Roman numerals

# Roman numerals

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 "" as a Roman numeral

The numeral system
Numeral system
A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using graphemes or symbols in a consistent manner....

of ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, or Roman numerals, uses combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most recognized alphabet used in the world today. It evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome...

to signify values. The numbers 1 to 10 can be expressed in Roman numerals as:
and.

The Roman numeral system is decimal
Decimal
The decimal numeral system has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations....

but not directly positional
Positional notation
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Positional notation is distinguished from other notations for its use of the same symbol for the different orders of magnitude...

and does not include a zero. It is a cousin of the Etruscan numerals
Etruscan numerals
The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals.There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals...

. Use of Roman numerals persisted after the decline of the Roman Empire. In the 14th century, Roman numerals were largely abandoned in favor of Arabic numerals; however, they are still used to this day in minor applications.

Modern use of Roman numerals includes (but is not limited to) numbered lists (such as the outline format of an article), clock faces, pages preceding the main body of a book, successive political leaders or people with identical names, chords in music, and the numbering of certain annual events.

Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:
Symbol Value
 {{Symb|{{#time: xrY }}}} "{{#time: Y }}" as a Roman numeral

The
numeral system
Numeral system
A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using graphemes or symbols in a consistent manner....

of ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, or Roman numerals, uses combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most recognized alphabet used in the world today. It evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome...

to signify values. The numbers 1 to 10 can be expressed in Roman numerals as:
{{bigmath|I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, }}and{{bigmath| X}}.

The Roman numeral system is decimal
Decimal
The decimal numeral system has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations....

but not directly positional
Positional notation
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Positional notation is distinguished from other notations for its use of the same symbol for the different orders of magnitude...

and does not include a zero. It is a cousin of the Etruscan numerals
Etruscan numerals
The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals.There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals...

. Use of Roman numerals persisted after the decline of the Roman Empire. In the 14th century, Roman numerals were largely abandoned in favor of Arabic numerals; however, they are still used to this day in minor applications.

Modern use of Roman numerals includes (but is not limited to) numbered lists (such as the outline format of an article), clock faces, pages preceding the main body of a book, successive political leaders or people with identical names, chords in music, and the numbering of certain annual events.

{{Numeral systems}}

Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:
Symbol Value
 {{Symb|{{#time: xrY }}}} "{{#time: Y }}" as a Roman numeral

The
numeral system
Numeral system
A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using graphemes or symbols in a consistent manner....

of ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, or Roman numerals, uses combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most recognized alphabet used in the world today. It evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome...

to signify values. The numbers 1 to 10 can be expressed in Roman numerals as:
{{bigmath|I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, }}and{{bigmath| X}}.

The Roman numeral system is decimal
Decimal
The decimal numeral system has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations....

but not directly positional
Positional notation
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Positional notation is distinguished from other notations for its use of the same symbol for the different orders of magnitude...

and does not include a zero. It is a cousin of the Etruscan numerals
Etruscan numerals
The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals.There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals...

. Use of Roman numerals persisted after the decline of the Roman Empire. In the 14th century, Roman numerals were largely abandoned in favor of Arabic numerals; however, they are still used to this day in minor applications.

Modern use of Roman numerals includes (but is not limited to) numbered lists (such as the outline format of an article), clock faces, pages preceding the main body of a book, successive political leaders or people with identical names, chords in music, and the numbering of certain annual events.

{{Numeral systems}}

Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:
Symbol Value
{{rn
I
I is the ninth letter and a vowel in the basic modern Latin alphabet.-History:In Semitic, the letter may have originated in a hieroglyph for an arm that represented a voiced pharyngeal fricative in Egyptian, but was reassigned to by Semites, because their word for "arm" began with that sound...

1
{{rn
V
V is the twenty-second letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.-Letter:The letter V comes from the Semitic letter Waw, as do the modern letters F, U, W, and Y. See F for details....

5
{{rn
X
X is the twenty-fourth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.-Uses:In mathematics, x is commonly used as the name for an independent variable or unknown value. The usage of x to represent an independent or unknown variable can be traced back to the Arabic word šay شيء = “thing,” used in Arabic...

10
10 (number)
10 is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11.-In mathematics:Ten is a composite number, its proper divisors being , and...

{{rn
L
Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the Polish, Kashubian, Sorbian, Łacinka , Łatynka , Wilamowicean, Navajo, Dene Suline, Inupiaq, Zuni, Hupa, and Dogrib alphabets, several proposed alphabets for the Venetian language, and the ISO 11940 romanization of the Thai alphabet...

50
50 (number)
This article discusses the number fifty. For the year 50 CE, see 50. For other uses of 50, see 50 50 is the natural number following 49 and preceding 51.-In mathematics:...

{{rn
C
Ĉ or ĉ is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing the sound .Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for all four of its postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets...

100
100 (number)
100 is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101.-In mathematics:One hundred is the square of 10...

