Reykjavík

Reykjavík

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Reykjavík (ˈreiːcaˌviːk) is the capital and largest city in Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

.

Its latitude
Latitude
In geography, the latitude of a location on the Earth is the angular distance of that location south or north of the Equator. The latitude is an angle, and is usually measured in degrees . The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north , and the South pole has a...

 at 64°08' N makes it the world's northernmost
The world's most northern
This is a list of various northernmost things on earth.- Cities and settlements :See also: Northernmost settlements, Northernmost cities and towns-Geography:-Animals:-General:-Shrubs:-Trees:-Culture and music:-Sport :- Religion :...

 capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói
Faxaflói
Faxaflói , formerly known in English as Faxa Bay and Faxe Bay, is a bay in Southwest-Iceland between the peninsulas of Snæfellsnes and Reykjanes.The capital of the island, Reykjavík, is situated on its southern shore...

 Bay. With a population of around 120,000 (and over 200,000 in the Greater Reykjavík Area
Greater Reykjavík Area
The Greater Reykjavík Area is a name used collectively for Reykjavík and seven municipalities around it.. The area is the largest urban area in Iceland. Each municipality has its independent elected council. With a population of 200,852, the Greater Reykjavík Area comprises over 60% of the...

) it is the heart of Iceland's economic
Economy
An economy consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital and land resources; and the manufacturing, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area...

 and government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

al activity.

Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which Ingólfur Arnarson
Ingólfur Arnarson
Ingólfr Arnarson is recognized as the first permanent Nordic settler of Iceland. According to Landnáma he built his homestead in Reykjavík in 874...

 is said to have established around 870. Until the 18th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it transformed into a region
Region
Region is most commonly found as a term used in terrestrial and astrophysics sciences also an area, notably among the different sub-disciplines of geography, studied by regional geographers. Regions consist of subregions that contain clusters of like areas that are distinctive by their uniformity...

al and later national
Country
A country is a region legally identified as a distinct entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with a previously...

 centre of commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

, population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 and government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

al activities.

History







The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen
Norsemen
Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who spoke what is now called the Old Norse language belonging to the North Germanic branch of Indo-European languages, especially Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, Swedish and Danish in their earlier forms.The meaning of Norseman was "people...

 is believed to have been established in Reykjavík by Ingólfur Arnarson
Ingólfur Arnarson
Ingólfr Arnarson is recognized as the first permanent Nordic settler of Iceland. According to Landnáma he built his homestead in Reykjavík in 874...

 around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók
Landnámabók
Landnámabók , often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work describing in considerable detail the settlement of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries AD.-Landnáma:...

, or the Book of Settlement. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Viking method; by casting his high seat pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline, then settled where the pillars came to shore. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is often referred to as the Bay of Smokes or Bay of Smoke) The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional -r that vanished around 1300.

Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as a regular farm land but the 18th century saw the beginning of urban concentration there. The Danish
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 rulers of Iceland backed the idea of domestic industry in Iceland that would help to stimulate much-needed progress on the island. In 1752, the King of Denmark donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from Danish
Danish language
Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in the country of Denmark. It is also spoken by 50,000 Germans of Danish ethnicity in the northern parts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, where it holds the status of minority language...

 "indretninger", meaning enterprise. The leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon. In the 1750s several houses were constructed to house the wool
Wool
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, vicuña, alpaca, camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits....

 industry that was to be Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other crafts were also practiced by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries
Fishing
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch wild fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping....

, sulphur mining
Sulfur
Sulfur or sulphur is the chemical element with atomic number 16. In the periodic table it is represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow...

, agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, and ship
Ship
Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant marine vessel. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size and cargo or passenger capacity. Ships are used on lakes, seas, and rivers for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing,...

building.

The Danish Crown abolished monopoly
Monopoly
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity...

 trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter, Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. 1786 is regarded as the date of the city's founding; its 200th anniversary was celebrated in 1986. Trading rights were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown however, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade
Free trade
Under a free trade policy, prices emerge from supply and demand, and are the sole determinant of resource allocation. 'Free' trade differs from other forms of trade policy where the allocation of goods and services among trading countries are determined by price strategies that may differ from...

 was expanded to all nationalities
Nationality
Nationality is membership of a nation or sovereign state, usually determined by their citizenship, but sometimes by ethnicity or place of residence, or based on their sense of national identity....

 and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow.

Rise of nationalism


Icelandic nationalist
Icelandic nationalism
Þjóðernishyggja is the Icelandic term for nationalism; nationmindedness is a rough translation of the term. Its use was instrumental in the Icelandic movement for independence from Denmark, led by independence hero Jón Sigurðsson....

 sentiment gained influence in the 19th century and ideas of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was the melting pot of such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective. All the important years in the history of the independence struggle are important for Reykjavík as well. In 1845, Alþingi, or the general assembly that Icelanders formed in 930, was re-established in Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was located at Thingvellir
Þingvellir
|Thing]] Fields) is a place in Bláskógabyggð in southwestern Iceland, near the peninsula of Reykjanes and the Hengill volcanic area. Þingvellir is a site of historical, cultural, and geological importance and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Iceland. It is the site of a rift...

. At the time it only functioned as an advisory assembly with the function of advising the King about Icelandic affairs. The location of Alþingi in Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital of Iceland.

