Roseland, Chicago

Roseland, Chicago

Overview

Roseland, located on the far south side of the city, is one of the 77 official community areas
Community areas of Chicago
Community areas in Chicago refers to the work of the Social Science Research Committee at University of Chicago which has unofficially divided the City of Chicago into 77 community areas. These areas are well-defined and static...

 of Chicago, Illinois. It includes the neighborhoods of Fernwood
Fernwood, Chicago
Fernwood, is an area on the western edge of Roseland community of the City of Chicago, between 99th and 103rd streets. It was considered an "upscale" neighborhood of Roseland and extended west into the Washington Heights community up to Halsted street. Sometimes referred to as West Roseland, it...

, Princeton Park
Princeton Park
Located in the Northwest corner of Roseland community of the City of Chicago, Princeton Park is a community of single family homes built in 1944. Originally, it was a subdivision of low cost multi-family row houses between 91st and 95th streets and Wentworth and Harvard streets. The eastern...

, Lilydale
Lilydale, Chicago
Lilydale was a small enclave of modest homes in the northwest corner of Roseland that represents a microcosm of African-American self determination. In the 1920s and '30s the thinly populated area was referred to as little more than a "cabbage patch"...

, West Chesterfield, Rosemoor, Sheldon Heights and West Roseland. Roseland was settled in the 1840s by Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 immigrants who called the area "de Hooge Prairie", the High Prairie because it was built on higher, drier ground than the earlier Dutch settlement several miles further south of the Little Calumet River which was called "de Laage Prairie", the Low Prairie, now South Holland, Illinois
South Holland, Illinois
South Holland is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States and serves as the seat of Thornton Township. The population was 22,147 at the 2000 census.-History:...

.

The community was entirely agrarian until the late 19th century when the town of Pullman, Chicago
Pullman, Chicago
Pullman, one of Chicago's 77 community areas, is a neighborhood located on the city's South Side. Twelve miles from the Chicago Loop, Pullman is situated adjacent Lake Calumet....

 was built between Roseland and Lake Calumet
Lake Calumet
Lake Calumet is the largest body of water within the city of Chicago. Formerly a shallow, postglacial lake draining into Lake Michigan, it has been changed beyond recognition by industrial redevelopment and decay...

.
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Roseland, located on the far south side of the city, is one of the 77 official community areas
Community areas of Chicago
Community areas in Chicago refers to the work of the Social Science Research Committee at University of Chicago which has unofficially divided the City of Chicago into 77 community areas. These areas are well-defined and static...

 of Chicago, Illinois. It includes the neighborhoods of Fernwood
Fernwood, Chicago
Fernwood, is an area on the western edge of Roseland community of the City of Chicago, between 99th and 103rd streets. It was considered an "upscale" neighborhood of Roseland and extended west into the Washington Heights community up to Halsted street. Sometimes referred to as West Roseland, it...

, Princeton Park
Princeton Park
Located in the Northwest corner of Roseland community of the City of Chicago, Princeton Park is a community of single family homes built in 1944. Originally, it was a subdivision of low cost multi-family row houses between 91st and 95th streets and Wentworth and Harvard streets. The eastern...

, Lilydale
Lilydale, Chicago
Lilydale was a small enclave of modest homes in the northwest corner of Roseland that represents a microcosm of African-American self determination. In the 1920s and '30s the thinly populated area was referred to as little more than a "cabbage patch"...

, West Chesterfield, Rosemoor, Sheldon Heights and West Roseland. Roseland was settled in the 1840s by Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 immigrants who called the area "de Hooge Prairie", the High Prairie because it was built on higher, drier ground than the earlier Dutch settlement several miles further south of the Little Calumet River which was called "de Laage Prairie", the Low Prairie, now South Holland, Illinois
South Holland, Illinois
South Holland is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States and serves as the seat of Thornton Township. The population was 22,147 at the 2000 census.-History:...

.

The community was entirely agrarian until the late 19th century when the town of Pullman, Chicago
Pullman, Chicago
Pullman, one of Chicago's 77 community areas, is a neighborhood located on the city's South Side. Twelve miles from the Chicago Loop, Pullman is situated adjacent Lake Calumet....

 was built between Roseland and Lake Calumet
Lake Calumet
Lake Calumet is the largest body of water within the city of Chicago. Formerly a shallow, postglacial lake draining into Lake Michigan, it has been changed beyond recognition by industrial redevelopment and decay...

