Rimini

Rimini

Overview
Rimini (ˈriːmini, Latin name Ariminum) is a medium-sized city of 142,579 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Emilia–Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. The capital is Bologna; it has an area of and about 4.4 million inhabitants....

 region of Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and capital city of the Province of Rimini
Province of Rimini
The Province of Rimini is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Rimini. It borders the state of San Marino.-History:...

. It is located on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia
Marecchia
The Marecchia is a river in eastern Italy. In ancient times it was known as the Ariminus which was from the Greek Ariminos, Αριμινος . The source of the river is east of Pieve Santo Stefano and southwest of Badia Tedalda in the province of Arezzo in Tuscany...

 (the ancient Ariminus) and Ausa
Ausa River
The Ausa River is a river of northern San Marino and Emilia–Romagna in Italy. The source of the river is Monte Titano in central San Marino. The river flows northeast past Serravalle and crosses the border into the Italian province of Rimini close to Dogana...

 (ancient Aprusa). It is one of the most famous seaside resorts in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, thanks to its 15 km-long sandy beach, over 1,000 hotels and thousands of bars, restaurants and discos.
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Encyclopedia
Rimini (ˈriːmini, Latin name Ariminum) is a medium-sized city of 142,579 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Emilia–Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. The capital is Bologna; it has an area of and about 4.4 million inhabitants....

 region of Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and capital city of the Province of Rimini
Province of Rimini
The Province of Rimini is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Rimini. It borders the state of San Marino.-History:...

. It is located on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia
Marecchia
The Marecchia is a river in eastern Italy. In ancient times it was known as the Ariminus which was from the Greek Ariminos, Αριμινος . The source of the river is east of Pieve Santo Stefano and southwest of Badia Tedalda in the province of Arezzo in Tuscany...

 (the ancient Ariminus) and Ausa
Ausa River
The Ausa River is a river of northern San Marino and Emilia–Romagna in Italy. The source of the river is Monte Titano in central San Marino. The river flows northeast past Serravalle and crosses the border into the Italian province of Rimini close to Dogana...

 (ancient Aprusa). It is one of the most famous seaside resorts in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, thanks to its 15 km-long sandy beach, over 1,000 hotels and thousands of bars, restaurants and discos. The first bathing establishment opened in 1843.
An art city with ancient Roman and Renaissance monuments, Rimini is the hometown of the famous film director Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI , was an Italian film director and scriptwriter. Known for a distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images, he is considered one of the most influential and widely revered filmmakers of the 20th century...

 as well.

Founded by the Romans in 268 BC, throughout their period of rule Rimini was a key communications link between the north and south of the peninsula, and on its soil Roman emperors erected monuments like the Arch of Augustus and the Tiberius Bridge, while during the Renaissance, the city benefited from the court of the House of Malatesta
House of Malatesta
The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as other lands and towns in Romagna.Malatesta da Verucchio The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as (in different periods) other lands and...

, which hosted artists like Leonardo
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance...

 and produced works such as the Malatesta Temple
Tempio Malatestiano
The Tempio Malatestiano is the cathedral church of Rimini, Italy. Officially named for St. Francis, it takes the popular name from Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, who commissioned its reconstruction by the famous Renaissance theorist and architect Leon Battista Alberti around 1450.-History:San...

. In the 19th century, Rimini was one of the most active cities in the revolutionary front, hosting many of the movements aimed at the unification of Italy. In the course of World War II the city was the scene of clashes and bombings, but also of a fierce partisan resistance that earned it the honor of a gold medal at the civic value. Finally, in recent years it has become one of the most important sites for trade fairs and conferences in Italy.

Ancient history



In 268 BC at the mouth of the Ariminus river, in an area that had previously been inhabited by the Etruscans
Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci...

, the Umbri
Umbri
The Umbri were an Italic people of ancient Italy. A region called Umbria still exists and is currently occupied by Italian speakers. It is somewhat smaller than the ancient Umbria....

ans, the Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 and the Gauls
Gauls
The Gauls were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is now France, Belgium, Switzerland and Northern Italy, from the Iron Age through the Roman period. They mostly spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish....