In 1874 Iceland was given a constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 and with it, Alþingi gained some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution that it is today. The next step was to move most of the executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 power to Iceland and that was done by Home Rule in 1904 when the office of minister for Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken December 1, 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland
Kingdom of Iceland
The Kingdom of Iceland was a constitutional monarchy lasting from 1 December 1918 until 17 June 1944, when the republic was proclaimed.- Origins in Danish rule :...

.

In the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík and salt-cod production was the main industry but the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 hit Reykjavík hard with unemployment and labour union struggles that sometimes became violent.

World War II


In the morning of May 10, 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on April 9, four warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. Many citizens were relieved to find that they were British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 rather than German
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

. In a few hours, the allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 occupation of Reykjavík
Invasion of Iceland
The invasion of Iceland, codenamed Operation Fork, was a British military operation conducted by the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and a small Canadian task force during World War II....

 was complete. There was no armed resistance and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force which had no motor vehicles initially. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but they always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy
Neutral country
A neutral power in a particular war is a sovereign state which declares itself to be neutral towards the belligerents. A non-belligerent state does not need to be neutral. The rights and duties of a neutral power are defined in Sections 5 and 13 of the Hague Convention of 1907...

. For the remaining years of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, British and later American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 soldiers built bases in Reykjavík; the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city.

The economic effects of the occupation were quite positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the depression years vanished and a lot of construction work was done. The British built Reykjavík Airport, which is still in service today, mostly serving domestic flights; the Americans built Keflavík
Keflavík
Keflavík is a town in the Reykjanes region in southwest Iceland. In 2009 its population was of 8,169.In 1995 it merged with Njarðvík and Hafnir to form a municipality called Reykjanesbær with a population of 13,971 .- History :...

 Airport, which later became Iceland's primary international airport, situated 50 km from Reykjavík. In 1944 the Republic of Iceland was founded and a president elected in popular elections replaced the King; the office of the president was placed in Reykjavík.

Post-war development


In the post-war years, the growth of Reykjavík accelerated. A mass exodus from the rural countryside began, largely due to improved technology in agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 that reduced the need for manpower, and because of the population boom resulting from better living conditions in the country. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a modern city. Private cars became common and modern apartment complexes rose in the expanding suburbs. Much of Reykjavík lost its village feel. In 1972, Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between Bobby Fischer
Bobby Fischer
Robert James "Bobby" Fischer was an American chess Grandmaster and the 11th World Chess Champion. He is widely considered one of the greatest chess players of all time. Fischer was also a best-selling chess author...

 and Boris Spassky
Boris Spassky
Boris Vasilievich Spassky is a Soviet-French chess grandmaster. He was the tenth World Chess Champion, holding the title from late 1969 to 1972...

.

Reykjavík has in the last two decades become a significant player in the global community. The 1986 Reykjavík Summit
Reykjavik Summit
The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. president Ronald Reagan and Secretary-General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in the famous house of Höfði in Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland, on October 11–12, 1986...

 between Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 and Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

 underlined Reykjavík's new-found international status. Deregulation
Deregulation
Deregulation is the removal or simplification of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces.Deregulation is the removal or simplification of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces.Deregulation is the removal or...

 in the financial sector and the computer revolution of the 1990s have transformed Reykjavík yet again. The financial sector and information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 are now significant employers in the city. The city has fostered some world famous talents in recent years, such as Björk
Björk
Björk Guðmundsdóttir , known as Björk , is an Icelandic singer-songwriter. Her eclectic musical style has achieved popular acknowledgement and popularity within many musical genres, such as rock, jazz, electronic dance music, classical and folk...

 and bands Múm
Múm
múm are an experimental Icelandic musical group whose music is characterized by soft vocals, electronic glitch beats and effects, and a variety of traditional and unconventional instruments.- History :...

 and Sigur Rós
Sigur Rós
Sigur Rós is an Icelandic post-rock band with classicaland minimalist elements. The band is known for its ethereal sound, and frontman Jónsi Birgisson's falsetto vocals and use of bowed guitar. In January 2010, the band announced that they will be on hiatus. Since then, it has since been announced...

.

Geography



Reykjavík is located in southwest Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

. The Reykjavík area coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands.

During the Ice Age
Ice age
An ice age or, more precisely, glacial age, is a generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers...

 (up to 10,000 years ago) a large glacier covered parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes
Álftanes
Álftanes is a town, municipality and low-lying peninsula which extrudes from the eastern part of Reykjanes, located in Iceland's Greater Reykjavík Area....

. Other parts of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The former sea level is indicated by sediments (with clams) reaching (at Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far as 43 m (141.08 ft) above the current sea level. The hills of Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt appear to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active during the warm periods of the Ice Age.

After the Ice Age, the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell away, and began to look as it does today.

But the capital city area continued to be shaped by earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

s and volcanic eruptions
Volcano
2. Bedrock3. Conduit 4. Base5. Sill6. Dike7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano8. Flank| 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano10. Throat11. Parasitic cone12. Lava flow13. Vent14. Crater15...

, like the one 4500 years ago in the mountain range Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the Elliðaá valley reached the sea at the bay of Elliðavogur.

The largest river to run through Reykjavík is the Elliðaá
Elliðaá
The river Elliðaá is situated in the Reykjavík area in the south-west of Iceland. Two small rivers have their source in the volcanic mountain range of Bláfjöll and stream down to the lake Elliðavatn in the eastern suburban border of the city, its outlet forming the river...

