, Habis served as Chief of Staff, Jordanian Armed Forces 1958-1975, Minister of Defence 1967-1968, and 20-year member of the Jordanian Senate 1981?-2001.-Life and career:Habis Pasha he is the son of Sheik...

.

In 1957, His Majesty King Hussein ordered to establish the 4th infantry brigade and another field artillery. In 1958, the heavy artillery was entered, In the same year the armor brigade was recognized to become an armor division and in 1961 it become the armour corps. During this period the 40th Armoured Brigade, 60th Armoured Brigade and the Royal Guard Brigade were established.

Battles - 1956


On 11 September, an Israeli force infiltrated the Jordanian territories in, Al-Rahwa, Hebron sector, and attacked the police station there. After long clashes with a Jordanian unit from the Desert Guards, the Israeli force was forced to withdraw repulsed.

On 10 October 1956 an enemy force, estimated at a motorized infantry brigade, supported by medium-range artillery and 10 combat aircraft, attacked the Arab towns of Hubla, Al-Nabi Illias and Azroun. The assaulting troops fought the Arab legion west of Al-Nabi Illias and were forced to withdraw to Qalqilia hills.

EQUIPMENT-1956:-
  • 24 Charioteer FV4101 MK-VII 20PDR gun MBT\TD
  • 36 Archer 17PDR gun TD
  • 72 Marmon-Harrington FV-MK-IV 2PDR gun 4x4 ARVs South Africa
  • 53 Marmon-Harrington FV-MK-III 4x4 ARVs South Africa
  • 2PDR ATG
  • 6PDR ATG
  • 17PDR ATG
  • Marmon-Harrington 3.7 inch 4x4 SPH South Africa
  • RO 25PDR TH\TFG
  • 3 inch Mortar
  • 2 inch Mortar
  • P.I.A.T Light ATRL.((UK))
  • 16 De-Havilland Vampire FB-9(9)\T55(2)\FB52(7)
  • 10 NAA AT-6 Harvard
  • 5 AOP-3\5
  • 6 DH-104 Dove
  • 10 De-Havilland DHC-1 Chipmunk.

Kuwait - 1963


When Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

 declared its independence on 19 June 1961, the Iraqi government announced that Kuwait is an integral part of its national territories. Accordingly, the Arab league
Arab League
The Arab League , officially called the League of Arab States , is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia . It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan , Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a...

 formed the Arab emergency force to protect Kuwait with the participation of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

, Jordan and Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

. The Jordanian participation included an infantry battalion reinforced by an anti-aircraft platoon and returned home on 13 December 1963.

Sammu Battle - 1966



In 13 November 1966 the Israeli Forces raided the Jordanian village of Sammu (in the Muhafazat of Hebron) with an infantry brigade reinforced by two tank battalions and supported by artillery and combat aircraft. After a round of a severe fighting with Jordanian Army units, the Israeli forces withdrew. Although the Israeli forces were pushed back, the Jordanian army suffered heavy losses.

In 1965, the army achieved another advancement when His Majesty King Hussein ordered the formation of five infantry brigades. The army was divided into two fronts: Western front and Eastern front, ten infantry battalions were concentrated on both fronts.

In 1967, a new armoured brigade was established. The artillery brigade was recognized to be consisted of three field artillery battalions and an anti-aircraft battalion.

Six Day War - 1967


Believing that Israel was a becoming more of a threat Egypt declared a state of emergency and started to concentrate its forces in Sinai desert. In addition to that Jordan signed a mutual defense agreement with Egypt. Consequently, Israel ordered the full mobilisation of its forces on 25 May 1967. As a result the Arab Jordan Army was placed on maximum alert.

The operational Strengths Of Opposing Forces on the Jordanian Front included:
Arab Forces
  • Jordan Armed Forces (JAF): several infantry brigades, 2 Armoured brigades and 20 operational combat aircraft, distributed in defensive positions in both western and eastern fronts.
  • Iraq: 2 infantry brigades, 1 mechanised brigade, 1 armored brigade, and 34 aircraft.
  • Syria: one infantry brigade entered the Jordanian borders on 7 June, and left on 9 June 1967 without being involved in any military actions.
  • Saudi Arabia: one infantry brigade and

an armoured company which arrived to Al-Modawara border crossing point on 21 March 1968.
  • Egypt: 2 Ranger battalions arrived in Jordan on 3 June 1967. Their primary mission was to destroy six Israeli airfields. Due to their late entry to the occupied territories they could not accomplish their mission.


