Rhine-Ruhr

Rhine-Ruhr

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{{Other uses}} [[File:Köln - Rhein I.jpg|thumb|upright|Rhine in Cologne]] [[File:Düsseldorf Rheinkniebrücke.jpg|thumb|upright|Rhine in Düsseldorf]] [[File:River-ruhr-essen-kettwig.jpeg|thumb|upright|Ruhr in Essen]] The '''Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region''' ({{lang-de|Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr}}) is the [[Metropolitan regions in Germany|largest metropolitan region]] in [[Germany]] with about 10,100,000 inhabitants. It is of [[Polycentrism|polycentric]] nature and the only [[megacity]] in Germany. It covers an area of 7,110 square kilometers and lies entirely within the federal state of [[North Rhine-Westphalia]]. The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region spreads from Dortmund-Bochum-Essen-Duisburg ([[Ruhr Area]]) in the north, to the urban areas of the cities of [[Mönchengladbach]], [[Düsseldorf]] (the state capital), [[Wuppertal]], [[Cologne]] (the region's largest and Germany's fourth largest city), and [[Bonn]] in the south. The location of the Rhine-Ruhr at the heart of the European "''[[blue banana]]''" makes it well connected to other major European cities and metropolitan areas like [[Amsterdam]] and the [[Randstad]], the [[Flemish Diamond]] and [[Frankfurt]]/[[Frankfurt Rhine Main Region|Rhine-Main Region]]. The metropolitan area is named after the [[Rhine]] and [[Ruhr (river)|Ruhr]] rivers, which are the regions's defining geographical features and historically its economic backbone. ==Subdivisions== There are many different sub-definitions of what belongs to the Rhine-Ruhr area, but the metropolitan area itself has officially defined borders with [[Hamm]] in the east, Mönchengladbach in the west and Bonn in the south and the small city [[Wesel]] as its northernmost point. The northern border is similar to the border of the [[Ruhr Area]]. The table below shows an unofficial summation of regions. In the official definition the metropolitan area is much smaller. {| class="wikitable" ! valign=bottom | Region ! valign=bottom | major cities ! valign=bottom | area ! valign=bottom | population |- | [[Ruhr|Ruhr Metropolitan Region]] | | 4,435 km² | 5,172,745 |- | | [[Dortmund]] | ''280 km²'' | ''581,308'' |- | | [[Essen]] | ''210 km²'' | ''576,259'' |- | | [[Duisburg]] | ''233 km²'' | ''491,931'' |- | Düsseldorf Metropolitan Region | | 2,404 km² | 2,944,700 |- | | [[Düsseldorf]] | ''217 km²'' | ''586,217'' |- | | [[Neuss]] | ''99 km²'' | ''151,280'' |- | | [[Mönchengladbach]] | ''170 km²'' | ''258,251'' |- | | [[Wuppertal]] | ''168 km²'' | ''351,050'' |- | [[Cologne/Bonn Region|Cologne/Bonn Metropolitan Region]] | | 2,920 km² | 2,818,178 |- | | [[Cologne]] | ''405 km²'' | ''1,000,298'' |- | | [[Bonn]] | ''141 km²'' | ''319,841 '' |- | '''Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region''' | | '''9,759 km²''' | '''10,935,623''' |} Eurostat's ''Urban Audit'' splits the Rhine-Ruhr region into six [[Larger Urban Zones]] (LUZ). These six Urban Zones do not cover the cities of [[Remscheid]] and [[Solingen]] nor the district of [[Rhein-Kreis Neuss]]. {| class="wikitable" ! valign=bottom | Larger Urban Zone ! valign=bottom | major cities ! valign=bottom | area ! valign=bottom | population |- | [[Ruhr]] Larger Urban Zone | | 4,434 km² | 5,172,745 |- | | [[Dortmund]] | ''280 km²'' | ''581,308'' |- | | [[Essen]] | ''210 km²'' | ''576,259'' |- | | [[Duisburg]] | ''233 km²'' | ''491,931'' |- | [[Düsseldorf]] Larger Urban Zone | | 1,200 km² | 1,525,774 |- | | [[Düsseldorf]] | ''217 km²'' | ''586,217'' |- | | [[Neuss]] | ''99 km²'' | ''151,280'' |- | | [[Ratingen]] | ''67 km²'' | ''91,306'' |- | [[Mönchengladbach]] Larger Urban Zone | | 170 km² | 258,251 |- | | [[Mönchengladbach]] | ''170 km²'' | ''258,251'' |- | [[Wuppertal]] Larger Urban Zone | | 168 km² | 351,050 |- | | [[Wuppertal]] | ''168 km²'' | ''351,050'' |- | [[Cologne]] Larger Urban Zone | | 1,627 km² | 1,899,930 |- | | [[Cologne]] | ''405 km²'' | ''1,000,298'' |- | [[Bonn]] Larger Urban Zone | | 1,295 km² | 918,248 |- | | [[Bonn]] | ''141 km²'' | ''319,841'' |- | '''Rhine-Ruhr Region''' | | '''8,894 km²''' | '''10,125,998''' |} === Ruhr area (Westphalian