, the Romans
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 founded the colony
Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city—its "metropolis"—, not from a territory-at-large. Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained often close, and took specific forms...

 of Ariminum, probably from the name of a nearby river, Ariminus (today, Marecchia
Marecchia
The Marecchia is a river in eastern Italy. In ancient times it was known as the Ariminus which was from the Greek Ariminos, Αριμινος . The source of the river is east of Pieve Santo Stefano and southwest of Badia Tedalda in the province of Arezzo in Tuscany...

). Previously the area had been Gaulish, from the 6th century BC, to that group's final defeat in 283 BC by the Umbri, in whose possession it remained until 263 BC when it became a Latin colony very helpful to the Romans during the late Gallic wars.

The city was involved in the civil wars but remained faithful to the popular party and to its leaders, firstly Marius
Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the...

, and then Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

. After crossing the Rubicon
Rubicon
The Rubicon is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, about 80 kilometres long, running from the Apennine Mountains to the Adriatic Sea through the southern Emilia-Romagna region, between the towns of Rimini and Cesena. The Latin word rubico comes from the adjective "rubeus", meaning "red"...

, the latter made his legendary appeal to the legions in the Forum of Rimini.

Ariminum was seen as a bastion against invaders from Gaul and also as a springboard for conquering the Padana plain. As the terminus of the Via Flaminia
Via Flaminia
The Via Flaminia was an ancient Roman road leading from Rome over the Apennine Mountains to Ariminum on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and due to the ruggedness of the mountains was the major option the Romans had for travel between Etruria, Latium and Campania and the Po Valley...

, which ended here in the surviving prestigious Arch of Augustus (erected 27 BC), Rimini was a road junction connecting central Italy and northern Italy by the Via Aemilia
Via Aemilia
The Via Aemilia was a trunk Roman road in the north Italian plain, running from Ariminum , on the Adriatic coast, to Placentia on the river Padus . It was completed in 187 BC...

 that led to Piacenza
Piacenza
Piacenza is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Piacenza...

 and the Via Popilia
Via Popilia
The Via Popilia is the name of two different ancient Roman roads begun in the consulship of Publius Popilius Laenas.The first road was an extension of the Via Flaminia from Ariminum around the north of the Adriatic through the region that later became Venice...

 that extended northwards; it also opened up trade by sea and river. Remains of the amphitheater that could seat 12000 people, and a five-arched bridge of Istrian stone
Istrian stone
Istrian stone, pietra d'Istria, the characteristic group of building stones in the architecture of Venice and Dalmatia, is a dense type of impermeable limestones that was quarried in Istria, between Portorož and Pula....

 completed by Tiberius (21 AD) are also still visible. Later Galla Placida built the church of San Stefano.

Crisis in the Roman world was marked by destruction caused by invasions and wars, but also by the testimony of the palaces of the Imperial officers and the first churches, the symbol of the spread of Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 that held an important Council in Rimini
Council of Rimini
The Council of Rimini was an early Christian church synod held in Ariminum ....

 in 359.

Middle Ages


When the Ostrogoths conquered Rimini in 493, Odoacer
Odoacer
Flavius Odoacer , also known as Flavius Odovacer, was the first King of Italy. His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of Julius Nepos and, after Nepos' death in 480, of the...

, besieged in Ravenna, had to capitulate. During the Gothic War Rimini was taken and retaken many times. In its vicinity the Byzantine general Narses
Narses
Narses was, with Belisarius, one of the great generals in the service of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I during the "Reconquest" that took place during Justinian's reign....

 overthrew (553) the Alamanni
Alamanni
The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Rhine river . One of the earliest references to them is the cognomen Alamannicus assumed by Roman Emperor Caracalla, who ruled the Roman Empire from 211 to 217 and claimed thereby to be...

. Under the Byzantine rule, it belonged to the Pentapolis
Pentapolis
A pentapolis, from the Greek words , "five" and , "city" is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities...

, part of the Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.-Introduction:...

.

In 728 it was taken with many other cities by the Lombard
Lombards
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...

