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Rotary International

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Rotary International is an organization of service club
Service club
A service club or service organization is a voluntary non-profit organization where members meet regularly to perform charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organizations. A service club is defined first by its service mission...

s known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. The stated purpose of the organization is to bring together business and professional leaders to provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. It is a secular
Secularity
Secularity is the state of being separate from religion.For instance, eating and bathing may be regarded as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them...

 organization open to all persons regardless of race, color, creed, gender, or political preference. There are 33,976 clubs and over 1.22 million members worldwide. The members of Rotary Clubs are known as Rotarians. Members usually meet weekly for breakfast, lunch or dinner, which is a social event as well as an opportunity to organize work on their service goals.

Rotary's best-known motto is "Service above Self", and its secondary motto is "They profit most who serve best".

Philosophy


The object of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster:
  1. The development of acquaintance as an opportunity for service;
  2. High ethical standards in business and professions, the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, and the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society;
  3. The application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal, business, and community life;
  4. The advancement of international understanding, goodwill, and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service.


This objective is set against the "Rotary 4-way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor
Herbert J. Taylor
Herbert J. Taylor was a business executive, civic leader and sponsor of Christian organizations who belonged to the United States of America. Taylor co-founded the Christian Workers Foundation in 1939...

 during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942. It is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management:
  • Is it the truth?
  • Is it fair to all concerned?
  • Will it build good will and better friendships?
  • Will it be beneficial to all concerned?

Early years


The first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. Harris
Paul P. Harris
Paul Percy Harris was a Chicago, Illinois, attorney best known for founding Rotary International in 1905, a service organization that currently has well over one million members worldwide.-Biography:...

 called together a meeting of three business acquaintances in downtown Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, at Harris' friend Sylvester Schiele's office in the Unity Building on Dearborn Street on February 23, 1905. In addition to Harris and Schiele (a coal merchant), Gustave E. Loehr (mines engineer), and Hiram E. Shorey (tailor) were the other two who attended this first meeting. The members chose the name Rotary because initially they rotated subsequent weekly club meetings to each other's offices, although within a year, the Chicago club became so large it became necessary to adopt the now-common practice of a regular meeting place.

The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, beginning with San Francisco
San Francisco, California
San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

, then Oakland
Oakland, California
Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

, Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, and Seattle. The National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910. On the 22nd February 1911 the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Dublin, Ireland. This was the first club established outside of North America. In April 1912, Rotary chartered a club in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, the name was changed to the International Association of Rotary Clubs in 1912.

In August 1912, the Rotary Club of London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

. It later became known that the Dublin club in Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered.

During World War I, Rotary in Britain increased from 9 to 22 clubs, and other early clubs in other nations included those in Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

 in 1916 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 in 1920.

In 1922, the name was changed to Rotary International. By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members.

War time


In Germany, no club had been formed before 1927, because of "opposition from the continental clubs". For a while after 1933, Rotary Clubs 'met with approval' of the Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 authorities and were considered to offer 'opportunity for party comrades ... to provide enlightenment regarding the nature and policy of the National Socialist movement'. The Nazis, although they saw international organizations as suspect, had authorised NSDAP members to be members of the Rotary through the Nazi Party's court rulings issued in 1933, 1934 and 1936. In 1937, more than half the rotarians were Nazi Party members.

Six German clubs were formed after Hitler came to power. They came under pressure almost immediately to expel their Jewish members.

Rotary clubs do not appear to have had a unified policy towards the Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 regime: while several German Rotary Clubs decided to disband their organizations in 1933, others practised a policy of appeasement
Appeasement
The term appeasement is commonly understood to refer to a diplomatic policy aimed at avoiding war by making concessions to another power. Historian Paul Kennedy defines it as "the policy of settling international quarrels by admitting and satisfying grievances through rational negotiation and...

 or collaborated
Collaboration
Collaboration is working together to achieve a goal. It is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, — for example, an intriguing endeavor that is creative in nature—by sharing...

. In Munich the club removed from its members' list a number of Rotarians, Jewish and non-Jewish, who were politically unacceptable for the regime, including Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual...

 (already in exile in Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

). Twelve members resigned in "sympathy with the expelled members".

Beginning 1937 however, hostile articles were published in the Nazi press about Rotary, comparing Rotary with Freemasonry
Freemasonry
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge...

. Soon after that, the perceived conflict resulted in two decisions which would jeopardize the existence of Rotary in Germany: in June 1937, the ministry of the interior
Interior minister
An interior ministry is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, national security, and immigration matters. The ministry is often headed by a minister of the interior or minister of home affairs...

 forbade civil servants
Civil service
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

 to be members of the Rotary; in July, the NSDAP's party court reversed its previous rulings and declared Party and Rotarian membership incompatible as from January 1938.

Rotary's cause was advocated before the NSDAP party court by Dr. Grill, Governor for the Rotary 73d district, arguing that the German Rotary was compliant with the goals of the Nazi government, had excluded Freemasons in 1933 and non-Aryans in 1936. Other attempts were made, also by foreign Rotarians, but appeasement failed this time, and, in September 1937, the 73rd district dissolved itself. Subsequently the charter of German clubs was withdrawn by Rotary International, although some clubs continued to meet 'privately'.