 River, which is non-navigable. It is one of the best salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

 fishing rivers in the country. Mt. Esja
Esja
The mountain Esja often called Esjan is situated in the south-west of Iceland, about 10 km to the north of Iceland's capital city Reykjavík. Esja is not a single mountain, but a volcanic mountain range, made from basalt and tuff-stone....

, at 914 m (2,998.69 ft), is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík.

The city of Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east. Reykjavík is a spread-out city; most of its urban area is in the form of low-density suburbs, and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer residential neighborhoods are also widely spaced from each other; in between them run the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty space.

Climate


Temperatures very rarely drop below -15 C in the winter. This is because the Icelandic coastal weather in winter is moderated by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

. The climate is subpolar oceanic (Koppen Cfc), and the city is on the northern edge of the temperate zone. The city's coastal location does make it prone to wind, however, and gale
Gale
A gale is a very strong wind. There are conflicting definitions of how strong a wind must be to be considered a gale. The U.S. government's National Weather Service defines a gale as 34–47 knots of sustained surface winds. Forecasters typically issue gale warnings when winds of this strength are...

s are common in winter. Summers are cool, with temperature fluctuating between 10 to 15 °C (50 to 59 F), sometimes exceeding 20 °C (68 °F). Reykjavík is not a particularly wet city, but it nevertheless averages 148 days with measurable precipitation every year. Droughts are uncommon although they occur in some summers. In the summer of 2007, no rain was measured for one month. Spring tends to be the sunniest season, May particularly. Annual sunshine hours in Reykjavík are around 1,300, which is comparable with other places in Northern and North-Eastern Europe. The highest ever recorded temperature in Reykjavík was 26.2 °C (79 °F), recorded on July 30, 2008, while the lowest ever recorded temperature was -24.5 C, recorded on January 21, 1918. The temperature has not dropped to below -20 °C since January 30, 1971.

Reykjavík was ranked first on Grist Magazines
Grist Magazine
Grist is a free American liberal non-profit online magazine that has been publishing environmental news and commentary with a wry twist since 1999. Grists taglines are "Gloom and doom with a sense of humor" and "A beacon in the smog"...

 "15 Greenest Cities" list in 2008.

Cityscape



City administration


The City Council
City council
A city council or town council is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area.-Australia & NZ:Because of the differences in legislation between the States, the exact definition of a City Council varies...

 governs the city of Reykjavík according to law number 45/1998 and is directly elected by those aged over 18 domiciled in the city. The council has 15 members who are elected using the open list
Open list
Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected...

 method for 4 year terms.

The council selects members of boards, and each board controls a different field under the city council's authority. The most important board is the City Board that wields the executive rights along with the City Mayor. The City Mayor is the senior public official and also the director of city operations. Other public officials control city institutions under the mayor's authority. Thus the administration consists of two different parts:
  • The political power of City Council cascading down to other boards
  • Public officials under the authority of the city mayor who administer and manage implementation of policy.
  • The population of reykjavik is about 120,000.

Political control


The Independence Party
Independence Party (Iceland)
The Independence Party is a centre-right political party in Iceland. Liberal conservative and Eurosceptic, it is the second-largest party in the Althing, with sixteen seats. The chairman of the party is Bjarni Benediktsson and vice chairman is Ólöf Nordal....

 had overall control of the city council from the party's establishment in 1929 until 1978, when they narrowly lost their overall majority. From 1978 to 1982 the People's Alliance
People's Alliance (Iceland)
The People's Alliance was an electoral alliance in Iceland from 1956 to 1968 and a political party from 1968 to 1998.-History:In 1916 the Social Democratic Party was formed in Iceland. In 1930 a split surged, thus forming the Communist Party of Iceland , recognised as the Icelandic section of the...

, the Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party (Iceland)
The Social Democratic Party was an Icelandic Political Party based on social-democratic ideas. It was founded in 1916 as the political representation of the trade unions of Iceland....

 and the Progressive Party
Progressive Party (Iceland)
The Progressive Party is an agrarian, liberal and centrist party in Iceland. The party is a member of the Liberal International. Current chairman of the party is Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson. He was elected on January 18, 2009. His predecessor was Valgerður Sverrisdóttir, who only served as...

 formed the majority of the council.

The Independence Party regained overall control in the 1982 elections, and held it until 1994. At that election its opponents had formed an alliance, called Reykjavíkurlistinn, or the R-list. That alliance had overall control until 2006. In the May 2006 elections the electorate could choose between five different parties, three of which had formed the R-list. The Independence Party obtained 7 members of the council, and thus failed to gain overall control, but together with the Progressive Party, and its one council member, they were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in June 2006. In October 2007 a new majority was formed on the council, consisting of members of the Progressive Party (1), the Social Democratic Alliance (4), the Left-Greens (2) and the F-list (1) (liberals and independents), after controversy regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR, the city's energy company. However three months later the leader of the F-list formed a new majority together with the Independence Party. Ólafur F. Magnússon
Ólafur F. Magnússon
Ólafur Friðrik Magnússon is a former mayor of Reykjavík, Iceland. His term was from January 24, 2008 to August 21, 2008. He was originally expected to step down in March 2009, when a representative from the Independence Party was to assume the office of the mayor, as agreed upon in the coalition...

, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor on 24 January 2008, and in March 2009 the Independence Party was due to appoint a new mayor. This changed once again on 14 August 2008 when the fourth majority of the season was formed, when the Independence Party and the Progressive party took over again, with Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir
Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir
Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir is an Icelandic politician. She is member of the City Council of Reykjavik and was Mayor of Reykjavík from 21 August 2008 to 15 June 2010. She represents the Independence Party ....

 becoming mayor. The latest election in May 2010
Reykjavik City Council election, 2010
The 2010 Reykjavik City Council election took place on 29 May 2010 to elect members of the city council of Reykjavik in Iceland. A new political party called The Best Party won the most seats on the council, defeating the established parties....

 saw a new political party, The Best Party, win the most seats on the council.

Mayor


The mayor is appointed by the city council; usually one of the council members is chosen but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council.

The office of mayor was introduced from 1907, and in 1908 applications for that position were requested. Two applications were received, from Páll Einarsson, sheriff and town mayor of Hafnarfjörður
Hafnarfjörður
Hafnarfjörður is a port town and municipality located on the south-west coast of Iceland, about 10 km south of Reykjavík....

 and from Knud Zimsen, town councillor in Reykjavík. Páll was appointed on 7 May and was mayor for six years. At that time the city mayor received a salary of 4500 ISK per year and 1500 ISK for office expenses. The current mayor is Jón Gnarr
Jón Gnarr
Jón Gnarr Kristinsson is an Icelandic actor, comedian, politician and the mayor of Reykjavík, since 15 June 2010. He goes by Jón Gnarr, being an Icelander does not have a family name. He was originally named Jón Gunnar Kristinsson but legally changed his middle name in 2005, to the way his mother...

.

Timeline of mayors

MayorFrom To
Páll Einarsson  1908 1914
Knud Zimsen  1914 1932
Jón Þorláksson
Jón Þorláksson
Jón Þorláksson was Prime Minister of Iceland from 8 July 1926 to 28 August 1927. He was the only leader of the Conservative Party which merged with the Liberal Party to form the Independence Party in 1929, and the Mayor of Reykjavík from 1933 to his death.-Career:Jón Þorláksson was a farmer’s...

 
1932 1935
Pétur Halldórsson 1935 1940
Bjarni Benediktsson
Bjarni Benediktsson
Bjarni Benediktsson was Prime Minister of Iceland from 14 November 1963 to 10 July 1970. His father, Benedikt Sveinsson , was a leader in the independence movement in Iceland and a member of Althingi from 1908 to 1931.Bjarni studied constitutional law and became professor at the University of...

 
8 October 1940 4 February 1947
Gunnar Thoroddsen
Gunnar Thoroddsen
Gunnar Thoroddsen was Prime Minister of Iceland from 8 February 1980 to 26 May 1983. Gunnar is the youngest man ever elected to the Althing, Iceland's Parliament. He was 23 years old when he was elected as MP in 1934. He served as an Ambassador of Iceland in Denmark from 1965 to 1969 when he ran...

 
4 February 1947 6 October 1960
Auður Auðuns and
Geir Hallgrímsson
Geir Hallgrímsson
Geir Hallgrímsson was the 16th Prime Minister of Iceland for the Independence Party from 28 August 1974 to 1 September 1978. Geir was mayor of Reykjavík from 1959 to 1972. During his term as mayor he greatly expanded the city and improved the inner structure...

 
19 November 1959 6 October 1960
Geir Hallgrímsson
Geir Hallgrímsson
Geir Hallgrímsson was the 16th Prime Minister of Iceland for the Independence Party from 28 August 1974 to 1 September 1978. Geir was mayor of Reykjavík from 1959 to 1972. During his term as mayor he greatly expanded the city and improved the inner structure...

 
6 October 1960 1 December 1972
Birgir Ísleifur Gunnarsson  1 December 1972 15 August 1978
Egill Skúli Ingibergsson  15 August 1978 27 May 1982
Davíð Oddsson
Davíð Oddsson
Davíð Oddsson is an Icelandic politician and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Iceland, holding office from 1991 to 2004. He also served as Foreign Minister from 2004 to 2005. Previously, he was Mayor of Reykjavík from 1982 to 1991, and he chaired the board of governors of the Central Bank of...

 
27 May 1982 16 July 1991
Markús Örn Antonsson
Markús Örn Antonsson
Markús Örn Antonsson was the Mayor of Reykjavík from 1991 to 1994.-Education and journalism career:Markús Örn graduated from Reykjavík Junior College in 1965 and was an exchange student in the United States...

 
16 July 1991 17 March 1994
Árni Sigfússon
Árni Sigfússon
Árni Sigfússon is the former mayor of Reykjavík, Iceland's capital and has been the mayor of the town of Reykjanesbær, Iceland since 2002....

 
17 March 1994 13 June 1994
Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir
Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir
Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir is an Icelandic politician from the Social Democratic Alliance, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs 2007–2009 and leader of the Alliance 2005–2009.-Education:...

13 June 1994 1 February 2003
Þórólfur Árnason
Þórólfur Árnason
Þórólfur Árnason took over as the mayor of Reykjavík on February 1, 2003 after the Left Greens and the Progressive Party had demanded that Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir, which was mayor next before Þórólfur, would either resign, or decide not to pursue a career in national politics.His appointment...

 
1 February 2003 30 November 2004
Steinunn Valdís Óskarsdóttir
Steinunn Valdís Óskarsdóttir
Steinunn Valdís Óskarsdóttir is an Icelandic politician, and a former mayor of Reykjavík. She was the mayor from November 30, 2004 to June 13, 2006; took over after Þórólfur Árnason resignation. Steinunn is a member of The Social Democratic Alliance...