Israeli forces opposing the Jordanian front included
  • 4 infantry brigades
  • 3 mechanised brigades
  • 2 paratroop brigades
  • 2 armoured brigades with their full standard support elements
  • 286 combat aircraft of different types.


When the military operations were over on both Egyptian and Syrian fronts, Israel redeployed a part of its forces from these fronts to the Jordanian front.

At 0730 hrs. on 5 June 1967 the Israelis surprised the Arab states with a series of continuous air strikes directed at Arab airfields. As a result most of the Arab air force was neutralized.

Amid the battles in Jerusalem was the Battle of Ammunition Hill; 71 Jordanian soldiers died. Eventually the Jordanian Army was driven from East Jerusalem.

Jordanian Army ORBAT, June 1967
  • 2 Armored Brigades (40\60,Each 94 with Patton M-48\M-48A-1 MBTs,40 FV-701 Feeret ARVs,45 M-113 APCs,18 M-52 105mm SPHs,18 M-42 2x40mm SP-AAGs)
  • 3 Indp.Armored Battalions (with Centurion MK-V\VII or Patton M-47 MBTs)
  • 1 Paratroop Battalion
  • 1 "Royal Brigade"(Mech.Infantry)
  • 9 Infantry Brigades(1\2\3\4\12\25\27\29\36)
  • 12 Artillery Battalions
  • 6 Mortar Battaries

RJAF ORBAT
  • sqn no.1 Hawker Hunter FGA-6\FR-10\T-66 at Mafraq AB
  • sqn no.2 Vampire FB-9\52 T55 at Mafraq&Amman
  • sqn no.3 Dove DH-104\C-47 Dakota\WS-55 Whirlwind at Amman AB
  • sqn no.6 Hawker Hunter FGA9\73 at Amman AB
  • sqn no.9 F-104A\B Starfigther at Mafraq AB
  • sqn no.4 Alouette-III \Westland Scout at Amman AB


Equipment of Jordanian Armed Forces June 1967
Sten MK-4
M1A1 Thompson  United States
Carl-Gustav M-1945  Sweden
Ag m/42  Sweden
AK4  Sweden
Lee-Enfield MK-4
M1 Garand  United States
Carbine M1  United States
Bren LMG
Browning M-1919A-4  United States
Vickers 0.303 MM
Browning M-2HB  United States
M-20 Super-Bazooka  United States
RO 2 inch light mortar
RO 3 inch medium mortar
297 Patton M-48(197)ׁ\M-48A-1(100) 90mm MBTs
49-160 Patton M-47 90mm MBTs
90–105 Vickers Centurion MK-V\VII 20PDR\84.6mm MBTs
24 Chariotter MK-7 FV-4101 20PDR\84.6mm TD
140-240 Daimler FV-702 Ferret 4x4 ARVs
130 FV-601 Saladin 76mm 6x6 ARVs
150 FV-603 Saracen 6x6 AIFV s
250 M-113 Gevin APCs
350 M-40A1-C1 106mm RCLs
90 17PDR 76mm Towed ATGs
36 Archer 17PDR\76mm TDs
20 M-44 155mm SPH
36 M-52 105mm SPHs
25 M-115 203mm Towed guns
16–18 M-59 Long-Tom 155mm Towed guns
90–108 RO 25PDR 87.6mm Towed Howitzers\guns<
Brandt 120mm Heavy Mortar  Early Modern France
RO 4.2 inch\107mm Heavy Mortar
M-42 Bofors twin-gun 2x40mm SP-AAGs  Sweden
Land-Rover
Ford M-151
Jeep M-38
Ford trucks
Reo M-35 }
M-8 Towing tractor-for M-59 guns
5 Lockheed F-104A(2)\F-104B(3) Starfighter
Part of total an order for
32 F-104A and 4 F-104B.
Flown to Turkey before June 5, 1967.
24–32 Hawker Hunter FGA-6\9\73 FR-10 T-66
8–16 De Hevilland FB-9\52 T-55 Vampire
2 Heron
6 DH-104 Dov
4–6 Douglas C-47 Dakota
4 Sud Aviation Alouette-III SA-316B  Early Modern France
2 Westland WS-55 Srs-4 Whirlwind
3 Westland Scout AH\MK-1
Mercuni 745 radar system

1967–1973 War



After the 1967 war, the army was rearmed. In 1968, the army attacked Israeli troops that had entered Jordanian territory in pursuit of Palestinian guerrillas – the Al-Karameh battle. Palestinians claim a victory just for resisting Israeli troops; the Jordanians say they forced the Israelis back; the Israelis say they pulled back after hitting the Palestinians at which time they were bombed by the Jordanians.

