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Ronald Searle

Ronald Searle

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Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE
CBE
CBE and C.B.E. are abbreviations for "Commander of the Order of the British Empire", a grade in the Order of the British Empire.Other uses include:* Chemical and Biochemical Engineering...

, RDI
Royal Designers for Industry
Royal Designer for Industry is a distinction established by the British Royal Society of Arts in 1936, to encourage a high standard of industrial design and enhance the status of designers. It is awarded to people who have achieved "sustained excellence in aesthetic and efficient design for...

, (born 3 March 1920) is a British artist
Artist
An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only...

 and cartoonist
Cartoonist
A cartoonist is a person who specializes in drawing cartoons. This work is usually humorous, mainly created for entertainment, political commentary or advertising...

, best known as the creator of St Trinian's School
St Trinian's School
St Trinian's is a fictional girls' boarding school, the creation of English cartoonist Ronald Searle, that later became the subject of a popular series of comedy films....

. He is also the co-author (with Geoffrey Willans
Geoffrey Willans
Herbert Geoffrey Willans , an English author and journalist, is best known as the co-creator, with the illustrator Ronald Searle, of Nigel Molesworth, the "goriller of 3b and curse of St. Custard's"....

) of the Molesworth
Nigel Molesworth
Nigel Molesworth is the supposed author of a series of books , with cartoon illustrations by Ronald Searle....

 series.

Searle was born in Cambridge
Cambridge
The city of Cambridge is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies in East Anglia about north of London. Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen – a play on Silicon Valley and the fens surrounding the...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, where his father was a porter at Cambridge Railway Station. He started drawing at the age of five and left school at the age of 15. In April 1939, realizing that war was inevitable, he abandoned his art studies to enlist in the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

. He trained at Cambridge College of Arts and Technology, currently Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University is one of the largest universities in Eastern England, United Kingdom, with a total student population of around 30,000.-History:...

, for two years, and in 1941, published the first St Trinian's
St Trinian's School
St Trinian's is a fictional girls' boarding school, the creation of English cartoonist Ronald Searle, that later became the subject of a popular series of comedy films....

 cartoon in the magazine Lilliput
Lilliput (magazine)
Lilliput was a small-format British monthly magazine of humour, short stories, photographs and the arts, founded in 1937 by the photojournalist Stefan Lorant. The first issue came out in July and it was sold shortly after to Edward Hulton, when editorship was taken over by Tom Hopkinson in 1940....

.

Early work as war artist


In January 1942, he was stationed in Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

. After a month of fighting in Malaya, Singapore fell to the Japanese
Battle of Singapore
The Battle of Singapore was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War when the Empire of Japan invaded the Allied stronghold of Singapore. Singapore was the major British military base in Southeast Asia and nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East"...

, and he was taken prisoner along with his cousin Tom Fordham Searle. He spent the rest of the war a prisoner, first in Changi Prison
Changi Prison
Changi Prison is a prison located in Changi in the eastern part of Singapore.-First prison and POW camp:...

 and then in the Kwai jungle, working on the Siam-Burma Death Railway
Death Railway
The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Thailand–Burma Railway and similar names, was a railway between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma , built by the Empire of Japan during World War II, to support its forces in the Burma campaign.Forced labour was used in its construction...

.

The brutal camp conditions were documented by Searle in a series of drawings that he hid under the mattresses of prisoners dying of cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

. Liberated late in 1945, Searle returned to England where he published several of the surviving drawings in fellow prisoner Russell Braddon
Russell Braddon
Russell Reading Braddon was an Australian writer of novels, biographies and TV scripts. His chronicle of his four years as a prisoner of war, The Naked Island, sold more than a million copies....

's The Naked Island. Most of these drawings appear in his 1986 book, Ronald Searle: To the Kwai and Back, War Drawings 1939-1945. At least one of the drawings is on display at the Changi Museum and Chapel, Singapore, but the majority of these original drawings, approximately 300, are in the permanent collection of the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London. The museum was founded during the First World War in 1917 and intended as a record of the war effort and sacrifice of Britain and her Empire...

, London, along with the works of other POW artists. The best known of these are Jack Bridger Chalker
Jack Bridger Chalker
Jack Bridger Chalker is an artist best known for his work recording the lives of prisoners of war in World War II....

, Philip Meninsky
Philip Meninsky
Philip Meninsky was the son of Bernard Meninsky. Despite an early passion for art, at his father's wish, he initially trained as an accountant, before being called up for National Service....

 and Ashley George Old
Ashley George Old
Ashley George Old was an artist best known for documenting the lives of prisoners of war forced to construct the Thailand-Burma railway...