{{rn
D
D is the fourth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.- History :The Semitic letter Dâlet may have developed from the logogram for a fish or a door. There are various Egyptian hieroglyphs that might have inspired this. In Semitic, Ancient Greek, and Latin, the letter represented ; in the...

500
500 (number)
500 is the natural number following 499 and preceding 501.- Other fields :Five hundred is also*many NASCAR races often use the number 500 at the end of their race names 500 (five hundred) is the natural number following 499 and preceding 501.- Other fields :Five hundred is also*many NASCAR races...

{{rn
M
M is the thirteenth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.-History:The letter M is derived from the Phoenician Mem, via the Greek Mu . Semitic Mem probably originally pictured water...

1,000

Numbers are formed by combining symbols together and adding the values. For example, {{nowrap|1= {{rn|MMVI}} is 1000 + 1000 + 5 + 1 = 2006}}. Generally, symbols are placed in order of value, starting with the largest values. When smaller values precede larger values, the smaller values are subtracted from the larger values, and the result is added to the total. For example {{nowrap|1= {{rn|MCMXLIV}} = 1000 + (1000 − 100) + (50 − 10) + (5 − 1) = 1944}}.

Below are some examples of the modern use of Roman Numerals.
• 1910 as {{rn|MDCCCCX}} (Admiralty Arch
Admiralty Arch is a large office building in London which incorporates an archway providing road and pedestrian access between The Mall, which extends to the South-West, and Trafalgar Square to the North-East. It was designed by Sir Aston Webb, constructed by John Mowlem & Co and completed in 1912...

in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

)
• 1954 as {{rn|MCMLIV}} (Trailer for the movie The Last Time I Saw Paris
The Last Time I Saw Paris
The Last Time I Saw Paris is a 1954 romantic drama made by MGM. It is loosely based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story "Babylon Revisited." It was directed by Richard Brooks, produced by Jack Cummings and filmed on locations in Paris and the MGM backlot. The screenplay was by Julius J. Epstein,...

)
• 1990 as {{rn|MCMXC}} (The title of musical project Enigma
Enigma (musical project)
Enigma is an electronic musical project founded in Germany by Michael Cretu, David Fairstein and Frank Peterson in 1990. The Romanian-born Cretu conceived the Enigma project while working in Germany, but has based his recording studio A.R.T. Studios in Ibiza, Spain, since the early 1990s until May...

's debut album MCMXC a.D.
MCMXC a.D.
MCMXC a.D. is a concept album created by the musical project Enigma, spearheaded by Michael Cretu. Released at the end of 1990, it was Enigma's debut album...

, named after the year of its release.)

There has never been a universally accepted set of rules for Roman numerals. Because of this lack of standardization, there may be multiple ways of representing the same number in Roman numerals. For example, the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology could find no authority that could describe if the year 1999 should be written as MDCCCCLXXXXVIIII, MCMXCIX, or MIM. Despite the lack of standardization, an additional set of rules has been frequently applied for the last few hundred years:
• The symbols "{{rn|I}}", "{{rn|X}}", "{{rn|C}}", and "{{rn|M}}" can be repeated three times in succession, but no more. (They may appear four times if the third and fourth are separated by a smaller value, such as {{rn|XXXIX}}.) "D", "{{rn|L}}", and "{{rn|V}}" can never be repeated.
• "{{rn|I}}" can be subtracted from "{{rn|V}}" and "{{rn|X}}" only. "{{rn|X}}" can be subtracted from "{{rn|L}}" and "{{rn|C}}" only. "{{rn|C}}" can be subtracted from "{{rn|D}}" and "{{rn|M}}" only. "{{rn|V}}", "{{rn|L}}", and "{{rn|D}}" can never be subtracted
• Only one small-value symbol may be subtracted from any large-value symbol.
• A number written in Arabic numerals can be broken into digits. For example, 1903 is composed of 1, 9, 0, and 3. To write the Roman numeral, each of the non-zero digits should be treated separately. In the above example, 1,000 = M, 900 = CM, and 3 = III. Therefore, 1903 = MCMIII.

Following this additional set of rules, there is only one possible Roman numeral for any given number.

### Pre-Roman/Ancient Rome

Although Roman numerals are now written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used {{rn|I}}, Λ, {{rn|X}}, {{unicode|⋔,}} 8, ⊕, for {{rn|I}}, {{rn|V}}, {{rn|X}}, {{rn|L}}, {{rn|C}}, and {{rn|M}}, of which only {{rn|I}} and {{rn|X}} happened to be letters in their alphabet. One folk etymology has it that the {{rn|V}} represented a hand, and that the {{rn|X}} was made by placing two {{rn|V}}s on top of each other, one inverted. However, the Etrusco-Roman numerals actually appear to derive from notches on tally sticks, which continued to be used by Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
Dalmatia is a historical region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It stretches from the island of Rab in the northwest to the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. The hinterland, the Dalmatian Zagora, ranges from fifty kilometers in width in the north to just a few kilometers in the south....

n shepherds into the 19th century.