part) === [[Bochum]], [[Bottrop]], [[Gelsenkirchen]], [[Hagen]], [[Hamm]], [[Herne, Germany|Herne]], [[Iserlohn]], [[Recklinghausen]], [[Witten]] === Ruhr area (Rhenish part) === [[Duisburg]], [[Moers]], [[Mülheim|Mülheim an der Ruhr]], [[Oberhausen]] ==Economy== Historically, most of the [[Ruhr area]] was for the most part characterized by heavy industry since the age of industrialisation in the late 19th and early 20th century. Since the Middle Ages, Cologne, Dortmund and other cities were important regional trading cities, but during the 19th century the city of Düsseldorf grew to become the administrative center of the region and since 1945 its political capital. Today, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region accounts for roughly 15% of the [[GDP]] of the [[German economy]], which would place it as the [[List of metropolitan areas in the European Union by GRP|3rd largest GRP of metropolitan area in the European Union]] and the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|16th largest GDP in the world]]. Despite this size, the Rhine-Ruhr region often lacks international competitiveness from the lack of a unified presentation, in which cities and urban areas within it, often pursue a separate investment policy against each other. From within, Düsseldorf and Cologne are by far the largest economic centers, with specialisation in financial/high tech and insurance/multi media services respectively. Other major economic centers are Bonn, Dortmund and Essen. The region is home to twelve [[Fortune Global 500]] companies, among them [[E.ON|E.ON AG]], Düsseldorf, [[Deutsche Post AG]], Bonn, [[Metro AG]], Düsseldorf, [[Deutsche Telekom AG]], Bonn, [[ThyssenKrupp AG]], Essen/Duisburg, [[RWE AG]], Essen, [[Bayer AG]], Leverkusen, [[Franz Haniel & Cie. GmbH]], Duisburg, [[Evonik Industries]], Essen, [[Arcandor AG]], Essen, [[Hochtief AG]], Essen and the [[Henkel Group]], Düsseldorf. ==Transportation== [[File:Spoorlijn DB 2650.png|thumb|Map of DB 2650 connecting [[Cologne]] with [[Hamm]]]] The metro area boasts the two international airports of [[Cologne Bonn Airport|Cologne/Bonn]] and [[Düsseldorf International Airport|Düsseldorf International]] and several regional/national airports like [[Dortmund Airport]], [[Düsseldorf-Mönchengladbach Airport]] and [[Weeze Airport]]. The city of Cologne is also connected to [[Frankfurt Airport]] via the 1 hour [[Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line]]. ===Commercial airports=== {| class="wikitable" ! valign=bottom | [[Airport]] ! valign=bottom | [[IATA airport code|IATA code]] ! valign=bottom | [[ICAO airport code|ICAO code]] ! valign=bottom | [[World's busiest airports by passenger traffic|annual passenger traffic]] |- | [[Düsseldorf International Airport]] | DUS | EDDL | 18,98 Mio. (2010) |- | [[Cologne Bonn Airport]] | CGN | EDDK | 10,35 Mio. (2008) |- | [[Dortmund Airport]] | DTM | EDLW | 2,30 Mio. (2008) |} North Rhine-Westphalia has the densest network of [[German Autobahnen|Autobahns in Germany]] and the ''[[Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr]]'' is the region's [[rapid transit system]] which interconnects all cities and their respective local U- and S-Bahn systems ([[Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn]]). [[Duisburg#Duisburg Port|Duisburg Port]] (Duisport) and [[Dortmund Port]] are large industrial inland ports and serve as hubs along the Rhine and the German inland water transport system. ===Events=== The region is host to numerous mega events, comprising fun fairs and cultural events like the [[Cologne carnival|Cologne]] and Düsseldorf carnivals, the [[Cologne Comedy Festival]], [[Ruhrfestspiele]] Recklinghausen, the [[RuhrTriennale]] and the [[Cologne Gay Pride]], as well as trade fairs at koelnmesse - [[Cologne Trade Fair]] and [[Messe Düsseldorf]]. With a capacity of up to 20,000 people, [[Kölnarena]] and [[Westfalenhallen]] belong to the largest indoor arenas in Germany. The region is home to eight [[Fußball-Bundesliga]] clubs, [[Historic Ranking of the Fußball-Bundesliga|the most successful]] among them are [[Borussia Dortmund]], [[Borussia Mönchengladbach]], [[1. FC Köln]], [[FC Schalke 04]] and [[Bayer 04 Leverkusen]]. ===Landmarks=== Several tourist destinations within the region attract over 12 million tourists per year; [[Cologne Cathedral]] over six million alone. Other major