Daily clashes continued on the Jordanian Front after 1967 war until mid 1970s – the War of attrition
War of Attrition
The international community and both countries attempted to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict. The Jarring Mission of the United Nations was supposed to ensure that the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 242 would be observed, but by late 1970 it was clear that this mission had been...

. The most famous one was the Battle of Karameh
Battle of Karameh
The Battle of Karameh was fought on March 21, 1968 in the town of Karameh, Jordan, between the Israel Defense Forces and combined forces of the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Jordanian Army...

 In 1968 Israeli forces
Israel Defense Forces
The Israel Defense Forces , commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal , are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force and navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel...

 crossed the border and advanced on the town of Karameh. The Jordanian army mobilized and a battle broke out between the Jordanian army and the IDF. The Israeli forces retreated after a heavy bombardment.

September 1970 is known as Black September
Black September
The expression Black September may refer to:* Black September in Jordan, the conflict between Palestinian guerrilla organizations and King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon....

 in Arab history. In September 1970, King Hussein moved to quash an attempt by armed Palestinian insurgents to overthrow his monarchy. The violence resulted in severe Palestinian civilian casualties that were described by many witnessing media outlets as the Jordanian Bedioun army's genocide in the Palestinian refugue camps. Armed conflict lasted until July 1971 ending only when Palestinian leaders agreed to end the resistance on the condition that the Bediouns of the Jordanian forces stop murdering Palestinian civilians.

In the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

, the 40th Armoured Brigade was sent to the Syrian front and played a significant role in the fighting.

After 1977


"Since the major reorganisation of 1977 the Royal Jordanian Army has kept the 5th Armoured Division deployed between the Iraqi border and Ramtha on the Syrian border, the 12th Mechanized Division deployed from Ramtha through Umm Qays to the Zarqa River in a defensive posture that cover both Israel and Syria and the 4th Mechanized Division deployed from Zarqa River, north of
As-Salt to the Dead Sea facing Israel. The 3rd Armoured Division acts as both the strategic reserve and the main protection against an internal coup. It has units deployed at Zarqa in the north; near the capital Amman along with a brigade of Royal Guards made up of hand-picked troops from Bedouin tribes known for their long-standing loyalty to the Hashemite family, and Qatraneh
Qatraneh
Qatraneh is a small town in Jordan. It is located 90 miles south of Amman.. It belongs administratively to Karak Governorate.-History:The town is famous for its historic Qasr Al-Qatraneh, which was bilt by the Umayyads.-Geography:...

 in the south covering the route into Saudi Arabia.

In 1996 the Jordanian Army finally established a Special Operations Command, the brain-child of Abdullah then a serving Army officer. It is tasked to deal with a possible Palestinian uprising and the growth of Islamic terrorism. This powerful force now includes the 71st and 101st Special Force Battalions, the 81st and 91st Paracommando Battalions and both electronic warfare and
helicopter support units."

Current status


The army's organizational structure was traditionally based on two armored divisions and two mechanized divisions. These have been transformed into a lighter, more mobile forces, based largely on a brigade structure and considered better capable of rapid reaction in emergencies.

Due to the critical position of Jordan (sandwiched between Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Israel), Jordan maintains a strong defensive army, with three commands, the north army command, the Central Command and the South Command. As of August 2004, the army was reported to be 88,000 strong, and the Northern Command is reported to consist of 2 mech, one infantry, one artillery, one AD brigade, the Southern Command (1 armd, one infantry brigade), a Central Command (1 mech, 1 lt inf, 1 arty, 1 AD brigade) an Eastern Command, 2 mech, 1 arty, 1 AD brigade, and a strategic reserve (1 Royal armoured division with 3 armd, 1 arty, 1 AD brigades). An armored division has become the core element of a strategic reserve. Each command is controlled by its Field General, but all of the commands are under the King of Jordan's control.