Thus, '{{rn|I}}' descends not from the letter '{{rn|I}}' but from a notch scored across the stick. Every fifth notch was double cut ({{rn|i}}.e. {{unicode|⋀}}, {{unicode|⋁}}, {{unicode|⋋}}, {{unicode|⋌}}, etc.), and every tenth was cross cut ({{rn|X}}), IIIIΛIIIIXIIIIΛIIIIXII..., much like European tally marks
Tally marks
Tally marks, or hash marks, are a unary numeral system. They are a form of numeral used for counting. They allow updating written intermediate results without erasing or discarding anything written down...

today. This produced a positional system: Eight on a counting stick was eight tallies, IIIIΛIII, or the eighth of a longer series of tallies; either way, it could be abbreviated ΛIII (or {{rn|VIII}}), as the existence of a Λ implies four prior notches. By extension, eighteen was the eighth tally after the first ten, which could be abbreviated {{rn|X}}, and so was XΛIII. Likewise, number four on the stick was the {{rn|I}}-notch that could be felt just before the cut of the Λ ({{rn|V}}), so it could be written as either {{rn|IIII}} or IΛ ({{rn|IV}}). Thus the system was neither additive nor subtractive in its conception, but ordinal
Ordinal number (linguistics)
In linguistics, ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to some order, in particular order or position . Its use may refer to size, importance, chronology, etc...

. When the tallies were transferred to writing, the marks were easily identified with the existing Roman letters {{rn|I}}, {{rn|V}} and {{rn|X}}.
The tenth {{rn|V}} or {{rn|X}} along the stick received an extra stroke. Thus 50 was written variously as N, И, K, Ψ, {{unicode|⋔}}, etc., but perhaps most often as a chicken-track shape like a superimposed {{rn|V}} and {{rn|I}} - {{unicode|ᗐ}}. This had flattened to {{unicode|⊥}} (an inverted T) by the time of Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

, and soon thereafter became identified with the graphically similar letter {{rn|L}}. Likewise, 100 was variously Ж, {{unicode|⋉}}, {{unicode|⋈}}, H, or as any of the symbols for 50 above plus an extra stroke. The form Ж (that is, a superimposed {{rn|X}} and {{rn|I}}) came to predominate. It was written variously as >{{rn|I}}< or {{unicode|ƆIC}}, was then abbreviated to {{unicode|Ɔ}} or {{rn|C}}, with {{rn|C}} variant finally winning out because, as a letter, it stood for {{lang|la|centum}}, Latin for "hundred".

The hundredth {{rn|V}} or {{rn|X}} was marked with a box or circle. Thus 500 was like a {{unicode|Ɔ}} superimposed on a {{unicode|⋌}} or {{unicode|⊢}} — that is, like a Þ with a cross bar,— becoming D or Ð by the time of Augustus, under the graphic influence of the letter D. It was later identified as the letter D; an alternative symbol for "thousand" looks like this (I), and half of a thousand or "five hundred" is the right half of the symbol, or I), and this may have been converted into D. This at least was the folk etymology given to it later on.

Meanwhile, 1000 was a circled or boxed X: {{unicode|Ⓧ}}, {{unicode|⊗}}, ⊕, and by Augustinian times was partially identified with the Greek letter Φ phi. Over time, the symbol changed to Ψ and {{unicode|ↀ}}. The latter symbol further evolved into {{unicode|∞}}, then {{unicode|⋈}}, and eventually changed to {{rn|M}} under the influence of the Latin word {{lang|la|mille}} "thousand".

Alfred Hooper has an alternative discussion of the origin of the Roman numeral system, for small numbers. Hooper contends that the digits are related to hand signals. For example, the numbers {{rn|I}}, {{rn|II}}, {{rn|III}}, {{rn|IIII}} correspond to the number of fingers held up for another to see. {{rn|V}}, then represents that hand upright with fingers together and thumb apart. Numbers 6–10, are represented with two hands as follows (left hand, right hand) 6=({{rn|V}},{{rn|I}}), 7=({{rn|V}},{{rn|II}}), 8=({{rn|V}},{{rn|III}}), 9=({{rn|V}},{{rn|IIII}}), 10=({{rn|V}},{{rn|V}}) and {{rn|X}} results from either crossing of the thumbs, or holding both hands up in a cross.

In the early period of Roman history, there was no subtractive principle. Subtractive notation
Subtractive notation
Subtractive notation is an early form of positional notation used with Roman numerals as a shorthand to replace four or five characters in a numeral representing a number with usually just two characters. Using subtractive notation the numeral VIIII becomes simply IX...

arose from regular Latin usage: the number 18 was {{lang|la|duodeviginti}} or “two from twenty”; the number 19 was {{lang|la|undeviginti}} or "one from twenty". {{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}

### Middle Ages/Renaissance

Minuscule (lower case) letters were developed in the Middle Ages, well after the demise of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
The Western Roman Empire was the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 285; the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly referred to today as the Byzantine Empire....