.

Magazines, books, and films


He married the journalist Kaye Webb
Kaye Webb
Kaye Webb was a British journalist and publisher. She was editor of Puffin Books between 1961 and 1979, and in 1967 founded the Puffin Club, which she ran until 1981. As a journalist she worked on publications including Picture Post, Lilliput and the News Chronicle, and later edited the Young...

 in 1947; they had twins, Kate and Johnny. Searle produced an extraordinary volume of work during the 1950s, including drawings for Life
Life (magazine)
Life generally refers to three American magazines:*A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936. Time founder Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936 solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name....

, Holiday and Punch. His cartoons appeared in The New Yorker
The New Yorker
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons and poetry published by Condé Nast...

, the Sunday Express and the News Chronicle
News Chronicle
The News Chronicle was a British daily newspaper. It ceased publication on 17 October 1960, being absorbed into the Daily Mail. Its offices were in Bouverie Street, off Fleet Street, London, EC4Y 8DP, England.-Daily Chronicle:...

. He compiled more St Trinian's books, which were based on his sister's school and other girls' schools in Cambridge. He collaborated with Geoffrey Willans
Geoffrey Willans
Herbert Geoffrey Willans , an English author and journalist, is best known as the co-creator, with the illustrator Ronald Searle, of Nigel Molesworth, the "goriller of 3b and curse of St. Custard's"....

 on the Molesworth books (Down With Skool!, 1953, and How to be Topp, 1954), and with Alex Atkinson
Alex Atkinson
Alex Atkinson was an English journalist, novelist and playwright who is best remembered for his collaborative works with the illustrator Ronald Searle....

 on travel books. In addition to advertisements and posters, Searle drew the title backgrounds of the Sidney Gilliat
Sidney Gilliat
Sidney Gilliat was an English film director, producer and writer.He was born in the district of Edgeley in Stockport, Cheshire. In the 1930s he worked as a scriptwriter, most notably with Frank Launder on The Lady Vanishes for Alfred Hitchcock, and its sequel Night Train to Munich , directed by...

 and Frank Launder
Frank Launder
Frank Launder was an English writer, director and producer, who made more than 40 films, many of them in collaboration with Sidney Gilliat....

 film The Happiest Days of Your Life
The Happiest Days of Your Life
The Happiest Days of Your Life is a 1950 British comedy film directed by Frank Launder, based on the play by John Dighton. The two men also wrote the screenplay. It's one of a stable of classic British film comedies produced by Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat for British Lion Film Corporation. The...

.

In 1961, he moved to Paris, leaving his family and later marrying Monica Koenig, theater designer and creator of necklaces. In France he worked more on reportage for Life
Life (magazine)
Life generally refers to three American magazines:*A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936. Time founder Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936 solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name....

 and Holiday and less on cartoons. He also continued to work in a broad range of media and created books (including his well-known cat books), animated films and sculpture for commemorative medals, both for the French Mint and the British Art Medal Society. Searle did a considerable amount of designing for the cinema, and in 1965, he completed the opening, intermission and closing credits for the comedy film Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines
Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines
Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines, Or How I Flew from London to Paris in 25 Hours 11 Minutes is a 1965 British comedy film starring Stuart Whitman and directed and co-written by Ken Annakin...

. In 1975, the full-length cartoon Dick Deadeye was released. Animated by a number of artists both British and French, it is considered by some to be his greatest achievement, although Searle himself detested the result. Since 1975, he and Monica have lived and worked in the mountains of Haute Provence.

Archives


In 2010, he gave about 2,200 of his works as permanent loans to Wilhelm Busch Museum Hannover (Germany), now renamed Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Zeichenkunst. The ancient Summer palace of George 1st, this Museum holds Searle's archives.

Awards


Searle received much recognition for his work, especially in America, including the National Cartoonists Society
National Cartoonists Society
The National Cartoonists Society is an organization of professional cartoonists in the United States. It presents the National Cartoonists Society Awards. The Society was born in 1946 when groups of cartoonists got together to entertain the troops...

's Advertising and Illustration Award in 1959 and 1965, the Reuben Award in 1960, their Illustration Award in 1980 and their Advertising Award in 1986 and 1987. In 2007, he was decorated with France's highest award, the Légion d'honneur
Légion d'honneur
The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...

, and in 2009, he received the German Order of Merit.