Rotary Clubs in Spain ceased to operate shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

.

Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows:
  • Austria (1938)
  • Italy (1939)
  • Czechoslovakia (1940)
  • Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Yugoslavia and Luxembourg (1941)
  • Hungary (1941/2)

From 1945 onwards


Rotary clubs in Eastern Europe and other communist-regime nations were disbanded by 1945-46, but new Rotary clubs were organised in many other countries, and by the time of the national independence movements in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, the new nations already had Rotary clubs. After the relaxation of government control of community groups in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and former Soviet satellite nations, Rotarians were welcomed as club organisers, and clubs were formed in those countries, beginning with the Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 club in 1990.

In 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunise all of the world's children against polio. As of 2011 Rotary has contributed more than 900 million US dollars to the cause, resulting in the immunisation of nearly two billion children worldwide.

As of 2006, Rotary has more than 1.2 million members in over 32,000 clubs among 200 countries and geographical areas, making it the most widespread by branches and second largest service club by membership, behind Lions Club International. The number of Rotarians has slightly declined in recent years: Between 2002 and 2006, they went from 1,245,000 to 1,223,000 members. North America accounts for 450,000 members, Asia for 300,000, Europe for 250,000, Latin America for 100,000, Oceania for 100,000 and Africa for 30,000.

Organization and administration



In order to carry out its service programs, Rotary is structured in club, district and international levels. Rotarians are members of their clubs. The clubs are chartered by the global organisation Rotary International (RI) headquartered in Evanston
Evanston, Illinois
Evanston is a suburban municipality in Cook County, Illinois 12 miles north of downtown Chicago, bordering Chicago to the south, Skokie to the west, and Wilmette to the north, with an estimated population of 74,360 as of 2003. It is one of the North Shore communities that adjoin Lake Michigan...

, a suburban city near Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

. For administrative purposes, the more than 32,000 clubs worldwide are grouped into 529 districts, and the districts into 34 zones.

Club



The Rotary Club is the basic unit of Rotary activity, and each club determines its own membership. Clubs originally were limited to a single club per city, municipality, or town, but Rotary International has encouraged the formation of one or more additional clubs in the largest cities when practical. Each club meets weekly, usually at a mealtime on a weekday in a regular location, when Rotarians can discuss club business and hear from guest speakers. Each club also conducts various service projects within its local community, and participates in special projects involving other clubs in the local district, and occasionally a special project in a "sister club" in another nation. Most clubs also hold social events at least quarterly and in some cases more often.

Each club elects its own president and officers among its active members for a one year term. The clubs enjoy considerable autonomy within the framework of the standard constitution and the constitution and bylaws of Rotary International. The governing body of the club is the Club Board, consisting of the club president (who serves as the Board chairman), a president-elect, club secretary, club treasurer, and several Club Board directors. In the majority of clubs, the immediate past president is also a member of the Board. The president usually appoints the directors to serve as chairs of the major club committees, including those responsible for club service, vocational service, community service, youth service, and international service.

District level


A district governor, who is an officer of Rotary International and represents the RI board of directors in the field, leads his/her respective Rotary district. Each governor is nominated by the clubs of his/her district, and elected by all the clubs meeting in the annual RI Convention held in a different country each year. The district governor appoints assistant governors from among the Rotarians of the district to assist in the management of Rotary activity and multi-club projects in the district.

Zone level


Approximately 15 Rotary districts form a zone. A zone director, who serves as a member of the RI board of directors, heads two zones. The zone director is nominated by the clubs in the zone and elected by the convention for the terms of two consecutive years.

Rotary International


Rotary International is governed by a board of directors composed of the international president, the president-elect, the general secretary, and 17 zone directors. The nomination and the election of each president is handled in the one-to-three year period before he takes office, and is based on requirements including geographical balance among Rotary zones and previous service as a district governor and board member. The international board meets quarterly to establish policies and make recommendations to the overall governing bodies, the RI Convention and the RI Council on Legislation.

The chief operating officer of RI is the general secretary, who heads a staff of about 600 people working at the international headquarters in Evanston
Evanston
Evanston may refer to locations:in Australia:* Evanston, South Australiain Canada:* Evanston, Calgary, a neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta* Evanston, Nova Scotiain the United States:...

 and in seven international offices around the world.

Membership


According to its constitutions ("Charters"), Rotary defines itself as a non-partisan, non-sectarian organization. It is open to business and professional leaders of all ages (18 and upwards) and economic status.

One can contact a Rotary club to inquire about membership but can join a rotary club only if invited; there is no provision to join without an invitation as each prospective Rotarian requires a sponsor who is an existing Rotarian. Some clubs, though not all, have exclusivist membership criteria: reputation and business or professional leadership may be a specific evaluation criterion for issuing invitations to join, and representation from a specific profession or business may be limited to a percentage of a specific club's membership.