, and lower-case versions of Roman numbers are now also commonly used: {{rn|i}}, {{rn|ii}}, {{rn|iii}}, {{rn|iv}}, etc. In the Middle Ages, a j was sometimes substituted for the final {{rn|i}} of a number, such as iij for 3 or vij for 7. This j was considered a swash
Swash (typography)
A swash is a typographical flourish on a glyph, like an exaggerated serif.Capital swash characters, which extended to the left, were historically often used to begin sentences. There were also minuscule swash characters, which came either extending to the left, to begin words, or to the right to...

variant of {{rn|i}}. The use of a final j is still used in medical prescription
Medical prescription
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. Prescriptions may include orders to be performed by a patient, caretaker, nurse, pharmacist or other therapist....

s to prevent tampering with or misinterpretation of a number after it is written.

A unique, more comprehensive shorthand for writing Roman numerals was developed during the Middle Ages, which today are called "medieval Roman numerals." This system used almost every other letter of the Roman alphabet to stand as abbreviations for more longhand numbers (usually those that consisted of repetitions of the same symbol). They are still listed today in most dictionaries, although through disfavor are primarily out of use.
Modern
number
Medieval
abbreviation
Notes
5 A Resembles an upside-down V. Also said to equal 500.
6 Either a ligature of VI, or the Greek letter stigma
Stigma (letter)
Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau , which was used in writing Greek between the middle ages and the 19th century. It is also used as a numeral symbol for the number 6...

(Ϛ), having the same numerical value.
7 S, Z Presumed abbreviation of septem, Latin for 7.
11 O Presumed abbreviation of (e.g.) onze, French for 11.
40 F Presumed abbreviation of English forty.
70 S Also could stand for 7, and has same etymology.
80 R
90 N Presumed abbreviation of nonaginta, Latin for 90.
150 Y Possibly derived from the lowercase y's shape.
151 K This unusual abbreviation's origin is unknown; it has also been said to stand for 250.
160 T Possibly derived from Greek tetra, as 4 x 40 = 160.
200 H
250 E
300 B
400 P, G
500 Q Redundant with D, abbreviation for quingenti, Latin for 500.
2000 Z

Chronogram
Chronogram
A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals, stand for a particular date when rearranged. The word, meaning "time writing", derives from the Greek words chronos and gramma . In the pure chronogram each word contains a numeral, the natural chronogram...

s, messages with a numbers encoded into them, were popular during the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

era. The chronogram would be a phrase containing the letters {{rn|I}}, {{rn|V}}, {{rn|X}}, {{rn|L}}, {{rn|C}}, {{rn|D}}, and {{rn|M}}. By putting these letters together, the reader would obtain a number, usually indicating a particular year.

### Modern usage

Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were outmoded by Hindu-Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

, by way of Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century) in practically all mathematical and economical applications.
Roman numerals are still used today in several niche contexts. A few examples of their current use include:
• Names of monarchs and Popes, e.g. Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

, Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

. These are referred to as monarchical ordinal
Monarchical ordinal
Ordinal numbers or regnal numbers are used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office. Most importantly, they are used to distinguish monarchs...

s; e.g. "{{rn|II}}" is pronounced "the second". This tradition began in Europe sporadically in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, gaining widespread use in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

only during the reign of Henry VIII. Previously, the monarch was not known by numeral but by an epithet
Epithet
An epithet or byname is a descriptive term accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature. It is also a descriptive title...

such as Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor also known as St. Edward the Confessor , son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, was one of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England and is usually regarded as the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066....

.
• The year of production of films, television shows and other works of art within the work itself. Outside reference to the work will use regular Hindu-Arabic numerals.
• Hour marks on timepieces.
• The year of construction on building faces and cornerstone
Cornerstone
The cornerstone concept is derived from the first stone set in the construction of a masonry foundation, important since all other stones will be set in reference to this stone, thus determining the position of the entire structure.Over time a cornerstone became a ceremonial masonry stone, or...

s.
• Page numbering of prefaces and introductions of books.
• Book volume and chapter numbers.
• Sequel
Sequel
A sequel is a narrative, documental, or other work of literature, film, theatre, or music that continues the story of or expands upon issues presented in some previous work...

s of movies, video games, and other works.
• Outlines.
• A recurring grand event, such as the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

.

In astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth...

, the natural satellite
Natural satellite
A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called its primary. The two terms are used synonymously for non-artificial satellites of planets, of dwarf planets, and of minor planets....

s or "moons" of the planet
Planet
A planet is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science,...

s are traditionally designated by capital Roman numerals.

In chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, Roman numerals are used in the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds, as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . The rules are commonly known as "The Red Book"...