The Land Forces have a full range of combat and combat supporting corps, including the Royal Maintenance Corps
Royal Maintenance Corps (Jordan)
The Royal Maintenance Corps "silah al siyana al-malaki" is a branch of the Jordanian Armed Forces. It must furnish continuous operation to the field and is responsible for flow of parts, and for every vehicle being operational and ready for battle...

. Today's Jordanian military ranks
Jordanian military ranks
The Jordanian Armed Forces adopted its system of military ranks from the British armed forces...

 are based on those of the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

, given Jordan's military heritage.

The Jordanian military also contributes to UN peacekeeping missions worldwide, having sent contingents to Africa, Afghanistan, Croatia, Bosnia, parts of the former Soviet Union, and even as far as Haiti and East Timor. The Jordanian military has established a regional center of excellence with regards to special forces training, having received training from both the United Kingdom and the United States. Jordanian Special Forces have trained counterparts from Algeria, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Yemen.

Kenneth Pollack, a U.S. military analyst, wrote in c.2002 that 'from 1948 to 1956, the Arab Legion was far superior to any of the other Arab militaries. In battle, it generally gave as good as it got, and the Israelis considered it their most dangerous adversary. However, after 1956, the Jordanian capabilities began to decline. In 1967 they performed worse than in 1948, although the exceptional performance of the 40th Armoured Brigade and a number of Israeli mistakes helped disguise the deterioration somewhat. Thereafter Jordanian capabilities continued to gradually erode.'

Current equipment




The present day Jordanian Army is equipped with mainly Western (US and British) supplied weapons.

The Jordan Arab Army is equipped with a mix of British and American tanks, including the Challenger 1, Al-Khalid
Chieftain tank
The FV 4201 Chieftain was the main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. It was one of the most advanced tanks of its era, and at the time of its introduction in 1966 had the most powerful main gun and heaviest armour of any tank in the world...

 and M-60A1/A3. The older Centurion tank
Centurion tank
The Centurion, introduced in 1945, was the primary British main battle tank of the post-World War II period. It was a successful tank design, with upgrades, for many decades...

 and M-48A5 series remain in limited service, but may be phased out as the Challenger, Al-Khalid and M-60A3 undergo further upgrades. Current projects carried out by King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau
King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau
The King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau is a Jordanian defence company. The King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau was established by Royal Decree on 24 August 1999 to provide an indigenous capability for the supply of scientific and technical services to the Jordanian Armed Forces...

 (KADDB) include integration of the Phoenix digital fire and control system and a revised turret for the M-60A1/A3 (featuring ERA of unknown origin) along RUAG L50/52 smooth-bore CG (Compact Gun) to replace the rifled 120 mm L15A1 & 105 mm L7/M68 gun of the Challenger 1 & M-60A1/A3 respectively. The projects have also been offered for export and existing M-60 users such as Egypt or Saudi Arabia have shown interest in KADDB. The M113 remains a standard APC and are being supplanted by local vehicles, including the Temsah (Crocodile, an APC conversion of a Centurion tank
Centurion tank
The Centurion, introduced in 1945, was the primary British main battle tank of the post-World War II period. It was a successful tank design, with upgrades, for many decades...

 chassis). 20–24 AH-1F 'Cobra' equip Army aviation and are equipped with TOW II ATGW and were initially incapable of night-time operations but have since been upgraded. Earlier the Bofors 40 mm gun
Bofors 40 mm gun
The Bofors 40 mm gun is an anti-aircraft autocannon designed by the Swedish defence firm of Bofors Defence...

 was also used.

Personal equipment includes the US-supplied M-16 rifles (mainly A1/A2 and some A3), M-4A1, Taiwanese T65 assault rifles and T86
T86 assault rifle
The T86 assault rifle is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, air-cooled assault rifle. It is the second original rifle design conducted by the 205th Armory of Combined Service Forces, Republic of China...

 carbines, Browning HP automatic pistols; however, some units utilise the relatively uncommon Beretta Italian SS70/223 (the standard carbine of the Public Security Department and Police Force). The M-60 and FN-MAG are carried as the GPMG. The Badia forces generally carry the M-14 on camel back.