 King Liutprand but returned to the Byzantines about 735. King Pepin
Pippin the Younger
Pepin , called the Short or the Younger , rarely the Great , was the first King of the Franks of the Carolingian dynasty...

 gave it to the Holy See, but during the wars of the popes and the Italian cities against the emperors, Rimini sided with the latter.

In the thirteenth century it suffered from the discords of the Gambacari and Ansidei families. The city became a municipality in the fourteenth century and with the arrival of the religious orders, numerous convents and churches were built, providing work for many illustrious artists. In fact, Giotto
Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone , better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages...

 inspired the 14th-century School of Rimini, which was the expression of original cultural ferment.

The Malatesta
House of Malatesta
The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as other lands and towns in Romagna.Malatesta da Verucchio The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as (in different periods) other lands and...

 family emerged from the struggles between municipal factions with Malatesta da Verucchio
Malatesta da Verucchio
Malatesta da Verucchio was the founder of the powerful Italian Malatesta family and a famous condottiero. He was born in Verucchio....

, who in 1239 was named podestà
Podestà
Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later Middle Ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state , but also as a local administrator, the representative of the Emperor.The term derives from the Latin word potestas, meaning power...

 (feudal lord) of the city. Despite interruptions, his family held authority until 1528. In 1312 he was succeeded by Malatesta II
Malatesta II Malatesta
Malatesta II Malatesta, best known as Guastafamiglia was an Italian condottiero and lord of Rimini.-Biography:...

, first signore (lord) of the city and Pandolfo I
Pandolfo I Malatesta
Pandolfo I Malatesta , son of Malatesta da Verucchio, was an Italian condottiero and Lord of Rimini from 1317.In 1304, at the death of Pope Boniface VIII, he captured Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia and Fossombrone, which he lost and recovered in the following years.In 1317 he became lord of Rimini and...

, the latter's brother, named by Louis the Bavarian imperial vicar
Imperial vicar
An imperial vicar was a prince charged with administering all or part of the Holy Roman Empire on behalf of the Emperor. Later, an imperial vicar was invariably one of two princes charged by the Golden Bull with administering the Holy Roman Empire during an interregnum.The Holy Roman Empire had no...

 in Romagna
Romagna
Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west...

. Ferrantino, son of Malatesta II (1335), was opposed by his cousin Ramberto and by Cardinal Bertando del Poggetto (1331), legate of John XXII. Malatesta Guastafamiglia (1363) was also lord of Pesaro
Pesaro
Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic. According to the 2007 census, its population was 92,206....

. He was succeeded by Malatesta Ungaro
Malatesta Ungaro
Ungaro Malatesta , born Galeotto Malatesta, was an Italian condottiero and lord of Jesi.He was the son of Malatesta Guastafamiglia, lord of Pesaro and Rimini...

 (1373) and Galeotto
Galeotto I Malatesta
Galeotto I Malatesta was an Italian condottiero, who was lord of Rimini, Fano, Ascoli Piceno, Cesena and Fossombrone.-Biography:Born in Rimini, he the son of Pandolfo I Malatesta and the brother of Malatesta II Malatesta. In 1333 he was captured while besieging Ferrara, but was soon freed and...

, uncle of the former (1385), lord also of Fano
Fano
Fano is a town and comune of the province of Pesaro and Urbino in the Marche region of Italy. It is a beach resort 12 km southeast of Pesaro, located where the Via Flaminia reaches the Adriatic Sea...

 (from 1340), Pesaro, and Cesena (1378).

His son Carlo
Carlo I Malatesta
Carlo I Malatesta was an Italian condottiero during the Wars in Lombardy and lord of Rimini, Fano, Cesena and Pesaro...

, one of the most respected condottieri
Condottieri
thumb|Depiction of [[Farinata degli Uberti]] by [[Andrea del Castagno]], showing a 15th century condottiero's typical attire.Condottieri were the mercenary soldier leaders of the professional, military free companies contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy, from the late Middle Ages...

 of the time, enlarged the Riminese possessions and restored the port. Carlo died childless in 1429, and the lordship was divided into three parts, Rimini going to Galeotto Roberto
Galeotto Roberto Malatesta
Galeotto Roberto Malatesta was an Italian condottiero.He was the son of Pandolfo III Malatesta and succeeded him in the lordship of Rimini in contrast with the local bishop; after the people rose against the latter, he obtained by Pope Martin V that his father's lands were entrusted to him and his...