Active membership


Active membership is by invitation from a current Rotarian, to professionals or businesspersons working in diverse areas of endeavour. Each club may limit up to ten percent of its membership representing each business or profession in the area it serves. The goal of the clubs is to promote service to the community they work in, as well as to the wider world. Many projects are organised for the local community by a single club, but some are organised globally.

Honorary membership


Honorary membership is given by election of a Rotary Club to people who have distinguished themselves by meritorious service in the furtherance of Rotary ideals. Honorary membership is conferred only in exceptional cases. Honorary members are exempt from the payment of admission fees and dues. They have no voting privileges and are not eligible to hold any office in their club. Honorary membership is time limited and terminates automatically at the end of the term, usually one year. It may be extended for an additional period or may also be revoked at any time. Examples of honorary members are heads of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 or former heads of state, famous scientist
Scientist
A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word...

s or other famous people.

Female membership



From 1905 until the 1980s, women were not allowed membership in Rotary clubs, although Rotarian spouses, including Paul Harris' wife, were often members of the similar "Inner Wheel" club. Women did play some roles, and Paul Harris' wife made numerous speeches. In 1963, it was noted that the Rotary practice of involving wives in club activities had helped to break down female seclusion in some countries. Clubs such as Rotary had long been predated by women's voluntary organisations, which started in the United States as early as 1790.

The first Irish clubs discussed admitting women as members in 1912, but the proposal foundered over issues of social class. Gender equity in Rotary moved beyond the theoretical question when in 1976, the Rotary Club of Duarte in Duarte, California
Duarte, California
Duarte is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 21,321, down from 21,486 at the 2000 census....

 admitted three women as members. After this club refused to remove the women from membership, in 1978 Rotary International revoked the club's charter. The Duarte club filed suit in the California courts, claiming that Rotary Clubs are business establishments subject to regulation under California's Unruh Civil Rights Act
Unruh Civil Rights Act
The Unruh Civil Rights Act is a piece of California legislation that specifically outlaws discrimination based on age, sex, race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, disability, medical condition, marital status, or sexual orientation...

, which bans discrimination based on race, gender, religion or ethnic origin. Rotary International then appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court. The RI attorney argued that "... [the decision] threatens to force us to take in everyone, like a motel". The Duarte Club was not alone in opposing RI leadership; the Seattle-International District club unanimously voted to admit women in 1986. The United States Supreme Court, on May 4, 1987, confirmed the Californian decision. Rotary International then removed the gender requirements from its requirements for club charters, and most clubs in most countries have opted to include women as members of Rotary Clubs. The first female club president to be elected was Silvia Whitlock of the Rotary Club of Duarte, California, USA in 1987. By 2007, there was a female trustee of Rotary's charitable wing The Rotary Foundation while female district governors and club presidents were common. Women currently account for 15% of international Rotary membership (22% in North America).

The change of the second Rotarian motto in 2004, from "He profits most who serves best" to "They profit most who serve best", 99 years after its foundation, illustrates the move to general acceptance of women members in Rotary.

Minority membership


Rotary and other service clubs in the last decade of the 20th century became open to homosexual membership. Other minorities, in the face of general changes in demographics and declining membership, are also encouraged to join. There have been efforts to reach out to minority communities, such as Oakland, California
Oakland, California
Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

's $10,000 scholarships for students in inner-city schools. Another example is the Reynolda Rotary club of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, which has partnered with an elementary school with primarily minority students.

Programs


The programs of Rotary are so diverse as to all but defy categorisation.

In addition, there are the programs of The Rotary Foundation
Rotary Foundation
The Rotary Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation that supports the efforts of Rotary International to achieve world understanding and peace through international humanitarian, educational, and cultural exchange programs...

, which include educational, humanitarian and fellowship and vocational exchanges.

Interact



Interact is Rotary International’s service club for young people ages 12 to 18. Interact clubs are sponsored by individual Rotary clubs, which provide support and guidance, but they are self-governing and self-supporting.

Club membership varies greatly. Clubs can be single gender or mixed, large or small. They can draw from the student body of a single school or from two or more schools in the same community.

Each year, Interact clubs complete at least two community service projects, one of which furthers international understanding and goodwill. Through these efforts, Interactors develop a network of friendships with local and overseas clubs and learn the importance of

Developing leadership skills and personal integrity
Demonstrating helpfulness and respect for others
Understanding the value of individual responsibility and hard work
Advancing international understanding and goodwill
As one of the most significant and fastest-growing programs of Rotary service, with more than 10,700 clubs in 109 countries and geographical areas, Interact has become a worldwide phenomenon. Almost 200,000 young people are involved in Interact.

PolioPlus



The most notable current global project, PolioPlus, is contributing to the global eradication of polio. Since beginning the project in 1985, Rotarians have contributed over US$850 million and tens of thousands of volunteer-hours, leading to the inoculation of more than two billion of the world's children. Inspired by Rotary's commitment, the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

 (WHO) passed a resolution in 1988 to eradicate polio by 2000. Now a partner in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) with WHO, UNICEF and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services headquartered in Druid Hills, unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, in Greater Atlanta...