Main Battle Tanks (MBTs)

  • 390 Al-Hussein 120mm MBT /
  • 274 Al-Khalid
    Chieftain tank
    The FV 4201 Chieftain was the main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. It was one of the most advanced tanks of its era, and at the time of its introduction in 1966 had the most powerful main gun and heaviest armour of any tank in the world...

     120mm Highly Upgraded MBT (another 90 MK5/5 from Iraq but not in service)
  • 182 Phoenix
    M60 Patton
    The 105 mm Gun Full Tracked Combat Tank, M60, also known unofficially as the M60 Patton, is a first-generation main battle tank introduced in December 1960. It was widely used by the U.S. and its Cold War allies, especially those in NATO, and remains in service throughout the world today...

     (Upgraded M60A3) tank 120mm MBT /
  • 80 M60A3
    M60 Patton
    The 105 mm Gun Full Tracked Combat Tank, M60, also known unofficially as the M60 Patton, is a first-generation main battle tank introduced in December 1960. It was widely used by the U.S. and its Cold War allies, especially those in NATO, and remains in service throughout the world today...

     tank
  • 293 Tariq
    Centurion tank
    The Centurion, introduced in 1945, was the primary British main battle tank of the post-World War II period. It was a successful tank design, with upgrades, for many decades...

     (converted to MAP II Heavy armored APCs) 105mm MBT \ Jordan

APCs

  • 1,000 M113A2 (1,000 upgraded, including M106, M-30 & M901 ITV)
  • 400 M113 A2MK1 \ Jordan
  • 69 M577 (command vehicle based on the M113)
  • 100 EE-11 Urutu
    EE-11 Urutu
    The EE-11 Urutu is a 6x6 armored personnel carrier developed in the seventies by Engesa of Brazil. It used as many commercially available parts as possible. It also shares many components with the EE-9 Cascavel Armoured fighting vehicle. The suspension includes Engesa's Boomerang double-axle rear...

     (with General Security Forces)  Brazil

IFVs

  • 502 YPR-765 (include Oerlikon 25mm gun, 45 YPR ITV) from Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

  • 359 Ratel IFV
    Ratel IFV
    The Ratel is the basic Infantry Fighting Vehicle of the South African National Defence Force's mechanized infantry battalions. Ratel is the Afrikaans name for the honey badger, which has a reputation as a ferocious fighter.-History:...

     Twin Gun 20mm / 23mm
  • 303 BMP-2
    BMP-2
    The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

     

Reconnaissance

  • 103 FV107 Scimitar
    FV107 Scimitar
    FV107 Scimitar is an armoured reconnaissance vehicle used by the British Army. It is very similar to the FV101 Scorpion but mounts a high velocity 30 mm L21 RARDEN cannon instead of a 76 mm gun. It was issued to Royal Armoured Corps, Armoured Regiments in the Reconnaissance role...

     
  • 35 FV101 Scorpion
    FV101 Scorpion
    The FV101 Scorpion is a British armoured reconnaissance vehicle. It was the lead vehicle and the fire support type in the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance , CVR, family of seven armoured vehicles...

     CVRT
  • 140 Improved Daimler
    Daimler Motor Company
    The Daimler Motor Company Limited was an independent British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in London by H J Lawson in 1896, which set up its manufacturing base in Coventry. The right to the use of the name Daimler had been purchased simultaneously from Gottlieb Daimler and Daimler Motoren...

     FV-702 Ferret
    Ferret armoured car
    The Ferret armoured car, also commonly called the Ferret Scout car, is a British armoured fighting vehicle designed and built for reconnaissance purposes. The Ferret was produced between 1952 and 1971 by the UK company, Daimler...

     

Light Armored Vehicles

  • 14 AB5 Defender 110
  • 65 AB2 Al-Jawad
  • 50 Ferret Hybrid \ Jordan
  • 150 Humvee 
  • +100 Desert Iris
  • +146 Al-Thalab
  • Nimr I/II
    Nimr
    -Development:Emirates Defense Technology initially started the Nimr project in the UAE. Engineers from the Industrial Computer Technologies engineering firm were then subcontracted to complete the detailed engineering and prototyping of the first Nimr 1 prototype...

     4X4 , 6X6 /
  • 40 RG-12
    RG-12
    The RG-12 is a multi-purpose public order vehicle with anti-personnel mine, grenade, fire bomb and small arms fire protection that is manufactured by Land Systems OMC of South Africa, with over 700 being in service globally in more than eight countries.Originally designed as a police public order...