, a Catholic zealot who turned out to be totally inadequate for the role. The Pesarese line of the Malatestas tried, in fact, to take advantage of his weakness and to capture the city, but Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Carlo's nephew, who was only 14 at the time, intervened to save it. Galeotto retired to a convent, and Sigismondo obtained the rule of Rimini.

Sigismondo Pandolfo was the most famous lord of Rimini. In 1433 Emperor Sigismund soujourned in the city and for a while he was the commander-in-chief of the Papal armies. A skilled general, Sigismondo often acted as condottiero for other states to gain money to embellish it (he was also a dilettante poet). He had the famous Tempio Malatestiano
Tempio Malatestiano
The Tempio Malatestiano is the cathedral church of Rimini, Italy. Officially named for St. Francis, it takes the popular name from Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, who commissioned its reconstruction by the famous Renaissance theorist and architect Leon Battista Alberti around 1450.-History:San...

 rebuilt by Leon Battista Alberti. However, after the rise of Pope Pius II he had to fight constantly for the independence of the city. In 1463 he was forced to submit to Pius II, who left him only Rimini and little more; Roberto Malatesta
Roberto Malatesta
Roberto Malatesta was an Italian condottiero and lord of Rimini, a member of the House of Malatesta.-Biography:...

, his son (1482), under pope Paul II
Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II , born Pietro Barbo, was pope from 1464 until his death in 1471.- Early life :He was born in Venice, and was a nephew of Pope Eugene IV , through his mother. His adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope...

 nearly lost his state but under Sixtus IV became the commanding officer of the pontifical army against Ferdinand of Naples. Sigismondo was, however, defeated by Neapolitan forces in the battle of Campomorto
Battle of Campomorto
The Battle of Campomorto is a battle fought near Frosinone, in the Lazio on August 21, 1482, in the course of the War of Ferrara.It saw the Papal army, led by the famous condottiero Roberto Malatesta, face King Ferdinand I of Naples's army, under the command of Alfonso, Duke of Calabria.Malatesta...

 (1482). Pandolfo IV
Pandolfo IV Malatesta
Pandolfo IV Malatesta, nicknamed Pandolfaccio was an Italian condottiero and lord of Rimini and other cities in Romagna. He was a member of the House of Malatesta and a minor player in the Italian Wars....

, his son (1500), lost Rimini to Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia , Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia , Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia , Prince of Squillace...

, after whose overthrow it fell to Venice (1503–1509), but it was later retaken by pope Julius II
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II , nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope" , born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513...

 and incorporated into the Papal States
Papal States
The Papal State, State of the Church, or Pontifical States were among the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia .The Papal States comprised territories under...

. After the death of pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X , born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was the Pope from 1513 to his death in 1521. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. He is known for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's 95 Theses...

, Pandolfo returned for several months, and with his son Sigismondo
Sigismondo Malatesta
Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta , popularly known as the Wolf of Rimini, was an Italian condottiero and nobleman, a member of the House of Malatesta and lord of Rimini, Fano, and Cesena from 1432...

 held a rule which looked tyrannous even for the time. Pope Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI , born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, served as Pope from 9 January 1522 until his death some 18 months later...

 expelled him again and gave Rimini to the Duke of Urbino, the pope's vicar in Romagna. In 1527 Sigismondo managed to regain the city, but in the following year the Malatesta dominion died forever.

Modern history


At the beginning of the 16th century Rimini, now a secondary town of the Papal States, was ruled by an Apostolic Legate. Towards the end of the 16th century, the municipal square (now Piazza Cavour), which had been closed off on a site where the Poletti Theatre was subsequently built, was redesigned. The statue of Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V
-Theology:Paul met with Galileo Galilei in 1616 after Cardinal Bellarmine had, on his orders, warned Galileo not to hold or defend the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus. Whether there was also an order not to teach those ideas in any way has been a matter for controversy...

 has stood in the centre of the square next to the fountain since 1614.