. George M. Pullman planned a model industrial city built around a factory that manufactured his "Palace" railway coaches. Modern brick homes were built with electricity, plumbing and gas utilities. Skilled tradesmen from all over Europe immigrated to the town of Pullman with many settling in nearby Roseland. Roseland was annexed into Chicago in 1892. The Roseland area became a very cosmopolitan community made up of multi cultural, ethnic and racial backgrounds. There was large population of Italian American
Italian American
An Italian American , is an American of Italian ancestry. The designation may also refer to someone possessing Italian and American dual citizenship...

s just east of Roseland in the Kensington community. Most came to the area from the Little Italy neighborhood on Taylor Street making Kensington the center of South Side Italian life. San Antonia de Padua (St. Anthony's) cathedral was a cultural landmark of the area. Supporting businesses flourished rapidly changing the farmland into commercial and residential communities surrounded by a number of industries. Stores on Michigan Avenue served the entire south side of Chicago.

Fortunes began to change in the 1960s when industry patterns lead to economic decline. Steel mills to the east were shuttered. Pullman scaled back production and eventually closed for good in 1981. The huge Sherwin-Williams paint factory closed for good in 1980. A period of rapid ethnic succession took place. Skyrocketing crime rates, gang violence and urban decay forced long time residents and businesses to move away, a phenomenon referred to as white flight
White flight
White flight has been a term that originated in the United States, starting in the mid-20th century, and applied to the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions. It was first seen as...

. Some new residents purchased homes with federal subsidies and FHA backed mortgages and by the mid-1980s Roseland had one of the highest HUD
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, also known as HUD, is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government...

 repossession rates in the city. In the mid-1990s, Roseland gained notoriety as the stomping ground of Robert "Yummy" Sandifer, the child who was executed by his gang at age eleven. Much needed economic and social revival remains elusive.

The much lauded mural
Mural
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A particularly distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.-History:Murals of...

 "I Welcome Myself to a New Place: Roseland Pullman Mural," by Olivia Gude, Jon Pounds, and Marcus Jefferson, 1988, was designed to unite the predominantly African American community of Roseland with its nearest neighbor, the predominantly white Pullman community.

Roseland has yet to recover from the economic decline and gang violence. Community leaders and residents are attempting to restore the community.

Education


Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools, commonly abbreviated as CPS by local residents and politicians and officially classified as City of Chicago School District #299 for funding and districting reasons, is a large school district that manages over 600 public elementary and high schools in Chicago, Illinois...

 operates public schools.

K-8 schools in Roseland and serving sections of Roseland include Bennett, Cullen, Curtis, Dunne, Gillespie, Haley, L. Hughes, Kohn, and Lavizzo. K-8 Schools outside of Roseland and serving sections of Roseland include Evers, Fernwood, Pullman, Ryder, and Smith.

Two high schools, Fenger High School and Harlan High School, are located in Roseland and serve Roseland. Some Roseland residents are zoned to Corliss High School
Corliss High School
George Henry Corliss High School is a public 4-year high school located in Pullman neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is part of the Chicago Public Schools. The school is named in the honor of engineer George Henry Corliss. The school's sports teams are nicknamed the Trojans...

 in Pullman
Pullman, Chicago
Pullman, one of Chicago's 77 community areas, is a neighborhood located on the city's South Side. Twelve miles from the Chicago Loop, Pullman is situated adjacent Lake Calumet....

, while others are zoned to Julian High School in Washington Heights
Washington Heights, Chicago
Washington Heights, one of the 77 official community areas, is located on the far south side of the city of Chicago, Illinois, loosely bordered in the south by 107th street, the north by 89th street, the west by Beverly Avenue and the East by Eggleston Avenue. It was once a bedroom community of...

.

Harlan Academic Center and Turner-Drew, K-8 magnets, are in Roseland. Gwendolyn Brooks College Preparatory Academy
Gwendolyn Brooks College Preparatory Academy
Gwendolyn Brooks College Preparatory Academy is a public selective enrollment high school located in the Roseland area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. It is operated by Chicago Public Schools...

, a magnet school, is located in Roseland.

Roseland Christian School
Roseland Christian School
Roseland Christian School is a private, coeducational elementary school on the far south side of Chicago, Illinois. It was founded in Roseland as a school for the children of Dutch immigrants in the area. Today it mainly serves the African American community that lives in Roseland.-History:The...

, a private school, is in Roseland.

External links