His work has had a great deal of influence, particularly on American cartoonists, including Pat Oliphant
Pat Oliphant
Patrick Bruce "Pat" Oliphant is the most widely syndicated political cartoonist in the world, described by the New York Times as "the most influential cartoonist now working"...

, Matt Groening
Matt Groening
Matthew Abram "Matt" Groening is an American cartoonist, screenwriter, and producer. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell as well as two successful television series, The Simpsons and Futurama....

, Hilary Knight
Hilary Knight
Hilary Knight is an American writer-artist who is the illustrator of more than 50 books and the author of nine books. He is best known as the illustrator of Kay Thompson's Eloise and others in the Eloise series....

 and the animators of Disney's 101 Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians, often abbreviated as 101 Dalmatians, is a 1961 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and based on the novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians by Dodie Smith...

. In 2005, he was the subject of a BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 documentary on his life and work by Russell Davies
Russell Davies
Robert Russell Davies , known as Russell Davies, is a British journalist and broadcaster. He presents a Sunday radio programme on BBC Radio 2 which spotlights popular song, as well as Brain of Britain on Radio 4.-Background:...

.

He was an early influence on John Lennon
John Lennon
John Winston Lennon, MBE was an English musician and singer-songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles, one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music...

's drawing style which featured in the books In His Own Write
In His Own Write
In His Own Write is a book from 1964 by John Lennon. The book consists of short stories and line drawings, often surreal and always nonsensical. It is notable in that it was the first solo Beatle project in any form...

 and A Spaniard in the Works
A Spaniard in the Works
A Spaniard in the Works is a book from 1965 by John Lennon. The book consists of nonsensical stories and drawings similar to the style of his previous book, 1964's In His Own Write....

.

St Trinian's

  • Hurrah For St Trinians, 1948
  • The Female Approach: The Belles of St. Trinian's and Other Cartoons, 1950
  • Back To The Slaughterhouse, and Other Ugly Moments, 1951
  • The Terror of St Trinian's, or Angela's Prince Charming, 1952 (with Timothy Shy (D. B. Wyndham-Lewis
    D. B. Wyndham-Lewis
    Dominic Bevan Wyndham-Lewis FRSL was a British writer best known for his humorous contributions to newspapers and for biographies. His family were originally from Wales, but he was born in Liverpool and brought up in Cardiff...

    ))
  • Souls in Torment, 1953 (preface by Cecil Day-Lewis
    Cecil Day-Lewis
    Cecil Day-Lewis CBE was an Irish poet and the Poet Laureate from 1968 until his death in 1972. He also wrote mystery stories under the pseudonym of Nicholas Blake...

    )
  • The St Trinian's Story, 1959 (with Kaye Webb)
  • St Trinian's: The Cartoons, 2007
  • St. Trinian's: The Entire Appalling Business, 2008

Molesworth

  • Down With Skool!: A Guide to School Life for Tiny Pupils and Their Parents, 1953 (with Geoffrey Willans
    Geoffrey Willans
    Herbert Geoffrey Willans , an English author and journalist, is best known as the co-creator, with the illustrator Ronald Searle, of Nigel Molesworth, the "goriller of 3b and curse of St. Custard's"....

    )
  • How to be Topp: A Guide to Sukcess for Tiny Pupils, Including All There is to Kno About Space, 1954 (with Geoffrey Willans)
  • Whizz for Atomms: A Guide to Survival in the 20th Century for Fellow Pupils, their Doting Maters, Pompous Paters and Any Others who are Interested, 1956 (with Geoffrey Willans) Published in the U.S. as Molesworth's Guide to the Atommic Age
  • Back in the Jug Agane, 1959 (with Geoffrey Willans)
  • The Compleet Molesworth, 1958 (collection) Molesworth (1999 Penguin reprint)

Other works

  • White Coolie, 1947 (with Ronald Hastain)
  • This England 1946-1949, 1949 (edited by Audrey Hilton)
  • The Stolen Journey, 1950 (with Oliver Philpot
    Oliver Philpot
    Oliver Lawrence Spurling Philpot, MC, DFC was a Canadian born World War II RAF pilot and subsequently a businessman, best known for being one of the three men to successfully escape from Stalag Luft III in the escape known as The Wooden Horse.After escaping Philpot wrote a book Stolen Journey in...

    )
  • An Irishman's Diary, 1950 (with Patrick Campbell
    Patrick Campbell, 3rd Baron Glenavy
    Patrick Gordon Campbell, 3rd Baron Glenavy , known as Patrick Campbell, was an Irish journalist, humorist and television personality....

