Ribeira Palace

Ribeira Palace

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[[Image:Ribeira-Braun-1598.jpg|thumb|right|350px|16th century drawing of the Ribeira Palace. The palace is the building perpendicular to the [[Tagus]], with a central tower and a [[Terrace (building)|terrace]] near the river. To the left there is a ship building area (''Ribeira das Naus'') with some half-built ships. The open area to the right is the palace square (''Terreiro do Paço''), with a harbour and a [[pillory]].]] The '''Ribeira Palace''' ({{lang-pt|'''Paço(s) da Ribeira'''}}) was [[Lisbon]]'s royal palace for over 200 years, until it was destroyed by the [[1755 Lisbon earthquake]]. The square in which the Palace was located is now one of the most important Lisbon squares, the [[Praça do Comércio]]. ==History== When staying in Lisbon during the Middle Ages, the [[Kings of Portugal]] would stay at [[Lisbon Castle]], which crowns a high hill in the [[Alfama]] neighbourhood. In the 15th and early 16th centuries, maritime exploration during the [[Age of Discovery]] made Lisbon an increasingly important port city, responsible for the commerce between the nascent [[Portuguese Empire]] and Africa and India. In this context, [[Manuel I of Portugal|King Manuel I]] decided, around 1500, to build a new royal palace on the banks of the [[Tagus river]] (the ''Ribeira''), completely changing the urban landscape of the city . The Ribeira Palace was finished around 1511. King Manuel I and the court were now close to the commercial and industrial heart of the city. The areas around the palace were occupied by the harbour, the shipbuilding area (the so-called ''Ribeira das Naus''), customs and other buildings responsible for the regulation of maritime commerce. This initial building occupied the west side of a vast area by the river, the precursor of today's [[Praça do Comércio]] (Commerce Square) in Lisbon. The style of the Palace was probably the [[manueline]] (Portuguese late Gothic), and it had a series of [[renaissance]] arched galleries in its façade. Its tower closest to the river was later turned into a terrace from which the busy activity in the river and port could be appreciated. The Palace also had a private garden with fruit trees and vegetables. [[File:Terreiro do Paço em 1650.jpg|thumb|Ribeira Palace in 1650]] [[Image:PacoRibeira-18thCentury.jpg|thumb|left|350px|View of the Ribeira Square and Palace in the early 18th century. The main feature of the building is the large mannerist tower by the river.]] When the Portuguese crown fell into the hands of [[Philip II of Spain]] (Philip I of Portugal), in 1580, the Spanish King visited Lisbon and ordered the construction of a new tower for the Palace. This huge tower, located by the river and built in classical [[mannerist]] style, was designed by the [[Italy|Italian]] ''[[:it:Filippo Terzi|Felipe Terzi]]''. It dominated the urban landscape in the Ribeira and was a favourite drawing motif for painters visiting Lisbon. The whole façade of the Palace was also renovated in mannerist style. The famous Royal Library was installed in the tower. Another King to improve the Palace was [[John V of Portugal|John V]], who invested great sums – derived from the gold mines in [[colonial Brazil]] – to enlarge and embellish the Ribeira Palace. The original manueline chapel was turned into a magnificent [[baroque]] church, and the Palace gained another wing, parallel to the previous one. Later in the century, [[José I of Portugal|King Joseph I]] built a Royal Opera House by the Palace, designed by the Italian [[Giuseppe Galli Bibiena|Giuseppe Bibiena]]. [[File:French drawing of the Palace of Ribeira in the 18th century from the harbour by Guillaume Debrie.jpg|thumb|Ribeira Palace, in a French engraving, behind this palace, is the Corte-Real palace, with 4 towers in each corner.]] The [http://operadotejo.org/ Opera House], inaugurated in 1755, lasted only a few months. On the 1st of November of 1755, a [[1755 Lisbon earthquake|huge earthquake]], and resulting [[tsunami]] and fire destroyed the palace and most of Lisbon. King Joseph I was not at the palace and survived. His Prime Minister, the [[Marquis of Pombal|1st Marquess of Pombal]], coordinated a massive reconstruction effort that would give rise to the [[Pombaline Downtown]] of Lisbon. The royal family abandoned the Ribeira area and moved to palaces in the areas of [[Ajuda]] and [[Santa Maria de Belém|Belém]]. The old Palace Square (Terreiro do Paço) gave rise to a new square, the Pombaline Commerce Square (Praça do Comércio). The two towers at the corners of the square are still reminiscent of the old tower of the Ribeira Palace. ==External links== *[http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/getimg?id=KZ75 Engraving of the Ribeira Palace after the 1755 earthquake] *[http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/getimg?id=KZ76 Engraving of repairs after the 1755 earthquake] *[http://www.ippar.pt/sites_externos/bajuda/htm/guia/prib.htm Images] {{coord missing|Portugal}}