, Rotary is recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 as the key private partner in the eradication effort.

In 2008, Rotary received a $100 million challenge grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Rotary committed to raising $100 million. In January 2009, Bill Gates
Bill Gates
William Henry "Bill" Gates III is an American business magnate, investor, philanthropist, and author. Gates is the former CEO and current chairman of Microsoft, the software company he founded with Paul Allen...

 announced a second challenge grant of $255 million. Rotary again committed to raising another $100 million. In total, Rotary will raise $200 million by June 30, 2012. Together, the Gates Foundation and Rotary have committed $555 million toward the eradication of polio. At the time of the second challenge grant, Bill Gates said:
"We know that it’s a formidable challenge to eradicate a disease that has killed and crippled children since at least the time of the ancient Egyptians. We don’t know exactly when the last child will be affected. But we do have the vaccines to wipe it out. Countries do have the will to deploy all the tools at their disposal. If we all have the fortitude to see this effort through to the end, then we will eradicate polio."


There has been some limited criticism concerning the program for polio eradication. There are some reservations regarding the adaptation capabilities of the virus in some of the oral vaccines, which have been reported to cause infection in populations with low vaccination coverage. As stated by Vaccine Alliance, however, in spite of the limited risk of polio vaccination, it would neither be prudent nor practicable to cease the vaccination program until there is strong evidence that "all wild poliovirus transmission [has been] stopped". In a recent speech at the Rotary International Convention, held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Bruce Cohick stated that polio in all its known wild forms will be eliminated by late 2008, provided efforts in Nigeria
Nigeria
Nigeria , officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in...

, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, and India all proceed with their current momentum.

Exchanges and scholarships


Some of Rotary's most visible programs include Rotary Youth Exchange
Rotary Youth Exchange
Rotary Youth Exchange is a Rotary International student exchange program for students in secondary school. Since 1929, Rotary International has sent young people around the globe to experience new cultures...

, a student exchange program
Student exchange program
A student exchange program generally could be defined as a program where students from secondary school or university choose to study abroad in partner institutions...

 for students in secondary education
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

, and the Rotary Foundation's oldest program, Ambassadorial Scholarships
Ambassadorial Scholarships
Ambassadorial Scholarships is the oldest program of the Rotary Foundation and probably the best-known. Since 1947, nearly 38,000 men and women from about 100 nations have studied abroad under its auspices. Today it is the world's largest privately funded international scholarships program. Nearly...

. Today, there are six different types of Rotary Scholarships
Rotary Scholarships
Rotary International offers a number of scholarships worldwide for periods of 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years.- Ambassadorial Mission :The purpose of the Ambassadorial Scholarship is to further international understanding and friendly relations among people of different countries...

. More than 38,000 men and women from 100 nations have studied abroad under the auspices of Ambassadorial Scholarship, and today it is the world's largest privately funded international scholarships program. In 2006-07 grants totaling approximately US$15 million were used to award some 800 scholarships to recipients from 69 countries who studied in 64 nations.
The Exchange Students of Rotary Club Munich International publish their experiences on a regular basis on Rotary Youth Exchange with Germany. In July 2009 the Rotary Foundation ended funding for the Cultural and Multi-Year Ambassadorial Scholarships as well as Rotary Grants for University Teachers.

Rotary Fellowships, paid by the foundation launched in honor of Paul Harris in 1947, specialize in providing graduate fellowships around the world, usually in countries other than their own in order to provide international exposure and experience to the recipient. Recently, a new program was established known as the Rotary peace and Conflict Resolution program which provides funds for two years of graduate study in one of eight universitites around the world. Rotary is naming about seventy five of these scholars each year. The applications for these scholarships are found on line but each application must be endorsed by a local Rotary Club. Children and other close relatives of Rotarians are not eligible.

Rotary Centers for International Studies


Starting in 2002, The Rotary Foundation partnered with eight universities around the world to create the Rotary Centers for International Studies in peace and conflict resolution. The universities include International Christian University
International Christian University
There are several rankings related to ICU, shown below.-Alumni rankings:According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 2006/10/16, graduates from ICU have the 24th best employment rate in 400 major companies, and their average graduate salary is the 4th best in...

 (Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

), University of Queensland
University of Queensland
The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

 (Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

), Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) (France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

), University of Bradford
University of Bradford
The University of Bradford is a British university located in the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The University received its Royal Charter in 1966, making it the 40th University to be created in Britain, but its origins date back to the early 1800s...

 (United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

), Universidad del Salvador
Universidad del Salvador
The Universidad del Salvador is a Jesuit university in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In addition to its main Campus, it has instructional and research facilities in Pilar, Buenos Aires; San Miguel, Buenos Aires; Santa Cruz, Misiones; and Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires...

 (Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States...

 (U.S.), Duke University
Duke University
Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco industrialist James B...

 (U.S.), Chulalongkorn University
Chulalongkorn University
Chulalongkorn University is the oldest university in Thailand and is the country's highest ranked university. It now has nineteen faculties and institutes. Regarded as the best and most selective university in Thailand, it consistently attracts top students from around the country...