, for the oxidation number
Oxidation number
In coordination chemistry, the oxidation number of a central atom in a coordination compound is the charge that it would have if all the ligands were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom. Oxidation numbers are often confused with oxidation states.The...

of cations which can take on several different positive charges. They are also used for naming phases
Phase (matter)
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space , throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, and chemical composition...

of polymorphic
Polymorphism (materials science)
Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. Polymorphism can potentially be found in any crystalline material including polymers, minerals, and metals, and is related to allotropy, which refers to chemical elements...

crystal
Crystal
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography...

s, such as ice
Ice
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions...

.

In earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

seismology
Seismology
Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake effects, such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic,...

, Roman numerals are used to designate degrees of the Mercalli intensity scale
Mercalli intensity scale
The Mercalli intensity scale is a seismic scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. It measures the effects of an earthquake, and is distinct from the moment magnitude M_w usually reported for an earthquake , which is a measure of the energy released...

.

In music theory
Music theory
Music theory is the study of how music works. It examines the language and notation of music. It seeks to identify patterns and structures in composers' techniques across or within genres, styles, or historical periods...

, the diatonic function
Diatonic function
In tonal music theory, a diatonic function is the specific, recognized role of each of the 7 notes and their chords in relation to the diatonic key...

s are identified using roman numerals. See: Roman numeral analysis
Roman numeral analysis
In music, roman numeral analysis is the use of roman numeral symbols in the musical analysis of chords. In music theory related to or derived from the common practice period, arabic numerals with carets are used to designate scale degrees themselves , whereas in theory related to or derived from...

.

In performance practice, individual strings of stringed instruments, such as the violin
Violin
The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

, are often denoted by Roman numerals, with higher numbers denoting lower strings.

In photography
Photography
Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film...

, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote varying levels of brightness when using the Zone System
Zone system
The Zone System is a photographic technique for determining optimal film exposure and development, formulated by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer. Adams described how the Zone System was developed: "I take this opportunity to restate that the Zone System is not an invention of mine; it is a codification...

.

#### Modern non-English-speaking usage

Capital Roman numerals are used to denote centuries (e.g., {{rn|XVIII}} refers to the eighteenth century) in Bulgarian
Bulgarian language
Bulgarian is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group.Bulgarian, along with the closely related Macedonian language, demonstrates several linguistic characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages such as the elimination of case declension, the...

, Catalan
Catalan language
Catalan is a Romance language, the national and only official language of Andorra and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencian Community, where it is known as Valencian , as well as in the city of Alghero, on the Italian island...

, Croatian
Croatian language
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...

, French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, Hungarian
Hungarian language
Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

, Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

, Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

, Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

, Romanian
Romanian language
Romanian Romanian Romanian (or Daco-Romanian; obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; self-designation: română, limba română ("the Romanian language") or românește (lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people, primarily in Romania and Moldova...

, Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

, Serbian
Serbian language
Serbian is a form of Serbo-Croatian, a South Slavic language, spoken by Serbs in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia and neighbouring countries....

, and Spanish language
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

s. This use has largely been replaced by Arabic numerals (e.g. 18.) in Czech
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

and Slovak
Slovak language
Slovak , is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages .Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by 5 million people...

languages.
In Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, and in Bulgarian, Croatian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Serbian languages, mixed Roman and Arabic numerals are used to record dates (usually on tombstones, but also elsewhere, such as in formal letters and official documents). The month is written in Roman numerals while the day is in Arabic numerals: 14.  {{rn|VI}}. 1789 is 14 June 1789. This use has largely been replaced by Arabic numerals (e.g. 14. 6. 1789) in Czech
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

, Slovene, Slovak
Slovak language
Slovak , is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages .Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by 5 million people...

and Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

languages.

In the Baltic
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

nations, Roman numerals are used to represent the days of the week in hours-of-operation signs displayed in windows or on doors of businesses. Monday is represented by {{rn|I}}, which is the initial day of the week
Week
A week is a time unit equal to seven days.The English word week continues an Old English wice, ultimately from a Common Germanic , from a root "turn, move, change"...

. Sunday is represented by {{rn|VII}}, which is the final day of the week. The hours of operation signs are tables composed of two columns where the left column is the day of the week in Roman numerals and the right column is a range of hours of operation from starting time to closing time. The following example hours-of-operation table would be for a business whose hours of operation are 9:30 AM to 5:30 PM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays; 9:30 AM to 7:00 PM on Tuesdays and Fridays; and 9:30 AM to 1:00 PM on Saturdays; and which is closed on Sundays.
 I 9:30–17:30 II 9:30–19:00 III 9:30–17:30 IV 9:30–17:30 V 9:30–19:00 VI 9:30–13:00 VII —

In Hungary, Poland, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

and other Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an countries to lesser extent, Roman numerals are used for floor numbering. Likewise, apartments in central Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

are indicated as 138-{{rn|III}}, with both an Arabic numeral (number of the block or house) and a Roman numeral (floor number). The apartment on the ground floor is indicated as '{{lang|nl|138-huis}}'.