attractions are the [[Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces, Brühl|Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces]] near Bonn and [[Schloss Benrath]] near Düsseldorf, as well as the [[Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex]] and other sights of the [[European Route of Industrial Heritage]]. ===Museums=== [[NRW Forum]], [[Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen]], [[Kunsthalle Düsseldorf]], [[Museum Koenig]], [[Museum Ludwig]], [[Romano-Germanic Museum]], [[Wallraf-Richartz Museum]], [[Neanderthal Museum]] and [[Deutsches Museum Bonn]] are some of the most famous examples. ==Education== The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is home to [[:Category:Universities and colleges in North Rhine-Westphalia|nine universities and over 30 partly postgraduate colleges]], with a total of over 300.000 students. Largest and oldest university is the [[University of Cologne]] ''(Universität zu Köln)'', originally founded in 1388 AD. Other universities include: * the [[University of Bochum]], * the [[University of Bonn]], * the [[German Sport University Cologne]], * the [[Dortmund University of Technology]], * the [[University of Duisburg-Essen]], * the [[University of Düsseldorf]], * the [[FernUniversität Hagen]] and * the [[University of Wuppertal]]. ==Municipalities== [[File:Rheinruhr.png|thumb|right|300px|This map of the Rhine-Ruhr Area spans approximately {{convert|130|km|mi|sp=us}} from north to south.]] The following register lists all municipalities that officially belong to Rhine-Ruhr area. Demographically, these municipalities include 20 cities (German: ″Kreisfreie Städte″), each [[List of cities in Germany with more than 100,000 inhabitants|with more than 100,000 inhabitants]], and 11 districts (German: "Kreis"), each with a population of more than 250,000 inhabitants. Some districts only belong partly to Rhine-Ruhr area. In such a case only the municipalities that belong to the metro area are listed. {| class="wikitable" |- bgcolor="#EEEE44" ! colspan="4" | Cities independent of a Kreis |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! Municipality|| Inhabitants
31. December 2009 || Surface
km² || Inhabitants per/
km² |- |[[Bochum]] (BO) || align="right"| 376.319 || align="right"| 145,44 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 376319/145.44 round 2}} }} |- |[[Bonn]] (BN) || align="right"| 319.841 || align="right"| 141,22 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 319841/141.22 round 2}} }} |- |[[Bottrop]] (BOT) || align="right"| 117.241 || align="right"| 100,61 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 117241/100.61 round 2}} }} |- |[[Dortmund]] (DO) || align="right"| 581.308 || align="right"| 280,39 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 581308/280.39 round 2}} }} |- |[[Duisburg]] (DU) || align="right"| 491.931 || align="right"| 232,81 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 491931/232.81 round 2}} }} |- |[[Düsseldorf]] (D) || align="right"| 586.217 || align="right"| 217,01 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 586217/217.01 round 2}} }} |- |[[Essen]] (E) || align="right"| 576.259 || align="right"| 210,38 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 576259/210.38 round 2}} }} |- |[[Gelsenkirchen]] (GE) || align="right"| 259.744 || align="right"| 104,86 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 259744/104.86 round 2}} }} |- |[[Hagen]] (HA) || align="right"| 190.121 || align="right"| 160,36 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 190121/160.36 round 2}} }} |- |[[Hamm]] (HAM) || align="right"| 181.741 || align="right"| 226,26 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 181741/226.26 round 2}} }} |- |[[Herne, Germany|Herne]] (HER) || align="right"| 165.632 || align="right"| 51,41 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 165632/51.41 round 2}} }} |- |[[Köln]] (K) || align="right"| 998.105 || align="right"| 405,15 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 998105/405.15 round 2}} }} |- |[[Krefeld]] (KR) || align="right"| 235.414 || align="right"| 137,76 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 235414/137.76 round 2}} }} |- |[[Leverkusen]] (LEV) || align="right"| 160.593 || align="right"| 78,85 