 (Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

) and University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

 (U.S.) Since then, the Rotary Foundation's Board of Trustees has dropped its association with the Center in France at the Paris Institute of Political Studies and is currently ending its association with the University of California, Berkeley.

Rotary World Peace Fellows complete two year masters level programs in conflict resolution, peace studies, and international relations. The first class graduated in 2004. As with many such university programs in "peace and conflict studies", questions have been raised concerning political bias and controversial grants. As of August 2006, the Rotary Foundation had spent $18 million on its "peace and conflict" Centers, and the average grant was about $60,000 per enrollee in the two-year program.

In 2004, Fellows established the Rotary World Peace Fellows Association to promote interaction among Fellows, Rotarians, and the public on issues related to peace studies.

Literacy programs


Rotary clubs worldwide place a focus on increasing literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

. Such importance has been placed on literacy that Rotary International has created a “Rotary Literacy Month” that takes place during the month of March. Rotary clubs also aim to conduct many literacy events during the week of September 8, which is International Literacy Day
International Literacy Day
September 8 was proclaimed International Literacy Day by UNESCO on November 17, 1965. It was first celebrated in 1966. Its aim is to highlight the importance of literacy to individuals, communities and societies. On International Literacy Day each year, UNESCO reminds the international community of...

. Some Rotary clubs raise funds for schools and other literacy organizations. Many clubs take part in a reading program called "Rotary Readers," in which a Rotary member spends time in a classroom
Classroom
A classroom is a room in which teaching or learning activities can take place. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, including public and private schools, corporations, and religious and humanitarian organizations...

 with a designated student, and reads one-on-one with them. As well as raising funds and reading with children, some Rotary clubs participate in book donations, both locally and internationally.

Rotaract


Rotaract
Rotaract
Rotaract originally began as a Rotary International youth programme in 1968 and has now grown into a major Rotary-sponsored organisation of over 8,700 clubs spread around the world and 200,000 + members. It is a service, leadership and community service organisation for young men and women between...

: a service club for young men and women aged 18 to 30 with around 200,000 members in 8,700 clubs in 171 countries. Rotaract clubs are either community or university based, and they are sponsored by a local Rotary club. This makes them true "partners in service" and key members of the family of Rotary.

Rotary Community Corps


The Rotary Community Corps (RCC) is a volunteer organization with an estimated 157,000 non-Rotarian men and women in over 6,800 communities in 78 countries.

Individual club efforts


While there are numerous Rotary-wide efforts, Rotary clubs are also encouraged to take part in local ventures; In a more unusual twist, Rosalie Maguire, a Batavia
Batavia (city), New York
Batavia is a city in Genesee County, Western New York, USA, located near the middle of Genesee County, entirely within the Town of Batavia. Its population as of the 2000 census was 16,256...

, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, Rotarian, taking a cue from Calendar Girls
Calendar Girls
Calendar Girls is a 2003 comedy film directed by Nigel Cole. Produced by Buena Vista International and Touchstone Pictures, it features a screenplay by Tim Firth and Juliette Towhidi based on a true story of a group of Yorkshire women who produced a nude calendar to raise money for Leukaemia...

 convinced fellow members (a man for each month and a male cover) to pose for a "nude" calendar sold as part of a $250,000 fundraiser for a local hospital. Members are occasionally assessed mock "fines" for minor infractions as a way of raising funds: these fines could, in 1951, range from 10 cents to $1,000. Some clubs have "Happy Dollars" or "Happy Bucks" which include paying a dollar for the right to tell a story to the club.

Weekly club meetings



Rotary Clubs usually meet weekly at a set location and time and are an opportunity for Rotarians (members) and visitors to enjoy a meal together, discuss community affairs, engage in networking, and socialize. Most of the original Rotary clubs met at lunchtime (midday), but evening/dinner clubs became popular in many countries, and beginning in the 1970s, a number of Rotary clubs were started as breakfast clubs.

Meetings are led by the club president and usually start with the ringing of a bell. Some clubs continue the tradition of group singing, with members singing patriotic, local theme, holiday-theme, and/or Rotary-specific theme songs. Many clubs have a group prayer, invocation, or thought for the day, followed by a meal. Announcements about upcoming activities are typical of these meetings, and in some clubs, members contribute money to the club service fund by way of "fines" for accomplishments or special occasions. Most clubs have a featured speaker, usually a guest, and quite frequently, a prominent figure, government official, or interesting personality. The president usually closes the meeting with a final ringing of the bell.

A long-standing Rotary tradition is to encourage all members to attend meetings every week, or at least as often as possible. Rotarians get credit for attending meetings of other clubs (called "make-ups") at any time during the week preceding or following the missed meeting of his/her own club. When traveling, Rotarians will often exchange miniature club banners with the presidents of the clubs being visited.

Official and regional Rotary magazines


Rotary International's unique communications media are the official monthly magazine named The Rotarian published in English language by the headquarters, and 30 other regional Rotary World Magazine Press periodicals that are independently produced in more than 20 different major languages and distributed in 130 countries.