### Zero

The number zero
0 (number)
0 is both a numberand the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems...

does not have its own Roman numeral, but the word nulla (the Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

word meaning "none") was sometimes used by medieval computists
Computus
Computus is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. The name has been used for this procedure since the early Middle Ages, as it was one of the most important computations of the age....

in lieu of 0. Dionysius Exiguus
Dionysius Exiguus
Dionysius Exiguus was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor, modern Dobruja shared by Romania and Bulgaria. He was a member of the Scythian monks community concentrated in Tomis, the major city of Scythia Minor...

was known to use nulla alongside Roman numerals in 525. About 725, Bede
Bede
Bede , also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede , was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth, today part of Sunderland, England, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow , both in the Kingdom of Northumbria...

or one of his colleagues used the letter N
N
N is the fourteenth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.- History of the forms :One of the most common hieroglyphs, snake, was used in Egyptian writing to stand for a sound like English ⟨J⟩, because the Egyptian word for "snake" was djet...

, the initial of nulla, in a table of epacts, all written in Roman numerals.

### Fractions

Though the Romans used a decimal
Decimal
The decimal numeral system has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations....

system for whole numbers, reflecting how they counted in Latin, they used a duodecimal
Duodecimal
The duodecimal system is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base. In this system, the number ten may be written as 'A', 'T' or 'X', and the number eleven as 'B' or 'E'...

system for fractions
Rational number
In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction a/b of two integers, with the denominator b not equal to zero. Since b may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number...

, because the divisibility of twelve {{nowrap|1= (12 = 3 × 2 × 2)}} makes it easier to handle the common fractions
Fraction (mathematics)
A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, we specify how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, five-eighths and three-quarters.A common or "vulgar" fraction, such as 1/2, 5/8, 3/4, etc., consists...

of 1/3 and 1/4 than does a system based on ten {{nowrap|1= (10 = 2 × 5)}}. On coin
Coin
A coin is a piece of hard material that is standardized in weight, is produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade, and primarily can be used as a legal tender token for commerce in the designated country, region, or territory....

s, many of which had values that were duodecimal
Duodecimal
The duodecimal system is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base. In this system, the number ten may be written as 'A', 'T' or 'X', and the number eleven as 'B' or 'E'...

fractions of the unit {{lang|la|as
As (coin)
The , also assarius was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.- Republican era coinage :...

}}, they used a tally-like notational system based on twelfths and halves. A dot • indicated an {{lang|la|uncia}} "twelfth", the source of the English words inch and ounce; dots were repeated for fractions up to five twelfths. Six twelfths (one half) was abbreviated as the letter S for {{lang|la|semis}} "half". Uncia dots were added to S for fractions from seven to eleven twelfths, just as tallies were added to {{rn|V}} for whole numbers from six to nine.

Each of these fractions had a name, which was also the name of the corresponding coin:
Fraction Roman Numeral Name (nominative and genitive) Meaning
1/12 {{lang|la|uncia, unciae
Uncia (coin)
The uncia was a Roman unit of length and of weight .-Republican coin:...

}}
"ounce"
2/12 = 1/6 •• or : {{lang|la|sextans, sextantis
Sextans (coin)
The sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as . The most common design for the sextans was the bust of Mercury and two pellets on the obverse and the prow of a galley on the reverse...

}}
"sixth"
The quadrans was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth one quarter of an as. The quadrans was issued from the beginning of cast bronze coins during the Roman Republic with three pellets representing three unciae as a mark of value...

}}
"quarter"
4/12 = 1/3 •••• or :: {{lang|la|triens, trientis}} "third"
5/12 ••••• or :: {{lang|la|quincunx, quincuncis
Quincunx (coin)
The quincunx was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic. The word quincunx comes from Latin "quinque" which means "five" and "uncia" which means "one twelfth", because the coin was valued at five-twelfths of an as , or five unciae...

}}
"five-ounce" (quinque unciaequincunx)
6/12 = 1/2 S {{lang|la|semis, semissis}} "half"
7/12 S• {{lang|la|septunx, septuncis}} "seven-ounce" (septem unciaeseptunx)
8/12 = 2/3 S•• or S: {{lang|la|bes, bessis
Bes (coin)
The bes was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic. The bes, valued at two-thirds of an as , was only produced in 126 BC by C. Cassius in combination with the dodrans, another very rare denomination which was valued at three-fourths of an as....

}}
"twice" (as in "twice a third")
9/12 = 3/4 S••• or S: {{lang|la|dodrans, dodrantis
Dodrans
The dodrans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic.The dodrans, valued at three-fourth of an as , was produced only twice:...

}}
or {{lang|la|nonuncium, nonuncii}}
or "ninth ounce" (nona uncianonuncium)
10/12 = 5/6 S•••• or S:: {{lang|la|dextans, dextantis}}
or {{lang|la|decunx, decuncis}}
"less a sixth" (de-sextansdextans)
or "ten ounces" (decem unciaedecunx)
11/12 S••••• or S:: {{lang|la|deunx, deuncis}} "less an ounce" (de-unciadeunx)
12/12 = 1 I {{lang|la|as, assis
As (coin)
The , also assarius was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.- Republican era coinage :...