     /
  • 50 Matador (Mine Protected Vehicle)
    Matador (Mine Protected Vehicle)
    The Matador is an armoured personnel carrier and mine-protected vehicle that is produced by Paramount Group in South Africa. The vehicle was displayed for the first time in 2007, during the International Defence Exhibition and Conference in Abu Dhabi...

     \
  • 25 Marauder (Mine Protected Vehicle)
    Marauder (Mine Protected Vehicle)
    The Marauder is an armoured, mine-protected vehicle that is produced by the Paramount Group in South Africa. It was launched during the 2007 International Defence Exhibition and Conference in Abu Dhabi, the largest arms exhibition in the Middle East....

     \

Artillery Vehicles and Weapons

  • 345 M109A2/A3
    M109 howitzer
    The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. It was upgraded a number of times to today's M109A6 Paladin...

     155 mm self-propelled howitzer (121 M109A2/90
    M109 howitzer
    The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. It was upgraded a number of times to today's M109A6 Paladin...

     From Netherlands)
  • 128 M110A2
    M110 howitzer
    The 8 inch Self-Propelled Howitzer M110 was the largest available self-propelled howitzer in the United States Army's inventory. It was deployed in division artillery in general support battalions and in separate corps- and Army-level battalions. Missions include general support, counter-battery...

     203mm self-propelled howitzer
  • 70 M106A2
    M106 mortar carrier
    The M106 mortar carrier was a tracked, self-propelled artillery vehicle in service with the United States Army. It was replaced with the M1064 mortar carrier.-History:...

     107mm self-propelled mortar carrier
  • 18 M114
    M114 155 mm howitzer
    The M114 155 mm howitzer was a towed howitzer used by the United States Army. It was first produced in 1942 as a medium artillery piece under the designation of 155 mm Howitzer M1. It saw service with the US Army during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, before being...

     155 mm towed howitzer
  • 50 M102A1
    M102 howitzer
    First introduced during the Vietnam War, the M102 was the light-towed 105 mm howitzer used by the United States Army in the Vietnam War, the First Gulf War, and most recently in the Iraq War.- An Air Mobile Howitzer for the Vietnam War :...

     105 mm towed howitzer
  • 330 M40 106 mm recoilless rifle
    M40 recoilless rifle
    The M40 recoilless rifle was a lightweight, portable, crew-served 105 mm weapon intended primarily as an anti-tank weapon made in the United States...

     

Anti-tank missile

  • 378 TOW-2A
    BGM-71 TOW
    The BGM-71 TOW is an anti-tank missile. "BGM" is a weapon classification that stands for "Multiple Environment , Surface-Attack , Missile ". "TOW" is an acronym that stands for "Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire command data link, guided missile"...

     anti-tank missile (includes 93 M901 ITV
    M901 ITV
    The M901 ITV is a United States Army armored vehicle designed to carry a dual M220 TOW launcher. It is based on the ubiquitous M113 Armored Personnel Carrier chassis.- Equipment :...

    )
  • 310 M47 Dragon
    M47 Dragon
    The M47 Dragon is an American shoulder-fired, man-portable anti-tank missile system. It has since been phased out in US service, in favor of the newer FGM-148 Javelin system.-Description:...

     anti-tank missile
  • 2,300 APILAS
    APILAS
    APILAS is a portable one-shot 112 mm recoilless anti-tank weapon, designed in France by GIAT Industries...

     122 mm anti-tank missile
  • 2,500 LAW-80 94 mm anti-tank missile
  • 192 FGM-148 Javelin
    FGM-148 Javelin
    The FGM-148 Javelin is a United States-made man-portable third generation anti-tank missile fielded to replace the Dragon antitank missile.-Overview:Javelin is a fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance...

     CLUs (30 CLUs with 116 missiles delivered,162 CLUs with 1808 missiles being delivered)
  • 200 AT-14 Kornet Launchers + 2,000 missiles
  • 250 M712 Copperhead
    M712 Copperhead
    The M712 Copperhead is a caliber cannon-launched, fin-stabilized, terminally laser guided, explosive projectile intended to engage hard point targets such as tanks, self-propelled howitzers or other high-value targets. It may be fired from different artillery pieces, such as the M114, M109 and...