 
30 November 2004 13 June 2006
Vilhjálmur Þ. Vilhjálmsson
Vilhjálmur Þ. Vilhjálmsson
Vilhjálmur Þórmundur Vilhjálmsson is an Icelandic lawyer and politician who was mayor of Reykjavík 2006-2007 and is currently the chairman of the executive committee of the City Council of Reykjavik. He has been a member of Reykjavik's City Council since 1982.-External links:*...

 
13 June 2006 16 October 2007
Dagur B. Eggertsson
Dagur B. Eggertsson
Dagur Bergþóruson Eggertsson M.D. is an Icelandic politician who became the mayor of Reykjavík in 2007. He is the current vice-chairman of the Social Democratic Party. He was first elected to the city council of Reykjavík in a 2002 election and became the mayor on October 16, 2007...

 
16 October 2007 24 January 2008
Ólafur F. Magnússon
Ólafur F. Magnússon
Ólafur Friðrik Magnússon is a former mayor of Reykjavík, Iceland. His term was from January 24, 2008 to August 21, 2008. He was originally expected to step down in March 2009, when a representative from the Independence Party was to assume the office of the mayor, as agreed upon in the coalition...

 
24 January 2008 21 August 2008
Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir
Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir
Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir is an Icelandic politician. She is member of the City Council of Reykjavik and was Mayor of Reykjavík from 21 August 2008 to 15 June 2010. She represents the Independence Party ....

 
21 August 2008 15 June 2010
Jón Gnarr
Jón Gnarr
Jón Gnarr Kristinsson is an Icelandic actor, comedian, politician and the mayor of Reykjavík, since 15 June 2010. He goes by Jón Gnarr, being an Icelander does not have a family name. He was originally named Jón Gunnar Kristinsson but legally changed his middle name in 2005, to the way his mother...

 
15 June 2010 Incumbent

Demographics


Reykjavík is the largest and most populous settlement in Iceland. Present-day Reykjavík is a multicultural
Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism is the appreciation, acceptance or promotion of multiple cultures, applied to the demographic make-up of a specific place, usually at the organizational level, e.g...

 city with people from at least 100 countries. The most common ethnic minorities are Poles
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

, Filipinos
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

, and Danes
Danes
Danish people or Danes are the nation and ethnic group that is native to Denmark, and who speak Danish.The first mention of Danes within the Danish territory is on the Jelling Rune Stone which mentions how Harald Bluetooth converted the Danes to Christianity in the 10th century...

. In 2009, foreign-born individuals made up 8% of the total population. Children of foreign origin form a more considerable minority in the city's schools (as much as a third in places); many of whom are adopted. Although in addition to immigrant inhabitants, the city is visited by thousands of tourists, students and other temporary residents weekly, at times outnumbering natives in the city-centre; tending to be educated upper middle-class Scandinavians, Europeans, North Americans, or Japanese.
Historical population of Reykjavík.
Year City Metro
1801 600 -
1860 1,450 -
1901 6,321 8,221
1910 11,449 14,534
1920 17,450 21,347
1930 28,052 33,867
1940 38,308 43,483
1950 55,980 64,813
1960 72,407 88,315
1970 81,693 106,152
1980 83,766 121,698
1985 89,868 --
1990 97,569 145,980
1995 104,258 --
2000 110,852 175,000
2005 114,800 187,105
2006 115,420 191,612
2007 117,721 196,161
2008 119,848 201,585
2011 119,108 202,341

The population of Reykjavík in 2011 was 119,848, the combined population of the Greater Reykjavík Area
Greater Reykjavík Area
The Greater Reykjavík Area is a name used collectively for Reykjavík and seven municipalities around it.. The area is the largest urban area in Iceland. Each municipality has its independent elected council. With a population of 200,852, the Greater Reykjavík Area comprises over 60% of the...

 being about 202,341. Six of the municipalities of Iceland
Municipalities of Iceland
The municipalities of Iceland are local administrative areas in Iceland that provide a number of services to their inhabitants such as kindergartens, elementary schools, waste management, social services, public housing, public transportation, services to senior citizens and handicapped people...

 are in the capital city area, those are as listed below:
  • Álftanes
    Álftanes
    Álftanes is a town, municipality and low-lying peninsula which extrudes from the eastern part of Reykjanes, located in Iceland's Greater Reykjavík Area....

    : 2,484
  • Garðabær
    Garðabær
    Garðabær is a municipality in the Greater Reykjavík area of Iceland.As of January 2011, its population was 10,909....

    : 10,272
  • Hafnarfjörður
    Hafnarfjörður
    Hafnarfjörður is a port town and municipality located on the south-west coast of Iceland, about 10 km south of Reykjavík....

    : 26,099
  • Kópavogur
    Kópavogur
    Kópavogur is a city and Iceland's second largest municipality, with a population of 30,779.It lies immediately south of Reykjavík and is part of the Greater Reykjavík Area. The name literally means seal pup bay...

    : 30,779
  • Mosfellsbær
    Mosfellsbær
    Mosfellsbær is a town in south-west Iceland, situated some east of the country's capital, Reykjavík. It has a total area of and its population as of September, 2011 was 8,886....

    : 8,642
  • Seltjarnarnes
    Seltjarnarnes
    Seltjarnarnes is an Icelandic township located within the Greater Reykjavík area.It took on its current political form shortly after the Second World War and was formally created as a township in 1947. It is the smallest Icelandic township by land ....