In the 16th century, the 'grand square' (now the Piazza Tre Martiri in honor of three civilians hanged by the retreating Nazis at the end of World War II), which was where markets and tournaments were held, underwent various changes. A small temple dedicated to Saint Anthony of Padua
Anthony of Padua
Anthony of Padua or Anthony of Lisbon, O.F.M., was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. Though he died in Padua, Italy, he was born to a wealthy family in Lisbon, Portugal, which is where he was raised...

 and a clock tower were built there, giving the square its present shape and size.

Until the 18th century raiding armies, earthquakes, famines, floods and pirate attacks ravaged the city. In this gloomy situation and due to a weakened local economy, fishing took on great importance, a fact testified by the construction of structures such as the fish market and the lighthouse.

In 1797 Rimini, along with the rest of Romagna
Romagna
Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west...

, was affected by the passage of the Napoleonic army and became part of the Cisalpine Republic
Cisalpine Republic
The Cisalpine Republic was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.-Birth:After the Battle of Lodi in May 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte proceeded to organize two states: one to the south of the Po River, the Cispadane Republic, and one to the north, the Transpadane...

. Napoleonic policy
Bonapartism
Bonapartism is often defined as a political expression in the vocabulary of Marxism and Leninism, deriving from the career of Napoleon Bonaparte. Karl Marx was a student of Jacobinism and the French Revolution as well as a contemporary critic of the Second Republic and Second Empire...

 suppressed the monastic orders, confiscating their property and thus dispersing a substantial heritage, and demolished many churches including the ancient cathedral of Santa Colomba. On 30 March 1815, Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
Joachim-Napoléon Murat , Marshal of France and Grand Admiral or Admiral of France, 1st Prince Murat, was Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808 and then King of Naples from 1808 to 1815...

 launched his proclamation to the Italian people from Rimini, inciting them to unity and independence. In 1845 a band of adventurers commanded by Ribbotti entered the city and proclaimed a constitution which was soon abolished. In 1860 Rimini and Romagna were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.

The city was transformed after the 1843 founding of the first bathing establishment and the Kursaal, a building constructed to host sumptuous social events, became the symbol of Rimini's status as a tourist resort. In just a few years the seafront underwent considerable development work making Rimini 'the city of small villas'. At the beginning of the twentieth century The Grand Hotel
The Grand Hotel Rimini
The Grand Hotel Rimini is a five star-hotel located in Rimini, Italy.It is known for its elegance, classic style, and association with the famous Italian filmmaker, Federico Fellini....

, the city’s first major accommodation facility, was built near the beach.

During the first World War Rimini and its surrounding infrastructure was one of the primary targets of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. After Italy's declaration of war on 15 May 1915 the Austro-Hungarian fleet left its harbours the same day and started its assault on the Adriatic coast between Venice and Barletta.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the city was torn apart by heavy bombardments and by the passage of the front over the Gothic Line
Gothic Line
The Gothic Line formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of German forces in Italy against the Allied Armies in Italy commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.Adolf Hitler...

 during the Battle of Rimini
Battle of Rimini (1944)
The Battle of Rimini took place in between 13 and 21 September 1944 during Operation Olive, the main Allied offensive on the Gothic Line in August and September 1944, part of the Italian Campaign in the Second World War. Rimini, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, anchored the Rimini Line, a...

 and was eventually captured by Greek and Canadian forces. Following its liberation on September 21, 1944, reconstruction work began, culminating in huge development of the tourist industry in the city.

Notable buildings


  • The 13th century cathedral (San Francesco, best known as Tempio Malatestiano
    Tempio Malatestiano
    The Tempio Malatestiano is the cathedral church of Rimini, Italy. Officially named for St. Francis, it takes the popular name from Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, who commissioned its reconstruction by the famous Renaissance theorist and architect Leon Battista Alberti around 1450.-History:San...