     (Precision-guided munitions)
  • Unknown RPG-32
    RPG-32
    The RPG-32 Hashim is a Russian hand held anti-tank grenade launcher.The RPG-32 multipurpose grenade launcher was developed between 2005 and 2007 by Russian state-owned FGUP 'Bazalt' organization on request and under contract from Jordan...

     (Hashim) \
  • Unknown Milan
    Milan
    Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

     \


Anti-Aircraft Vehicles and Weapons

  • 45 ZSU-23-4 Shilka 
  • 139 M163 Vulcan 
  • 216 M42 Duster
    M42 Duster
    The M42 40 mm Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun, or "Duster," is an armored light air-defense gun built for the U.S. Army from 1952 until December 1959. Production of this vehicle was performed by the tank division of the General Motors Corporation. It used components from the M41 light tank...

     (phased out) \ Sweden
  • 60 9K33 Osa
    9K33 Osa
    The 9K33 OSA is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system. "9K33" is its GRAU designation. Its NATO reporting name is SA-8 Gecko.-Description:...

     (SA-8 Gecko)
  • 92 9K35 Strela-10 (SA-13 Gopher)
  • Unknown No SA-22 Pantsir-S1E
    • 300 SA-14 Strela-3 
    • 240 SA-18 Igla 
    • 200 Igla-S 
    • 270 FIM-43A Redeye 

Mortar

  • 300 Brandt
    Brandt
    - People :* Andy Brandt , Canadian politician* Arthur William Brandt , American engineer* Augusto Brandt , South American classical musician and composer* Bill Brandt , British photographer and photojournalist...

     120 mm mortar
  • 60 M30 mortar 107 mm mortar
  • 450 M29 mortar
    M29 Mortar
    The M29 is a United States produced 81 millimeter calibre mortar. It began replacing the M1 Mortar in U.S. service in 1952 being lighter and with greater range. It was replaced by the M252 Mortar in 1984...

     81 mm mortar

MLRS

  • 32 AB-19 107 mm (increasing)  Jordan
  • 24 HIMARS (JAF ordered another 12 launchers)
  • 24 WM-80 MRL  Mainland China
  • 20 LOGIR 70mm MRLS produced by Hanwha
    Hanwha
    Hanwha Group is one of the largest business conglomerate in South Korea. Founded in 1952 as Korea Explosives Inc. , the group has grown into a large multi-profile business conglomerate, with diversified holdings stretching from explosives, their original business, to retail to financial...

     & KADDB  Jordan

Logistic and Engineering Equipment


Armored recovery vehicles
  • 16 Chieftain ARV
  • 30 M578 Light Recovery Vehicle
    M578 Light Recovery Vehicle
    M578 Light Recovery Vehicle was a US Cold War era armored recovery vehicle. The M578 utilized the same chassis as M107 Self-Propelled Gun and M110 Self-Propelled Howitzer. The M578 provided maintenance support to mechanized infantry and artillery units...

     
  • 32 M88 Recovery VehicleA1 ARV
  • YPR-806
  • AL-Monjed ARV based on M-60 tank

AFV transporters
  • 215 Heavy Equipment Transport System.
  • 100 Scammell Commander Heavy Equipment Transport System.

Mine clearing
  • 12 Aardvark Mk 2/3 flail
  • Bridges British model
  • British mine-clearing plows and dozers
  • UDK-1 bridge

Ground Radar

  • 12 TPQ-36 Firefinder counter-battery
  • 5 TPQ-37 Firefinder counter-battery
  • Border Control System (Including ground radars,IR cameras and aerostats)

Radar

  • C4ISR
    C4ISR
    C4ISR may refer to:* the C4ISR concept of Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, the U.S. term for C4ISTAR* C4ISR Journal, a journal published by the Defense News Media Group...

  • 5 S-711 
  • 3 TPS-43E 1 TPS-43 from Saudi Arabia in 1985
  • 5 TPS-63 surveillance radar
  • 2 AN/FPS-117
    AN/FPS-117
    The AN/FPS-117 is a phased array, 3-dimensional air search radar. It is produced by the Lockheed Martin corporation from the United States.The system is a low power, long range , L-band pencil beam, solid-state transmitter and beacon interrogator search radar...

     3D air search radar

Handguns

  • Viper pistol
  • Heckler & Koch USP
    Heckler & Koch USP
    The USP is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns.-History:...