    : 4,445

Districts/suburbs


  • Vesturbær
    Vesturbær
    Vesturbær is a suburb in Reykjavík in Iceland, comprising Gamli Vesturbærinn, Bráðræðisholt, Grandahverfi, Hagahverfi, Melar, Skjól, Grímsstaðaholt, Skildinganes and Litli Skerjafjörður. The district is home to the University of Iceland, in addition to four grade schools: Melaskóli, Landakotsskóli,...

  • Miðborg
    Miðborg
    Miðborgin , also known as, Miðbær and Austurbær is the oldest district of Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland. It is the administrative centre of Iceland, containing Alþingishúsið , Stjórnarráðshúsið and the Supreme Court of Iceland...

  • Hlíðarnar
  • Laugardalur
  • Háaleiti
  • Breiðholt
    Breiðholt
    Breiðholt is a suburb in eastern Reykjavík, Iceland. It is one of the largest suburbs in Reykjavík, with a population of around 21,000.In Breiðholt are 5 compulsory schools: Breiðholtsskóli, Seljaskóli, Hólabrekkuskóli, Fellaskóli and Ölduselsskóli, and has four active athletic clubs: Leiknir...

  • Árbær
    Árbær
    Árbær is a suburb in Reykjavík, Iceland. Based in eastern part of the city, the Árbær neighborhood is well known for its natural surroundings and pristine nature. The Valley of Elliðaár and the river flowing through are at the heart of Árbær...

  • Grafarvogur
    Grafarvogur
    Grafarvogur is among the largest residential suburbs of Reykjavík, Iceland. It is a relatively new neighbourhood, major construction began in the late 1980s and continued well into the '90s.-Sub-districts:...

  • Kjalarnes
  • Úlfarsfell

Economy



Borgartún
Borgartún
Borgartún is a street in Reykjavík, Iceland that has in the recent years become the city's financial district. Although relatively small, Iceland has become a major European financial centre hosting at least 4 large investment banks and numerous smaller banks.3 of these four largest Icelandic...

 is the financial centre of Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks.

Reykjavík has been at the centre of Iceland's economic growth and subsequent economic contraction over the last decade, a period referred to as the "Nordic Tiger Years" or "Iceland's Boom Years". The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects such as Harpa
Harpa (concert hall)
Harpa is a concert hall and conference centre in Reykjavík, Iceland. The building is in the final stages of construction. The opening concert was held on May 4, 2011. Harpa was designed by the Danish firm Henning Larsen Architects in co-operation with Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson...

 concert hall and conference centre, Smáratorg and others.

In 2009, Reykjavík was listed as the richest city in the world in 2007 by The Economist Group.

Major companies

  • Íslandsbanki
    Íslandsbanki
    Íslandsbanki is an Icelandic bank.-First Íslandsbanki:Íslandsbanki was originally created in 1990 through the merger of Alþýðubanki , Verzlunarbanki and Iðnaðarbanki...

     - Bank
  • Síminn
    Síminn
    Síminn, previously named Landssíminn, is an Icelandic telecommunications company. It was acquired by Exista in 2008.-History:Telecommunications play a vital role in Iceland. Although the country's population is relatively small , its penetration rates for network-related products and services are...

     - Telecoms
  • Baugur Group
    Baugur Group
    Baugur Group was an Icelandic investment company. The group applied for bankruptcy protection in February 2009, after placing its UK arm in administration.- History :...

     - Investments
  • Eimskip - Transport
  • Nýherji
    Nyherji
    Nýherji is an Icelandic company that provides information technology services.-Profile:Nýherji has holdings in numerous subsidiaries: Applicon in Sweden, Denmark, UK and Iceland, ParX Business Consulting ehf., Dansupport in Denmark, Klak ehf., SimDex ehf. and Linkur ehf...

     - Information Technology
  • FRISK Software International
    FRISK Software International
    FRISK Software International, is an Icelandic software company that develops F-Prot antivirus and F-Prot AVES antivirus and antispam service. Its name is derived from the initial letters of the personal name and patronymic of Friðrik Skúlason, its founder...

     - Antivirus
  • HB Grandi
    HB Grandi
    HB Grandi is an Icelandic fishing industry company, one of the largest in the country, based in Reykjavík. The company formed from the merger of Grandi from Reykjavík and Haraldur Böðvarsson from Akranes. on January 1, 2004. Later that year, the company merged with Tangi from Vopnafjörður and...

     - Fisheries
  • Stodir - Investments
  • Glitnir
    Glitnir (bank)
    Glitnir was an international Icelandic bank. It was created by the state-directed merger of the country's three privately held banks - Alþýðubanki , Verzlunarbanki and Iðnaðarbanki - and one failing publicly held bank - Útvegsbanki - to form Íslandsbanki in 1990...

     - Bank (now Íslandsbanki)
  • Marel - High tech food processing products
  • deCODE Genetics
    Decode Genetics
    deCODE genetics, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company based in Reykjavík, Iceland. The company was founded in 1996 to identify human genes associated with common diseases using population studies, and apply the knowledge gained to guide the development of candidate drugs...

  • Kaupthing Bank
    Kaupthing Bank
    Kaupthing Bank was an international Icelandic bank, headquartered in Reykjavík, Iceland. It was formed by the merger of Kaupthing and Búnaðarbanki Íslands in 2003 and was the largest bank in Iceland....