    ) was originally in Gothic style
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

    , but was transformed by order of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta according to the designs of Leon Battista Alberti and never completed. In the cathedral are the tombs of Sigismondo and his wife Isotta.
  • The Arch of Augustus. Built in 27 BC, it has a single gate 9.92 m high and 8.45 m wide. The merlons were added in the Middle Ages. It was restored in the 18th century by Tommaso Temenza.
  • The church of San Giuliano Martire (1553–1575), housing the great picture of Paul Veronese (1588) representing the martyrdom of that saint. It includes also pictures of Bittino da Faenza (1357) dealing with some episodes of the saint's life (1409).
  • The Tiberius Bridge
    Pons Augustus
    The Ponte d'Augusto or Bridge of Tiberius is a Roman bridge in Rimini, Italy. The bridge features five semicircular arches with an average span length of ca. 8 m...

    . As the inscription on the internal parapets recalls, the bridge over the Marecchia River, then known as Ariminus, began under Augustus in 14 AD and was completed under Tiberius in 21. The bridge still connects the city centre to Borgo San Giuliano and leads to the consular roads Via Emilia and Via Popilia that lead north. Built in Istria stone, the bridge consists of five arches that rest on massive pillars with breakwater spurs set at an oblique angle with respect to the bridge’s axis in order to follow the current. The bridge’s structure on the other hand, rests on a practical system of wooden poles.
  • The Roman amphitheater (2nd century). It was erected alongside the ancient coast line, and had a two orders of porticoes with 60 arcades. It had elliptical shape, with axes of 117.7 x 88 meters. The arena measured 73 x 44 meters, not far from the greatest Roman amphitheatres: the edifice could house up to 15,000 spectators.
  • The Castel Sismondo
    Castel Sismondo
    Castel Sismondo is a castle in Rimini, Romagna, northern Italy.Of the original construction, begun by the lord of Rimini Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta on March 20, 1437, only the central nucleus remain...

    or Rocca Malatestiana of Sigismondo Pandolfo was later used as a prison.
  • Palazzo dell'Arengo e del Podestà (1204), seat of the judiciary and civil administrations. On the short side in the 14th century the podestà residence was added. It was modified at the end of the 16th century.
  • Teatro Galli, originally dedicated to king Victor Emmanuel II and then to the musician Amintore Galli, it was designed by architect Luigi Poletti
    Luigi Poletti
    Luigi Poletti was an Italian mathematician and poet. He was born in Pontremoli, where he also died, aged 103 . His mathematical studies have been related to the expansion of the table of prime numbers, using a variant of the Sieve of Eratosthenes that he called Neocribrum.-Notes:...

    . It was inaugurated in 1857 with an opera by Giuseppe Verdi
    Giuseppe Verdi
    Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. He was one of the most influential composers of the 19th century...

     (Aroldo
    Aroldo
    Aroldo is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on and adapted from their earlier 1850 collaboration, Stiffelio...

    ). The theatre was bombed during World War II. Since then it is still a ruin in the city centre. Many projects and plans have been made to restore it during the years, the latest having been announced in 2010.
  • The church of St. John the Evangelist (also known as St. Augustine).
  • The church of San Giovanni Battista, erected in the 12th century. It has a single nave with rich stucco decoration from the 18th century.
  • The town hall has a small but valuable gallery (Perin del Vaga, Ghirlandajo, Bellini, Benedetto Coda, Tintoretto, Agostino di Duccio); the Gambalunga Library (1677) has valuable manuscripts.
  • Church of San Fortunato (1418). It houses the Adoration of the Magi (1547) by Giorgio Vasari
    Giorgio Vasari
    Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and architect, who is famous today for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.-Biography:...

    .
  • The bell tower of the former Cathedral of Santa Colomba.
  • Archeological museum.
  • Bronze statue of Paul V.

Transportation


Rimini is provided with six railway stations (Rimini
Rimini railway station
Rimini railway station is the main station serving the city and comune of Rimini, in the region of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. Opened in 1861, it forms part of the Bologna–Ancona railway, and is also a terminus of a secondary railway linking Rimini with Ravenna and Modena.The station is...