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 160593/78.85 round 2}} }} |- |[[Mönchengladbach]] (MG) || align="right"| 258.251 || align="right"| 170,45 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 258251/170.45 round 2}} }} |- |[[Mülheim an der Ruhr]] (MH) || align="right"| 167.471 || align="right"| 91,29 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 167471 /91.29 round 2}} }} |- |[[Oberhausen]] (OB) || align="right"| 214.024 || align="right"| 77,04 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 214024/77.04 round 2}} }} |- |[[Remscheid]] (RS) || align="right"| 111.422 || align="right"| 74,60 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 111422/74.6 round 2}} }} |- |[[Solingen]] (SG) || align="right"| 160.992 || align="right"| 89,46 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 160992/89.46 round 2}} }} |- |[[Wuppertal]] (W) || align="right"| 351.050 || align="right"| 168,39 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 351050/168.39 round 2}} }} |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" !total/average|| align="right"| 6.503.676 || align="right"| 3.163,74 || align="right"| {{ formatnum: {{ #expr: 6503676/3163.74 round 2}} }} |} {| |valign=top| {| class="wikitable" |- bgcolor="#EEEE44" ! colspan="3" | Kreise (districts) |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! Municipality/Kreis (district) || Inhabitants
31. December 2009 || Surface per
km² |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Kreis Mettmann]] (ME) |- | [[Erkrath]] || align="right"| 46.084 || align="right"| 26,89 |- | [[Haan]] || align="right"| 29.156 || align="right"| 24,22 |- | [[Heiligenhaus]] || align="right"| 26.818 || align="right"| 27,47 |- | [[Hilden]] || align="right"| 55.551 || align="right"| 25,96 |- | [[Langenfeld (Rheinland)]] || align="right"| 59.038 || align="right"| 41,10 |- | [[Mettmann]] || align="right"| 39.374 || align="right"| 42,52 |- | [[Monheim am Rhein]] || align="right"| 43.065 || align="right"| 23,10 |- | [[Ratingen]] || align="right"| 91.306 || align="right"| 88,72 |- | [[Velbert]] || align="right"| 84.633 || align="right"| 74,90 |- | [[Wülfrath]] || align="right"| 21.420 || align="right"| 32,23 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Kreis Unna]] (UN) |- | [[Bergkamen]] || align="right"| 51.149 || align="right"| 44,80 |- | [[Bönen]] || align="right"| 18.630 || align="right"| 38,02 |- | [[Fröndenberg/Ruhr]] || align="right"| 22.135 || align="right"| 56,21 |- | [[Holzwickede]] || align="right"| 17.264 || align="right"| 22,36 |- | [[Kamen]] || align="right"| 44.803 || align="right"| 40,93 |- | [[Lünen]] || align="right"| 87.783 || align="right"| 59,18 |- | [[Schwerte]] || align="right"| 48.523 || align="right"| 56,20 |- | [[Selm]] || align="right"| 27.123 || align="right"| 60,34 |- | [[Unna]] || align="right"| 66.652 || align="right"| 88,52 |- | [[Werne]] || align="right"| 29.994 || align="right"| 76,08 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="4" | [[Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis]] (EN) |- | [[Ennepetal]] || align="right"| 30.778 || align="right"| 57,42 |- | [[Gevelsberg]] || align="right"| 31.651 || align="right"| 26,29 |- | [[Hattingen]] || align="right"| 55.817 || align="right"| 71,39 |- | [[Herdecke]] || align="right"| 24.794 || align="right"| 22,40 |- | [[Schwelm]] || align="right"| 29.012 || align="right"| 20,50 |- | [[Sprockhövel]] || align="right"| 25.512 || align="right"| 47,79 |- | [[Wetter (Ruhr)|Wetter]] || align="right"| 28.221 || align="right"| 31,47 |- | [[Witten]] || align="right"| 98.601 || align="right"| 72,37 |} |valign=top| {| class="wikitable" |- bgcolor="#EEEE44" ! colspan="3" | Kreise (districts) |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! Municipality/Kreis (district) || Inhabitants
31. December 2009 || Surface per