     (now Arion Bank)
  • Landsbanki
    Landsbanki
    Landsbanki, also commonly known as Landsbankinn in Iceland, is a private Icelandic bank with international operations...

     - Bank
  • Vodafone Iceland
    Vodafone Iceland
    Vodafone Iceland is an Icelandic telecommunications company and is part of the Icelandic IT company Teymi. Although the company carries the Vodafone brand and trademark, Vodafone Group owns no interest in the company, but rather franchises the brand and associated advertising styles to Teymi, the...

     - Telecoms
  • Orkuveita Reykjavíkur
    Orkuveita Reykjavíkur
    Orkuveita Reykjavíkur is an Icelandic utility company that provides electricity, geothermal water for heating, and cold water for consumption and fire fighting. It also operates a data-utility network and waste-treatment facilities. The company's service area extends to 20 communities in the...

     - Reykjavík Energy
  • SPRON
    Sparisjóðabanki Íslands
    Icebank is a commercial bank, focusing on wholesale and investment banking services to savings banks, Icelandic and foreign financial institutions and other large customers...

     - Bank
  • Össur hf
  • Icelandair Group
    Icelandair Group
    Icelandair Group hf is an Icelandic travel industry corporation, the owner of the airline Icelandair and numerous other travel industry companies...

     (Icelandair
    Icelandair
    Icelandair ehf is the flag carrier airline of Iceland, based on the grounds of Reykjavík Airport in Reykjavík. It is part of the Icelandair Group and currently operates scheduled services to 31 cities in 13 countries on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean out of its hub at Keflavík International Airport...

     and Air Iceland
    Air Iceland
    Air Iceland is a regional airline with its head office on the property of Reykjavík Airport in Reykjavík, Iceland. It operates scheduled services to domestic destinations and to Greenland. Its main bases are Reykjavík Airport and Akureyri Airport...

    ) - Airline
  • Iceland Express
    Iceland Express
    Iceland Express is a low-fare airline headquartered in Reykjavík, Iceland. It operates services to 17 destinations in Europe and North America using leased aircraft...

     - Airline
  • CCP hf
    CCP hf
    CCP hf or CCP Games is an Icelandic video game developer and publisher, majority owned by the company's staff and founders, Novator Partners and the American investment fund General Catalyst Partners...

     (CCP Games) - Creators of the EVE Online
    EVE Online
    Eve Online is a video game by CCP Games. It is a player-driven, persistent-world MMORPG set in a science fiction space setting. Characters pilot customizable ships through a galaxy of over 7,500 star systems. Most star systems are connected to one or more other star systems by means of stargates...

     computer game
  • Birtíngur - Major magazine publishing company
  • Iceland Refund - Tax Free Shopping
  • Mannvit Engineering
    Mannvit Engineering
    Mannvit Engineering is the largest engineering firm in Iceland. Mannvit offers engineering, consulting, management, operational and EPCM services to projects all over the world...

     - Engineering

Infrastructure



Roads


Per capita car
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 ownership in Iceland is among the highest in the world at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents, though Reykjavík is not severely affected by congestion
Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

. Several multi-lane highways (mainly dual carriageway
Dual carriageway
A dual carriageway is a class of highway with two carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation...

s) run between the most heavily populated areas and most frequently driven routes. Parking spaces are also plentiful in most areas. Public transportation consists of a bus system (called Strætó bs
Strætó bs
Strætó bs is a public transport company which operates city buses in the Icelandic capital, Reykjavík and surrounding satellite towns and suburbs. The buses are bright yellow and are commonly called 'Strætó' by the locals. It is a shortened nickname for "strætisvagn", "street carriage"...

). Route 1
Route 1 (Iceland)
Route 1 or the Ring Road is a main road in Iceland that runs around the island and connects all habitable parts of the country . The total length of the road is ....

 (the Ring Road) runs through the city outskirts and connects it to the rest of Iceland.

Airports and seaports


Reykjavík Airport
Reykjavík Airport
Reykjavík Airport Reykjavík Airport Reykjavík Airport (Icelandic: Reykjavíkurflugvöllur, is the chiefly domestic airport serving Reykjavík, Iceland. The airport lies two kilometres from Reykjavík's city centre. Possessing rather short runways, it normally only serves flights within Iceland and to...

, the second largest airport
Airport
An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport...

 in the country (after Keflavík International Airport
Keflavík International Airport
-Cargo airlines:-Ground transport:Transport between the airport and Reykjavik city is by road only. The distance is 50 km. A new fast freeway was opened 2008. The buses have a timetable adapted to the flight schedule. They go to and from the Reykjavik bus terminal, taking around 45 minutes...

), is positioned inside the city, just south of the city centre. It is mainly used for domestic flights as well as flights to Greenland
Greenland
Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for...

 and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
The Faroe Islands are an island group situated between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately halfway between Scotland and Iceland. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing territory within the Kingdom of Denmark, along with Denmark proper and Greenland...

. It was built there by the British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 occupation force during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, when it was on the outskirts of the then much smaller Reykjavík. In recent years there has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport, since it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík.

Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre which is mainly used by fishermen and cruise ship
Cruise ship
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way...

s and Sundahöfn in the east city which is the largest cargo
Cargo
Cargo is goods or produce transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship, aircraft, train, van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most intermodal long-haul cargo transport.-Marine:...

 port in the country.