The first official magazine The National Rotarian,
predecessor to The Rotarian, was started in January 1911. The first regional magazine was issued 1915 in Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 and Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

.

There is another official magazine of the Rotary Clubs for Great Britain and Ireland called Rotary Today. This is a bi-monthly publication distributed to each of the 60,000 Rotarians in Great Britain and Ireland at the members' meetings.

The official and regional magazines are circulated to Rotarian and non-Rotarian subscribers. The combined circulation is more than 700,000 copies.

Club bulletin


Rotary clubs issue weekly a bulletin full of Rotary news from recent meetings. Aside from meeting information and the name list of club directors and officers, the club bulletin contains club president's message, a summary of guest speaker's presentation, club projects and service activities, upcoming events, announcements and reminders for the members. It is circulated to the club members in printed form, however more and more clubs go paperless by publishing the club bulletin electronically.

District governor's newsletter


District governors publish monthly a newsletter reporting service activities conducted by the clubs within the district and various district level meetings. The newsletter contains also district governor's message and lists also the membership and attendance figures of all district clubs. It is circulated to every Rotarian in the district.

Official stamps


Rotary International has been honoured by more than 130 countries through more than 2,000 commemorative stamps, souvenir sheets and special cancellation marks throughout the years. The latest Rotary stamp issue marks the 100th Anniversary of the Rotary International in Canada World Stamp News

Popular culture

  • Rotary International was portrayed in Steven Spielberg's
    Steven Spielberg
    Steven Allan Spielberg KBE is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as an...

     film Catch Me If You Can
    Catch Me If You Can
    Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 American biographical comedy-drama film based on the life of Frank Abagnale Jr., who, before his 19th birthday, successfully performed cons worth millions of dollars by posing as a Pan American World Airways pilot, a Georgia doctor, and a Louisiana parish prosecutor...

    . Frank Abagnale Jr.'s
    Frank Abagnale
    Frank William Abagnale, Jr. is an American security consultant known for his history as a former confidence trickster, check forger, impostor, and escape artist...

     (played by Leonardo DiCaprio
    Leonardo DiCaprio
    Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio is an American actor and film producer. He has received many awards, including a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Aviator , and has been nominated by the Academy Awards, Screen Actors Guild and the British Academy of Film and Television...

     in the film) father, Frank William Abagnale (played by Christopher Walken
    Christopher Walken
    Christopher Walken is an American stage and screen actor. He has appeared in more than 100 movies and television shows, including Joe Dirt, Annie Hall, The Deer Hunter, The Prophecy trilogy, The Dogs of War, Sleepy Hollow, Brainstorm, The Dead Zone, A View to a Kill, At Close Range, King of New...

    ) was a lifetime Rotarian in the film because he was a hero in World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    .

  • The Italian song "Rotary Club of Malindi", which had a relative success on the world-music scene, speaks of an organization for "white people in depression".

  • In the 3rd season of the television show Desperate Housewives
    Desperate Housewives
    Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series created by Marc Cherry and produced by ABC Studios and Cherry Productions. Executive producer Cherry serves as Showrunner. Other executive producers since the fourth season include Marc Cherry, Bob Daily, George W...

    , Gabrielle attends Victor Lang's Rotary Club meeting in his ex-wife's couture dress.

  • Stephen King
    Stephen King
    Stephen Edwin King is an American author of contemporary horror, suspense, science fiction and fantasy fiction. His books have sold more than 350 million copies and have been adapted into a number of feature films, television movies and comic books...

    ’s novella, “The Library Policeman
    The Library Policeman
    The Library Policeman is a novella by author Stephen King. It is the third story in his 1990 collection Four Past Midnight.It tells of Sam Peebles and his battle against an age-old fear.-Plot summary:...

    ”, centers on Sam Peebles, a small town insurance agent who is called upon on short notice to give a speech to his Rotary Club on “The Importance of the Independently Owned Business in Small-town Life”.

  • In season four episode five of the Larry David show "Curb Your Enthusiasm", titled "The 5 Wood", David is trying to gain entrance into a club whose members were generally non-Jewish Republicans. In the interview David makes up many lies about himself, one of which being that he is a member of the Rotary Club.

  • In the dual episode "Hole in the Heart" of series three of the Australian comedy TV series Frontline
    Frontline (Australian TV series)
    Frontline is an Australian comedy television series which satirised Australian television current affairs programmes and reporting. It ran for three series of 13 half-hour episodes and was broadcast on ABC TV in 1994, 1995 and 1997.-Production:...

    , the host Mike Moore and producer try to get all the credit after Rotary bring a young boy from Papua New Guinea to Melbourne, Australia for a life-saving operation.

  • In season four, episode two of the US version of The Office, branch manager Michael Scott
    Michael Scott (The Office)
    Michael Gary Scott is a fictional character on NBC's The Office, portrayed by Steve Carell, and based on David Brent from the original British version. Michael, the central character of the series, was the manager of the Scranton branch of paper and printer distribution company Dunder Mifflin Inc...

     holds one of his notorious seminars which this one focusing on ageism in the workplace. He introduces the surviving founder of the Dunder-Mifflin paper company, who mentions that he met the late co-founder when they were in the Rotary Club.