, Rimini Fiera, Rimini Miramare, Rimini Rivazzurra, and Rimini Torre Pedrera). It is served by the Federico Fellini Airport, airport
Airport
An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport...

 of Rimini and San Marino
San Marino
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino , is a state situated on the Italian Peninsula on the eastern side of the Apennine Mountains. It is an enclave surrounded by Italy. Its size is just over with an estimated population of over 30,000. Its capital is the City of San Marino...

.

Rimini's local public transport network includes the Rimini–Riccione trolleybus line
Trolleybuses in Rimini
The Rimini trolleybus system , also known as the Rimini–Riccione trolleybus line , forms part of the public transport network of the city and comune of Rimini, in the region of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy...

, which links the city with the nearby seaside resort of Riccione
Riccione
Riccione is a comune in the Province of Rimini, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. As of 2007 Riccione had an estimated population of 34,868.-History:...

.

Economy


The airline Air Vallée
Air Vallée
Air Vallée S.p.A. is an airline based on the grounds of Federico Fellini Airport in Rimini, Italy. It operated scheduled services linking two destinations in Sardinia and six on mainland Italy, as well as charter services. Its main base was Aosta Airport, with hubs at Leonardo da Vinci Airport,...

 has its head office on the grounds of Federico Fellini Airport in Rimini.

Notable natives of Rimini and environs

  • Samuele Bersani
    Samuele Bersani
    Samuele Bersani is an Italian singer-songwriter. Between his best known songs, Giudizi Universali and Replay, the latest being the song that won the "Mia Martini" Critics Award at the Sanremo Music Festival....

     (singer-songwriter, born 1970)
  • Pier Paolo Bianchi
    Pier Paolo Bianchi
    Pier Paolo Bianchi is an Italian former Grand Prix motorcycle road racing World Champion.He won consecutive FIM 125 cc world championships in 1976 and 1977...

     (Grand Prix motorcycle road racer, born 1952)
  • Claudio Maria Celli
    Claudio Maria Celli
    Claudio Maria Celli , Titular Archbishop of Cluentum, is an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He currently serves as President of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications.-Biography:...

     (titular bishop, born 1941)
  • Federico Fellini
    Federico Fellini
    Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI , was an Italian film director and scriptwriter. Known for a distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images, he is considered one of the most influential and widely revered filmmakers of the 20th century...

     (film director, 1920–1993)
  • Roberto Paci Dalò
    Roberto Paci Dalò
    Roberto Paci Dalò is an Italian composer and musician, film and theatre director, visual artist.After musical, visual, and architectural studies in Fiesole, Faenza and Ravenna, in 1993 he has been recipient of the “Berliner Künstlerprogramm des DAAD” Fellowship...

     (composer, director, visual artist, born 1962)
  • Elio Pagliarani
    Elio Pagliarani
    Elio Pagliarani is an Italian poet and literary critic, who belonged to the avant-garde Gruppo 63 movemement. He was born in Viserba, near Rimini....

     (poet and literary critic, born 1927 in Viserba)
  • Renzo Pasolini
    Renzo Pasolini
    Renzo Pasolini , nicknamed "Paso", was a popular Italian Grand Prix motorcycle road racer in the 1960s.His unpredictable and unrehearsed racing style made him a crowd favourite...

     (Grand Prix motorcycle road racer, 1938–1973)
  • Hugo Pratt
    Hugo Pratt
    Hugo Eugenio Pratt was an Italian comic book creator who was known for combining strong storytelling with extensive historical research on works such as Corto Maltese...

     (comic book creator, 1927–1995)
  • Delio Rossi
    Delio Rossi
    Delio Rossi is an Italian association football manager, currently managing Fiorentina.-Playing career:Rossi's playing career was not a bright one, as he reached his personal top from 1981 to 1983, playing Serie B with U.S. Foggia, where he spent most of his footballing time...