    )
  • Dear Life, 1950 (with H. E. Bates
    H. E. Bates
    Herbert Ernest Bates, CBE , better known as H. E. Bates, was an English writer and author. His best-known works include Love for Lydia, The Darling Buds of May, and My Uncle Silas.-Early life:...

    )
  • Paris Sketchbook, 1950 (with Kaye Webb
    Kaye Webb
    Kaye Webb was a British journalist and publisher. She was editor of Puffin Books between 1961 and 1979, and in 1967 founded the Puffin Club, which she ran until 1981. As a journalist she worked on publications including Picture Post, Lilliput and the News Chronicle, and later edited the Young...

    )
  • A Sleep of Prisoners, 1951 (with Christopher Fry
    Christopher Fry
    Christopher Fry was an English playwright. He is best known for his verse dramas, notably The Lady's Not for Burning, which made him a major force in theatre in the 1940s and 1950s.-Early life:...

    )
  • Life in Thin Slices, 1951 (with Patrick Campbell
    Patrick Campbell
    Patrick Campbell may refer to:*Patrick Campbell , , Royal Navy officer* Patrick Campbell , Major General, British agent and Consul General in Egypt...

    )
  • It Must be True, 1952 (with Denys Parsons)
  • London—So Help Me!, 1952 (with Winifred Ellis)
  • The Diverting History of John Gilpin
    The Diverting History of John Gilpin
    The Diverting History of John Gilpin is a comic ballad by William Cowper, written in 1782. The ballad concerns a draper called John Gilpin who rides a runaway horse...

    , 1953 (with William Cowper
    William Cowper
    William Cowper was an English poet and hymnodist. One of the most popular poets of his time, Cowper changed the direction of 18th century nature poetry by writing of everyday life and scenes of the English countryside. In many ways, he was one of the forerunners of Romantic poetry...

    )
  • Looking at London and People Worth Meeting, 1953 (with Kaye Webb)
  • The Dark is Light Enough, 1954 (with Christopher Fry)
  • Patrick Campbells Omnibus, 1954 (with Patrick Campbell)
  • The Journal Of Edwin Carp, 1954 (edited by Richard Haydn
    Richard Haydn
    Richard Haydn was an English comic actor in radio, films and television.-Early life and career:Born George Richard Haydon in London, he was known for playing eccentric characters, such as Edwin Carp, Claud Curdle, Richard Rancyd and Stanley Stayle. Much of his stage delivery was done in a...

    )
  • Modern Types, 1955 (with Geoffrey Gorer
    Geoffrey Gorer
    Geoffrey Gorer, English anthropologist and author , noted for his application of psychoanalytic techniques to anthropology.He was educated at Charterhouse and at Jesus College, Cambridge. During the 1930s he wrote unpublished fiction and drama. His first book was The Revolutionary Ideas of the...

    )
  • The Rake's Progress, 1955
  • Merry England, Etc, 1956
  • Anglo-Saxon Attitudes, 1956 (with Angus Wilson
    Angus Wilson
    Sir Angus Frank Johnstone Wilson, CBE was an English novelist and short story writer. He was awarded the 1958 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for The Middle Age of Mrs Eliot and later received a knighthood for his services to literature.-Biography:Wilson was born in Bexhill, Sussex, England, to...

    )
  • The Big City or the New Mayhew , 1958 (with Alex Atkinson
    Alex Atkinson
    Alex Atkinson was an English journalist, novelist and playwright who is best remembered for his collaborative works with the illustrator Ronald Searle....

    )
  • The Dog's Ear Book, 1958 (with Geoffrey Willans)
  • USA for Beginners, 1959 (with Alex Atkinson)
  • Anger of Achilles: Homer's Iliad, 1959 (translation by Robert Graves
    Robert Graves
    Robert von Ranke Graves 24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985 was an English poet, translator and novelist. During his long life he produced more than 140 works...

    )
  • By Rocking Horse Across Russia, 1960 (with Alex Atkinson)
  • Penguin Ronald Searle, 1960
  • Refugees 1960, 1960 (with Kaye Webb)
  • Which Way Did He Go?, 1961
  • A Christmas Carol, 1961 (with Charles Dickens
    Charles Dickens
    Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity and fame than had any previous author during his lifetime, and he remains popular, having been responsible for some of English literature's most iconic...

    )
  • The 13 Clocks and the Wonderful O, 1962 (with James Thurber
    James Thurber
    James Grover Thurber was an American author, cartoonist and celebrated wit. Thurber was best known for his cartoons and short stories published in The New Yorker magazine.-Life:...