  • In the 2009 film "Extract
    Extract (film)
    Extract is a 2009 American comedy film written and directed by Mike Judge. Extract stars Jason Bateman, Mila Kunis, Kristen Wiig, Dustin Milligan, J. K. Simmons, and Ben Affleck. Judge also makes an uncredited appearance as 'Jim', a union organizer....

    ", Nathan repeatedly invites his neighbor Joel to a dinner held by his local Rotary Club.

  • In the March 29, 1990 episode of the U.S. television show "L.A. Law
    L.A. Law
    L.A. Law is a US television legal drama that ran on NBC from September 15, 1986 to May 19, 1994. L.A. Law reflected the social and cultural ideologies of the 1980s and early 1990s and many of the cases featured on the show dealt with hot topic issues such as abortion, racism, gay rights,...

    ", character Stuart Markowitz calls another character a "fat-assed Rotarian."

List of world club presidents

  • 1910-11 Paul P. Harris
    Paul P. Harris
    Paul Percy Harris was a Chicago, Illinois, attorney best known for founding Rotary International in 1905, a service organization that currently has well over one million members worldwide.-Biography:...

     (Chicago, Illinois)
  • 1911-12 Paul P. Harris
    Paul P. Harris
    Paul Percy Harris was a Chicago, Illinois, attorney best known for founding Rotary International in 1905, a service organization that currently has well over one million members worldwide.-Biography:...

     (Chicago, Illinois)
  • 1912-13 Glenn C. Mead (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
  • 1913-14 Russel F. Greiner (Kansas City, Missouri)
  • 1914-15 Frank L. Mulholland (Toledo, Ohio)
  • 1915-16 Allen D. Albert (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
  • 1916-17 Arch C. Klumph (Cleveland, Ohio)
  • 1917-18 E. Leslie Pidgeon (Winnipeg, Manitoba)
  • 1918-19 John Poole (Washington, D.C)
  • 1919-20 Albert S. Adams (Atlanta, Georgia)
  • 1920-21 Estes Snedecor (Portland, Oregon)
  • 1921-22 Crawford C. McCullough (Fort William, Ontario)
  • 1922-23 Raymond M. Havens (Kansas City, Missouri)
  • 1923-24 Guy Gundaker (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
  • 1924-25 Everett W. Hill (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma)
  • 1925-26 Donald A. Adams (New Haven, Connecticut)
  • 1926-27 Harry H. Rogers (San Antonio, Texas)
  • 1927-28 Arthur H. Sapp (Huntington, Indiana)
  • 1928-29 I. B. Tom Sutton (Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico)
  • 1929-30 M. Eugene Newsom (Durham, North Carolina)
  • 1930-31 Almon E. Roth (Palo Alto, California)
  • 1931-32 Sydney W. Pascall (London, England)
  • 1932-33 Clinton P. Anderson (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
  • 1933-34 John Nelson (Montreal, Quebec)
  • 1934-35 Robert E. Lee Hill (Columbia, Missouri)
  • 1935-36 Ed. R. Johnson (Roanoke, Virginia)
  • 1936-37 Will R. Manier, Jr. (Nashville, Tennessee)
  • 1937-38 Maurice Dupperey (Paris, France)
  • 1938-39 George C. Hager (Chicago, Illinois)
  • 1939-40 Walter D. Head (Teaneck, New Jersey)
  • 1940-41 Armando de Arruda Pereira (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • 1941-42 Tom J. Davis (Butte,Montana)
  • 1942-43 Fernando Carbajal (Lima, Peru)
  • 1943-44 Charles L. Wheeler (San Francisco, California)
  • 1944-45 Richard H. Wells (Pocatello, Idaho)
  • 1945-46 Thomas A. Warren (Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, England)
  • 1946-47 Richard C. Hedke (Detroit, Michigan)
  • 1947-48 S. Kendrick Guernsey (Jacksonville, Florida)
  • 1948-49 Angus S. Mitchell (Melbourne, Victoria)
  • 1949-50 Percy Hodgson (Pawtucket, Rhode Island)
  • 1950-51 Arthur Lagueux (Quebec City, Quebec)
  • 1951-52 Frank E. Spain (Birmingham, Alabama)
  • 1952-53 H.J. Brunnier (San Francisco, California)
  • 1953-54 Joaquin Serratosa Cibils (Montevideo, Uruguay)
  • 1954-55 Herbert J. Taylor
    Herbert J. Taylor
    Herbert J. Taylor was a business executive, civic leader and sponsor of Christian organizations who belonged to the United States of America. Taylor co-founded the Christian Workers Foundation in 1939...