     
  • M9 pistol
    M9 Pistol
    The Beretta M9, formally Pistol, Semiautomatic, 9mm, M9, is a 9×19mm Parabellum pistol of the United States military adopted in 1985. It is essentially a military specification Beretta 92F, later the 92FS....

      Italy
  • FN Browning HP-35
    Browning Hi-Power
    The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, 9 mm semi-automatic handgun. It is based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, and completed by Dieudonné Saive at Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Belgium. Browning died in 1926, several years before the design was finalized...

      Belgium/ United States
  • CZ99 

Assault rifles

  • M16 assault rifle 
  • AK-74
    AK-74
    The AK-74 is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s in the Soviet Union as the replacement for the earlier AKM...

     \
  • T91 assault rifle
    T91 assault rifle
    The T91 assault rifle is produced by the 205th Armory, Ministry of Defense, Republic of China . It is based on the proven T86 assault rifle incorporating features from the M16 and AR-18 rifles with more modern features...

      Republic of China
  • T86 assault rifle
    T86 assault rifle
    The T86 assault rifle is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, air-cooled assault rifle. It is the second original rifle design conducted by the 205th Armory of Combined Service Forces, Republic of China...

      Republic of China
  • Heckler & Koch G3
    Heckler & Koch G3
    The G3 is a 7.62mm battle rifle developed in the 1950s by the German armament manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH in collaboration with the Spanish state-owned design and development agency CETME ....

     
  • Zastava M21
    Zastava M21
    The Zastava M21 is a 5.56mm assault rifle developed and manufactured by the Zastava Arms company.-Overview:The M21 is based on the AK-47 Kalashnikov principle, chambered in the 5.56×45mm cartridge...

     
  • Zastava M70
    Zastava M70
    The Zastava M70 is a 7.62mm assault rifle developed in Yugoslavia by Zastava Arms. The M70 was designed on the basis of the AKM and became the standard issue assault rifle in the Yugoslav People's Army in 1970. The M70 is air-cooled, magazine-fed, selective fire rifle...

     
  • Zastava M92
    Zastava M92
    The Zastava M92 is a 7.62mm carbine developed and manufactured by Zastava Arms. The M92 was developed from the Zastava M85 carbine, a nearly identical weapon only chambered in the 5.56mm caliber.-Overview:...

     
  • M4 carbine
    M4 carbine
    The M4 carbine is a family of firearms tracing its lineage back to earlier carbine versions of the M16, all based on the original AR-15 designed by Eugene Stoner and made by ArmaLite. It is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle, with 80% parts commonality.It is a gas-operated,...

      sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package. Additional M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.
  • Heckler & Koch G36
    Heckler & Koch G36
    The Heckler & Koch G36 is a 5.56×45mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch in Germany as a replacement for the 7.62mm G3 battle rifle. It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3...

     , the Royal Special Forces
    Royal Special Forces
    The Royal Special Forces of the Jordanian Armed Forces were founded in 1963 on the orders of the late King Hussein Bin Talal. In the early 1970s Jordan's Special Forces were developed and assigned the tasks of reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, search and evacuation, combat, and the protection of...

     and Jordanian Special Operations Forces both employ the G36C.

MGs

  • FN Minimi
    FN Minimi
    The Minimi is a Belgian 5.56mm light machine gun developed by Fabrique Nationale in Herstal by Ernest Vervier. First introduced in 1974, it has entered service with the armed forces of over thirty countries...

      Belgium
  • FN MAG
    FN MAG
    The FN MAG is a Belgian 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, designed in the early 1950s at Fabrique Nationale by Ernest Vervier. It has been used by more than 80 countries, and it has been made under licence in countries such as Argentina, Egypt, India, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the...

      Belgium
  • M60 machine gun
    M60 machine gun
    The M60 is a family of American general-purpose machine guns firing 7.62×51mm NATO cartridges from a disintegrating belt of M13 links...

     
  • Browning M2HB 
  • Zastava M84
    Zastava M84
    The Zastava M84 is a 7.62mm general-purpose machine gun manufactured by Zastava Arms. The M84 is based on the PK machine gun. The M84 chambers the 7.62×54mmR round. It is gas-operated, air-cooled, belt-fed and fully automatic.-M84:...


External links