    )
  • Searle In The Sixties, 1964
  • From Frozen North to Filthy Lucre, 1964
  • Haven't We Met Before Somewhere?, 1966
  • Searle's Cats, 1967
  • The Square Egg, 1968
  • Take One Toad, 1968
  • This Business of Bomfog, 1969 (with Madelaine Duke)
  • Monte Carlo Or Bust, 1969 (with E. W. Hildick
    Edmund Wallace Hildick
    Edmund Wallace Hildick was a prolific children's book author, who wrote under the name E. W. Hildick. He wrote, amongst others, the Ghost Squad, Jim Starling, Birdy Jones, Jack McGurk and Lemon Kelly series.- Background :...

    )
  • Hello, where did all the people go?, 1969
  • The Second Coming of Toulouse-Lautrec, 1969
  • Secret Sketchbook, 1969
  • The Great Fur Opera: Annals of the Hudson's Bay Company 1670-1970, 1970 (with Kildare Dobbs
    Kildare Dobbs
    Kildare Robert Eric Dobbs, is a Canadian short story and travel writer.Born in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India, he was educated in Ireland and later spent 5 years in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. After the war he worked in the British Colonial Service in Tanganyka...

    )
  • Scrooge, 1970 (with Elaine Donaldson)
  • Mr. Lock of St. James's Street, 1971 (with Frank Whitbourn)
  • The Addict, 1971
  • More Cats, 1975
  • Dick Dead Eye, 1975 (with Gilbert and Sullivan
    Gilbert and Sullivan
    Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the librettist W. S. Gilbert and the composer Arthur Sullivan . The two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which H.M.S...

    )
  • Paris! Paris!, 1977 (with Irwin Shaw
    Irwin Shaw
    Irwin Shaw was a prolific American playwright, screenwriter, novelist, and short-story author whose written works have sold more than 14 million copies. He is best-known for his novel, The Young Lions about the fate of three soldiers during World War II that was made into a film starring Marlon...

    )
  • Zoodiac, 1977
  • Ronald Searle, 1978
  • The King of Beasts & Other Creatures, 1980
  • The Situation is Hopeless, 1980
  • Winning the Restaurant Game, 1980 (with Jay Jacobs)
  • Too Many Songs by Tom Lehrer
    Tom Lehrer
    Thomas Andrew "Tom" Lehrer is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, mathematician and polymath. He has lectured on mathematics and musical theater...

     With Not Enough Drawings by Ronald Searle, 1981
  • Ronald Searle's Big Fat Cat Book, 1982
  • The Illustrated Winespeak, 1983
  • Ronald Searle in Perspective, 1983
  • Ronald Searle's Golden Oldies 1941 - 1961, 1985
  • Something in the Cellar, 1986
  • To the Kwai and Back: War Drawings 1939-1945, 1986
  • Ronald Searle's Non-Sexist Dictionary, 1988
  • Ah Yes, I Remember It Well...: Paris 1961-1975, 1988
  • Slightly Foxed But Still Desirable: Ronald Searle's Wicked World of Book Collecting, 1989
  • Marquis De Sade Meets Goody Two-Shoes, 1994
  • The Tales of Grandpa Cat, 1994 (with Lee Wardlaw
    Lee Wardlaw
    Lee Wardlaw is the author of several children's books, such as 101 Ways to Bug Your Teacher , 101 Ways to Bug Your Parents, and See You In September.- Early life :Lee was born in Salina, Kansas on November 20, 1955...

    )
  • The Hatless Man, 1995 (with Sarah Kortum)
  • A French Affair : The Paris Beat, 1965-1998, 1999 (with Mary Blume)
  • Wicked Etiquette, 2000 (with Sarah Kortum)
  • Ronald Searle in Le Monde, 2001
  • Railway of Hell: A Japanese POW's Account of War, Capture and Forced Labour, 2002 (with Reginald Burton)
  • Searle's Cats, 2005 (New and Expanded Edition, all illustrations are new)
  • The Scrapbook Drawings", 2005
  • Cat O' Nine Tales: And Other Stories, 2006 (with Jeffrey Archer)
  • Beastly Feasts: A Mischievous Menagerie in Rhyme, 2007 (with Robert Forbes)
  • More Scraps & Watteau Revisited, 2008
  • Let's Have a Bite!: A Banquet of Beastly Rhymes, 2010 (with Robert Forbes)
  • What! Already?: Searle at 90, 2010
  • Les Très Riches Heures de Mrs Mole, 2011

Further reading


External links