km² |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Märkischer Kreis]] (MK) |- | [[Hemer]] || align="right"| 37.459 || align="right"| 67,56 |- | [[Iserlohn]] || align="right"| 95.232 || align="right"| 125,50 |- | [[Menden (Sauerland)|Menden]] || align="right"| 56.078 || align="right"| 86,06 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Kreis Recklinghausen]] (RE) |- | [[Castrop-Rauxel]] || align="right"| 75.752 || align="right"| 51,66 |- | [[Datteln]] || align="right"| 35.757 || align="right"| 66,08 |- | [[Dorsten]] || align="right"| 77.308 || align="right"| 171,19 |- | [[Gladbeck]] || align="right"| 75.520 || align="right"| 35,91 |- | [[Herten]] || align="right"| 62.639 || align="right"| 37,32 |- | [[Marl, North Rhine-Westphalia]] || align="right"| 88.202 || align="right"| 87,63 |- | [[Oer-Erkenschwick]] || align="right"| 30.499 || align="right"| 38,69 |- | [[Recklinghausen]] || align="right"| 119.050 || align="right"| 66,43 |- | [[Waltrop]] || align="right"| 29.837 || align="right"| 46,99 |- |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Rhein-Erft-Kreis]] (BM) |- | [[Brühl (Rheinland)|Brühl]] || align="right"| 44.259 || align="right"| 36,12 |- | [[Frechen]] || align="right"| 49.752 || align="right"| 45,11 |- | [[Hürth]] || align="right"| 57.501 || align="right"| 51,17 |- | [[Wesseling]] || align="right"| 35.144 || align="right"| 23,37 |- |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Rhein-Kreis Neuss]] (NE) |- | [[Dormagen]] || align="right"| 62.924 || align="right"| 85,41 |- | [[Grevenbroich]] || align="right"| 64.0390 || align="right"| 102,46 |- | [[Kaarst]] || align="right"| 41.841 || align="right"| 37,40 |- | [[Korschenbroich]] || align="right"| 33.116 || align="right"| 55,26 |- | [[Meerbusch]] || align="right"| 54.190 || align="right"| 64,38 |- | [[Neuss]] || align="right"| 151.280 || align="right"| 99,48 |} |valign=top| {| class="wikitable" |- bgcolor="#EEEE44" ! colspan="3" | Kreise (districts) |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! Municipality/Kreis (district) || Inhabitants
31. December 2009 || Surface per
km² |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Rhein-Sieg-Kreis]] (SU) |- | [[Alfter]] || align="right"| 22.895 || align="right"| 34,77 |- | [[Bornheim (Rheinland)|Bornheim]] || align="right"| 48.544 || align="right"| 82,71 |- | [[Niederkassel]] || align="right"| 37.402 || align="right"| 35,79 |- | [[Sankt Augustin]] || align="right"| 55.524 || align="right"| 34,23 |- | [[Siegburg]] || align="right"| 39.654 || align="right"| 23,46 |- | [[Troisdorf]] || align="right"| 75.150 || align="right"| 62,17 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis]] (GL) |- | [[Bergisch Gladbach]] || align="right"| 105.699 || align="right"| 83,12 |- | [[Burscheid]] || align="right"| 18.771 || align="right"| 27,38 |- | [[Leichlingen]] || align="right"| 27.476 || align="right"| 37,33 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Kreis Viersen]] (VIE) |- | [[Kempen]] || align="right"| 36.040 || align="right"| 68,81 |- | [[Tönisvorst]] || align="right"| 30.084 || align="right"| 44,33 |- | [[Viersen]] || align="right"| 75.475 || align="right"| 91,07 |- | [[Willich]] || align="right"| 51.962 || align="right"| 67,77 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! colspan="3" | [[Kreis Wesel]] (WES) |- | [[Dinslaken]] || align="right"| 69.687 || align="right"| 47,67 |- | [[Kamp-Lintfort]] || align="right"| 38.724 || align="right"| 63,16 |- | [[Moers]] || align="right"| 105.929 || align="right"| 67,69 |- | [[Neukirchen-Vluyn]] || align="right"| 27.627 || align="right"| 43,48 |- | [[Rheinberg]] || align="right"| 31.648 || align="right"| 75,15 |- | [[Voerde]] || align="right"| 37.668 || align="right"| 53,48 |- | [[Wesel]] || align="right"| 60.958 || align="right"| 122,53 |- bgcolor="#DDDDDD" ! total || align="right"| 3.609.212 || align="right"| 3.946,69 |} |} ==See also== {{Portal|NRW}} * [[List of metropolitan areas in Europe by population]] * [[List of metropolitan areas in Germany]] ==External links== {{Commons category|Rhein-Ruhr}} * [http://www.megacities.uni-koeln.de Megacities], [[University of Cologne]] * [http://www.brd.nrw.de/BezRegDdorf/hierarchie/themen/Planung_und_Kommunales/Statistische_Daten/m_Die_Zukunft_gehoert_der_Metropolregion.php Die Zukunft gehört der Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr], Düsseldorf Regional Government * [http://www.deutsche-metropolregionen.org/mitglieder/rhein-ruhr.html Rhein-Ruhr], Europäische Metropolregionen in Deutschland * [http://www.uni-protokolle.de/nachrichten/id/153842/ Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr - ein Kunstprodukt], Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung (BBR) {{Metropolregion Germany}} {{Cities in Germany}} {{coord missing|North Rhine-Westphalia}}