     (Chicago, Illinois)
  • 1955-56 A.Z. Baker (Cleveland, Ohio)
  • 1956-57 Gian Paolo Lang (Livorno, Italy)
  • 1957-58 Charles G. Tennent (Asheville, North Carolina)
  • 1958-59 Clifford A. Randall (Milwaukee, Wisconsin)
  • 1959-60 Harold T. Thomas (Auckland, New Zealand)
  • 1960-61 J. Edd McLaughlin (Dallas, Texas)
  • 1961-62 Joseph A. Abey (Reading, Pennsylvania)
  • 1962-63 Nitish C. Laharry (Calcutta, West Bengal)
  • 1963-64 Carl P. Miller (Los Angeles, California)
  • 1964-65 Charles W. Pettengill (Greenwich, Connecticut)
  • 1965-66 C.P.H. Teenstra (Hilversum, The Netherlands)
  • 1966-67 Richard L. Evans
    Richard L. Evans
    Richard Louis Evans was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the president of Rotary International , and the writer, producer, and announcer of Music and the Spoken Word for forty-one years .He received a BA and MA from the University...

     (Salt Lake City, Utah)
  • 1967-68 Luther H. Hodges
    Luther H. Hodges
    Luther Hartwell Hodges, Sr. was an American politician, who served as the 64th Governor of the state of North Carolina from 1954 to 1961 and as United States Secretary of Commerce from 1961 to 1965.-Biography:...

     (Chapel Hill, North Carolina)
  • 1968-69 Kiyoshi Togasaki (Tokyo, Japan)
  • 1969-70 James F. Conway (Rockville Center, New York)
  • 1970-71 William E. Walk, Jr. (Ontario, California)
  • 1971-72 Ernst G. Breitholtz (Kalmar, Sweden)
  • 1972-73 Roy D. Hickman (Birmingham, Alabama)
  • 1973-74 William C. Carter (Battersea, London)
  • 1974-75 William R. Robbins (Miami, Florida)
  • 1975-76 Ernesto Imbassahy de Mello (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro)
  • 1976-77 Robert A. Manchester II (Youngstown, Ohio)
  • 1977-78 W. Jack Davis (Hamilton, Bermuda)
  • 1978-79 Clem Renouf (Nambour, Queensland)
  • 1979-80 James L. Bomar, Jr. (Shelbyville, Tennessee)
  • 1980-81 Rolf J. Klärich (Helsinki-Helsingfors, Finland)
  • 1981-82 Stanley E. McCaffrey (Stockton, California)
  • 1982-83 Hiroji Mukasa (Nakatsu, Oita, Japan)
  • 1983-84 William E. Skelton (Christiansburg and Blacksburg, Virginia)
  • 1984-85 Carlos Canseco
    Carlos Canseco
    Dr. Carlos Canseco González was a Mexican physician and philanthropist. In January 2002 he was honored as one of the "Public Health Heroes of the Americas" by the Pan American Health Organization.Carlos Canseco graduated from the National Autonomous University of Mexico with a doctorate in...

     (Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico)
  • 1985-86 Edward F. Cadman (Wenatchee, Washington)
  • 1986-87 M.A.T. Caparas (Manila, Philippines)
  • 1987-88 Charles C. Keller (California, Pennsylvania)
  • 1988-89 Royce Abbey (Essendon, Victoria)
  • 1989-90 Hugh M. Archer (Dearborn, Michigan)
  • 1990-91 Paulo V.C. Costa (Santos, São Paulo)
  • 1991-92 Rajendra K. Saboo (Union Territory of Chandigarh, India)
  • 1992-93 Clifford L. Dochterman (Moraga, California)
  • 1993-94 Robert Barth (Aarau, Switzerland)
  • 1994-95 Bill Huntley (Alford & Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire, England)
  • 1995-96 Herbert G. Brown (Clearwater, Florida)
  • 1996-97 Luis Vicente Giay (Arecifes, Buenos Aires)
  • 1997-98 Glen W. Kinross (Hamilton, Brisbane, Queensland)
  • 1998-99 James L. Lacy (Cookeville, Tennessee)
  • 1999-2000 Carlo Ravizza (Milano South-West, Italy)
  • 2000-01 Frank J. Devlyn (Anáhuac, Distrito Federal, Mexico)
  • 2001-02 Richard D. King (Fremont (Niles), California)
  • 2002-03 Bhichai Rattakul (Dhonburi, Thailand)
  • 2003-04 Jonathan B. Majiyabe (Kano, Nigeria)
  • 2004-05 Glen E. Estess, Sr. (Shades Valley, Alabama)
  • 2005-06 Carl-Wilhelm Stenhammar (Göteborg, Sweden)
  • 2006-07 William B. Boyd (Pakuranga, Auckland)
  • 2007-08 Wilfrid J. Wilkinson (Trenton, Ontario)
  • 2008-09 Dong Kurn Lee (Seoul, South Korea)
  • 2009-10 John Kenny (Grangemouth, Scotland)
  • 2010-11 Ray Klinginsmith (Kirksville, Missouri)
  • 2011-12 Kalyan Banerjee
    Kalyan Banerjee
    Kalyan Banerjee is President of Rotary International, one of the largest humanitarian service organizations in the world. He took office on July 1, 2011. He took over from Ray Klinginsmith. He leads a world wide network of 1.2 million individuals from more than 200 countries and geographical...

    (Vapi, Gujarat, India)

External links