}}
"unit"

The arrangement of the dots was variable and not necessarily linear. Five dots arranged like :·: (as on the face of a die
Dice
A die is a small throwable object with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers...

) are known as a quincunx
Quincunx
A quincunx is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, that is five coplanar points, four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center...

from the name of the Roman fraction/coin. The Latin words sextans and quadrans are the source of the English words sextant and quadrant.

Other Roman fractions include:
• 1/8 {{lang|la|sescuncia, sescunciae}} (from sesqui- + uncia, i.e. 1½ uncias), represented by a sequence of the symbols for the semuncia and the uncia.
• 1/24 {{lang|la|semuncia, semunciae}} (from semi- + uncia, i.e. ½ uncia), represented by several variant glyphs deriving from the shape of the Greek letter Sigma
Sigma
Sigma is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, and carries the 'S' sound. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 200. When used at the end of a word, and the word is not all upper case, the final form is used, e.g...

⟨{{Unicode|Σ}}⟩, one variant resembling the pound sign
Pound sign
The pound sign is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom . The same symbol is used for similarly named currencies in some other countries and territories, such as the Irish pound, Gibraltar pound, Australian pound and the Italian lira...

⟨£⟩ without the horizontal line(s) and another resembling the Cyrillic letter ⟨Є⟩.
• 1/36 {{lang|la|binae sextulae, binarum sextularum}} ("two sextulas") or {{lang|la|duella
Duella
A duella was an ancient Roman unit of weight, equivalent to a third of a Roman ounce ....

, duellae
}}, represented by ⟨ƧƧ⟩, a sequence of two reversed Ss.
• 1/48 {{lang|la|sicilicus, sicilici}}, represented by ⟨Ɔ⟩, a reversed C.
• 1/72 {{lang|la|sextula, sextulae}} (1/6 of an uncia), represented by ⟨Ƨ⟩, a reversed S.
• 1/144 {{lang|la|dimidia sextula, dimidiae sextulae}} ("half a sextula"), represented by ⟨ƻ⟩, a reversed S crossed by a horizontal line.
• 1/288 {{lang|la|scripulum, scripuli}} (a scruple
Apothecaries' system
The apothecaries' system of weights is a historical system of mass units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes, and also sometimes by scientists. The English version of the system is closely related with the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being...

), represented by the symbol ⟨{{Unicode|℈}}⟩.
• 1/1728 {{lang|la|siliqua, siliquae}}, represented by a symbol resembling closing guillemets ⟨»⟩.

### Large numbers

In the Middle Ages, a horizontal line was used above a particular numeral to represent one thousand times that numeral, and additional vertical lines on both sides of the numeral to denote one hundred times the number, as in these examples:
}} for one thousand}} for five thousand
5000 (number)
5000 is the natural number following 4999 and preceding 5001. Five thousand is the largest isogrammic number in the English language.-Selected numbers in the range 5001–5999:* 5003 – Sophie Germain prime...

• |{{overline|{{rn|I}}}}| for one hundred thousand
100000 (number)
One hundred thousand is the natural number following 99999 and preceding 100001. In scientific notation, it is written as 105.In South Asia, one hundred thousand is called a lakh...

• |{{overline|{{rn|V}}}}| for five hundred thousand

The same overline was also used with a different meaning, to clarify that the characters were numerals. Sometimes both underline and overline were used, e. g. {{overline|{{rn|MCMLXVII}}}}, and in certain (serif
Serif
In typography, serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface with serifs is called a serif typeface . A typeface without serifs is called sans serif or sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning “without”...

) typeface
Typeface
In typography, a typeface is the artistic representation or interpretation of characters; it is the way the type looks. Each type is designed and there are thousands of different typefaces in existence, with new ones being developed constantly....

s, particularly Times New Roman, the capital letters when used without spaces simulates the appearance of the under/over bar, e.g. {{rn|MCMLXVII}}.
Sometimes 500, usually {{rn|D}}, was written as {{unicode|I}}{{unicode|Ɔ}}, while 1,000, usually {{rn|M}}, was written as {{unicode|CIƆ}}. This is believed to be a system of encasing numbers to denote thousands (imagine the {{rn|C}}s as parentheses). This system has its origins from Etruscan numeral usage. The {{rn|D}} and {{rn|M}} symbols to represent 500 and 1,000 were most likely derived from {{unicode|IƆ}} and {{unicode|CIƆ}}, respectively.