     (football manager, born 1960)
  • Loris Stecca
    Loris Stecca
    Loris Stecca Loris Stecca Loris Stecca (born March 30, 1960 is an Italian former world champion boxer. His brother Maurizio is also a former boxer and held the WBO world Featherweight title shortly during the late 1990s.-Professional career:...

     (former world champion boxer, born 1960)
  • Roberto Valturio
    Roberto Valturio
    Roberto Valturio was an Italian engineer and writer born in Rimini. He was the author of the military treatise De Re militari .-References:...

     (engineer and writer, 1405–1475)
  • Carlton Myers
    Carlton Myers
    Carlton Ettore Francesco Myers is a retired Italian basketball player that played in the Italian league and the Euroleague...

     (basketball player)
  • Matteo Brighi
    Matteo Brighi
    Matteo Brighi is an Italian football player. He currently plays as a midfielder for Serie A club Atalanta. Brighi was named Serie A Young Footballer of the Year in 2002. Brighi is noted for his stamina, tackling, and aerial abilities.-Club career:Brighi started his career at Rimini...

     (football player)
  • Alice Tiberio (Vice president of www.volio.it, born 1983)

Twin towns — Sister cities


Rimini is twinned with: Seraing
Seraing
Seraing is a Walloon municipality of Belgium in Province of Liege. The municipality of Seraing includes the old communes of Boncelles, Jemeppe-sur-Meuse, and Ougrée. With Liège, Herstal, Saint-Nicolas, Ans, and Flémalle it forms the greater Liège agglomeration...

, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 Saint-Maur-des-Fossés
Saint-Maur-des-Fossés
Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.7 km. from the center of Paris.-The abbey:...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Sochi
Sochi
Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated just north of Russia's border with the de facto independent republic of Abkhazia, on the Black Sea coast. Greater Sochi sprawls for along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor is the capital of the Ziguinchor Region, and the chief town of the Casamance area of Senegal, lying at the mouth of the Casamance River. It has a population of over 230,000...

, Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

 Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Fort Lauderdale is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, on the Atlantic coast. It is the county seat of Broward County. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 165,521. It is a principal city of the South Florida metropolitan area, which was home to 5,564,635 people at the 2010...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Yangzhou
Yangzhou
Yangzhou is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, it borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang across...

, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 Djibouti City
Djibouti (city)
The City of Djibouti is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Djibouti, a nation in the Horn of Africa. The biggest settlement on the Gulf of Tadjoura, it lies on a peninsula that separates that basin from the Gulf of Aden.-History:...

, Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti , officially the Republic of Djibouti , is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east...

 Linköping
Linköping
Linköping is a city in southern middle Sweden, with 104 232 inhabitants in 2010. It is the seat of Linköping Municipality with 146 736 inhabitants and the capital of Östergötland County...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 Lattakia, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 Playa del Carmen
Playa del Carmen
Playa del Carmen is a balneario resort city just south of Cancún on the coast of the Caribbean Sea, in the northeast of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The city is the seat of the Solidaridad municipality. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 149,923 people and it is rapidly growing...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 Limanu
Limanu
-Villages:The commune includes four villages:* Limanu * 2 Mai* Hagieni * Vama Veche -2 Mai:...

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...


See also


  • Bishopric of Rimini
  • Rimini Calcio Football Club
    Rimini Calcio F.C.
    Associazione Calcio Rimini 1912 is an Italian association football club based in Rimini, Emilia-Romagna....

  • Battle of Rimini (1944)
    Battle of Rimini (1944)
    The Battle of Rimini took place in between 13 and 21 September 1944 during Operation Olive, the main Allied offensive on the Gothic Line in August and September 1944, part of the Italian Campaign in the Second World War. Rimini, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, anchored the Rimini Line, a...

  • The Grand Hotel Rimini
    The Grand Hotel Rimini
    The Grand Hotel Rimini is a five star-hotel located in Rimini, Italy.It is known for its elegance, classic style, and association with the famous Italian filmmaker, Federico Fellini....

  • Federico Fellini
    Federico Fellini
    Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI , was an Italian film director and scriptwriter. Known for a distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images, he is considered one of the most influential and widely revered filmmakers of the 20th century...


Sources and external links