An extra {{unicode|Ɔ}} denoted 500, and multiple extra {{unicode|Ɔ}}s are used to denote 5,000, 50,000, etc. For example:
Base number 1 extra Ɔ 2 extra Ɔs 3 extra Ɔs CIƆ = 1,000 CCIƆƆ = 10,000 CCCIƆƆƆ = 100,000 IƆ = 500 CIƆƆ = 1,500 CCIƆƆƆ = 10,500 CCCIƆƆƆƆ = 100,500 IƆƆ = 5,000 CCIƆƆƆƆ = 15,000 CCCIƆƆƆƆƆ = 105,000 IƆƆƆ = 50,000 CCCIƆƆƆƆƆƆ = 150,000

Sometimes {{unicode|CIƆ}} was reduced to {{unicode|ↀ}} for denoting 1,000. John Wallis is often credited for introducing this symbol to represent infinity
Infinity
Infinity is a concept in many fields, most predominantly mathematics and physics, that refers to a quantity without bound or end. People have developed various ideas throughout history about the nature of infinity...

({{unicode|∞}}), and one conjecture is that he based it on this usage, since 1,000 was hyperbolically
Hyperbole
Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be taken literally....

used to represent very large numbers. Similarly, 5,000 ({{unicode|IƆƆ}}) was reduced to {{unicode|ↁ}}; and 10,000 ({{unicode|CCIƆƆ}}) was reduced to {{unicode|ↂ}}.

## IIII on clocks

Clock face
Clock face
A clock face is the part of an analog clock that displays the time through the use of a fixed numbered dial or dials and moving hands. In its most basic form, recognized universally throughout the world, the dial is numbered 1–12 indicating the hours in a 12-hour cycle, and a short hour hand...

s that are labeled using Roman numerals conventionally show {{rn|IIII}} for four o'clock and {{rn|IX}} for nine o'clock, using the subtractive principle in one case and not the other. There are many suggested explanations for this:
• Many clocks use {{rn|IIII}} because that was the tradition established by the earliest surviving clock, the Wells Cathedral clock
Wells Cathedral clock
The Wells Cathedral clock is an astronomical clock in the north transept of Wells Cathedral, England.The clock is one of the group of famous 14th to 16th century astronomical clocks to be found in the West of England....

built between 1386 and 1392. It used {{rn|IIII}} because that was the typical method used to denote 4 in contemporary manuscripts (as iiij or iiii). That clock had an asymmetrical 24-hour dial and used Arabic numerals for a minute dial and a moon dial, so theories depending on a symmetrical 12-hour clock face do not apply.
• Perhaps {{rn|IV}} was avoided
Taboo
A taboo is a strong social prohibition relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and or forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs and or scientific consensus. Breaking the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society...

because {{rn|IV}} represented the Roman god
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

Jupiter
Jupiter (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Jupiter or Jove is the king of the gods, and the god of the sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus in the Greek pantheon....

, whose Latin name, IVPPITER, begins with IV. This suggestion has been attributed to Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. Asimov was one of the most prolific writers of all time, having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000...

.
• Louis XIV
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

, king of France, who preferred {{rn|IIII}} over {{rn|IV}}, ordered his clockmakers to produce clocks with {{rn|IIII}} and not {{rn|IV}}, and thus it has remained.
• Using standard numerals, two sets of figures would be similar and therefore confusable by children and others unused to reading clockfaces: {{rn|IV}} and {{rn|VI}} are similar, as are {{rn|IX}} and {{rn|XI}}. As the first pair are upside down on the face, an additional level of confusion would be introduced—a confusion avoided by using {{rn|IIII}} to provide a clear distinction from {{rn|VI}}.
• The four-character form {{rn|IIII}} creates a visual symmetry with the {{rn|VIII}} on the other side, which the two-character {{rn|IV}} would not.
• With {{rn|IIII}}, the number of symbols on the clock totals twenty {{rn|I}}s, four {{rn|V}}s, and four {{rn|X}}s, so clock makers need only a single mold with a {{rn|V}}, five {{rn|I}}s, and an {{rn|X}} in order to make the correct number of numerals for their clocks: {{rn|VIIIIIX}}. This is cast four times for each clock and the twelve required numerals are separated:
• {{rn|V IIII IX}}
• {{rn|VI II IIX}}
• {{rn|VII III X}}
• {{rn|VIII I IX}}
The {{rn|IIX}} and one of the {{rn|IX}}s are rotated 180° to form {{rn|XI}} and {{rn|XII}}. The alternative with {{rn|IV}} uses seventeen {{rn|I}}s, five {{rn|V}}s, and four {{rn|X}}s, requiring the clock maker to have several different molds.
• Only the {{rn|I}} symbol would be seen in the first four hours of the clock, the {{rn|V}} symbol would only appear in the next four hours, and the {{rn|X}} symbol only in the last four hours. This would add to the clock's radial symmetry.

• Kharosthi
• Roman abacus
Roman abacus
The Romans developed the Roman hand abacus, a portable, but less capable, base-10 version of the previous Babylonian abacus. It was the first portable calculating device for engineers, merchants and presumably tax collectors...

• Urnfield culture numerals
Urnfield culture numerals
During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe.-Discovery:...

• Roman numerals in Unicode