Railways


There are no public railways in Iceland, due to its terrain, but the locomotives used to build the docks are on display.

District heating



Volcanic activity in Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

 provides Reykjavík with geothermal heating
Geothermal heating
Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating applications. Humans have taken advantage of geothermal heat this way since the Paleolithic era. Approximately seventy countries made direct use of a total of 270 PJ of geothermal heating in 2004...

 systems for both residential- and industrial districts. In 2008, natural hot water was used to heat roughly 90% of all buildings in Iceland,. With total use of geothermal energy being at 39 PJ, space heating accounted for 48%.

Most of the district heating
District heating
District heating is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating...

 in Iceland comes from three main geothermal power plants, producing over 800 MWth:
  • Svartsengi combined heat and power plant (CHP)
  • Nesjavellir CHP plant
  • Hellisheidi CHP plant

Cultural heritage


The "Culture House" was opened in 1909 and has a number of important exhibits. Originally the National Museum and Natural History Museum, in 2000 it was re-modelled to promote the Icelandic national heritage. Many of Iceland's national treasures are on display, such as the Poetic Edda, and the Sagas, in their original manuscripts. There are also changing exhibitions on various topics.

Nightlife


Reykjavík is often dubbed "the nightlife capital of the north". It is famous for its nightlife during the weekends. Icelanders tend to go out late so bars
Bar (establishment)
A bar is a business establishment that serves alcoholic drinks — beer, wine, liquor, and cocktails — for consumption on the premises.Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go...

 that look rather quiet can fill up suddenly—usually after midnight on a weekend.

Alcohol
Alcoholic beverage
An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption...

 is relatively expensive at bars. People tend to drink at home before going out. Beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 was banned
Prohibition in Iceland
Prohibition in Iceland went into effect in 1915 and lasted, to some extent, until March 1, 1989 . The ban had originally prohibited all alcohol, but from 1935 onward only applied to "strong" beer .-History:In a 1908 referendum, Icelanders voted in favor of a ban on all alcoholic drinks, going into...

 in Iceland until 1 March 1989, but has since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of choice. Beer, however, is expensive: half a litre
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

 of beer in an Icelandic bar can cost between 600 and 850 krónur
Icelandic króna
The króna is the currency of Iceland. The króna is technically subdivided into 100 aurar , but in practice this subdivision is no longer used....

 (approx. $4.60 to $6.55 or €3.80 to €5.38 or £3.20 to £4.50 ).

There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík; most of them are located on Laugavegur
Laugavegur (Reykjavík)
Laugavegur is the primary commercial artery of downtown Reykjavík, Iceland and one of the oldest shopping streets. The name means "wash road", as it used to lead to the hot springs in Laugardalur where in olden times the women of Reykjavík took their laundry for washing.It has experienced economic...

 and its side streets. It is very common for an establishment that is a café
Café
A café , also spelled cafe, in most countries refers to an establishment which focuses on serving coffee, like an American coffeehouse. In the United States, it may refer to an informal restaurant, offering a range of hot meals and made-to-order sandwiches...

 before dinner to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around 6 am at weekends and 1 am during the week. The Iceland Airwaves
Iceland Airwaves
Iceland Airwaves is an annual music festival held in Reykjavík, Iceland on the third weekend of October. The festival spans five days and its main focus is showcasing new music, both Icelandic and international.-Festival:...

 music festival is annually staged in October.

New Year's Eve


The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks
Fireworks
Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event is a display of the effects produced by firework devices...

 displays.

Main sights

  • Alþingishúsið
    Alþingishúsið
    Alþingishúsið is a classical 19th century structure which stands by Austurvöllur in central Reykjavík, Iceland. It houses Alþingi, the Icelandic parliament...

     — the Icelandic parliament
  • The Culture House, National Centre for Cultural Heritage, Hversfigata 15, 101 Reykjavík. tel 545 1400
  • Bæjarins Beztu Pylsur
    Bæjarins Beztu Pylsur
    Bæjarins beztu pylsur often shortened to simply "Bæjarins beztu", is a popular hot dog stand in central Reykjavík, Iceland. In August 2006, the British newspaper The Guardian selected Bæjarins beztu as the best hot dog stand in Europe....

     — a small hotdog stand in central Reykjavík
  • Blue Lagoon
    Blue Lagoon (geothermal spa)
    The Blue Lagoon geothermal spa and is one of the most visited attractions in Iceland. The steamy waters are part of a lava formation. The spa is located in a lava field in Grindavík on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwestern Iceland...

     — geothermal spa located near Reykjavík
  • CIA.IS - Center for Icelandic Art — general information on Icelandic visual art
  • Hallgrímskirkja
    Hallgrímskirkja
    The Hallgrímskirkja is a Lutheran parish church in Reykjavík, Iceland. At 74.5 metres , it is the largest church in Iceland and the sixth tallest architectural structure in Iceland after Longwave radio mast Hellissandur, the radio masts of US Navy at Grindavík, Eiðar longwave transmitter and...

     — the largest church in Iceland
  • Harpa Reykjavík
    Harpa (concert hall)
    Harpa is a concert hall and conference centre in Reykjavík, Iceland. The building is in the final stages of construction. The opening concert was held on May 4, 2011. Harpa was designed by the Danish firm Henning Larsen Architects in co-operation with Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson...

     - Reykjavík Concert & Conference Center
  • Heiðmörk  — the largest forest and nature reserve in the area
  • Höfði
    Höfði
    Höfði is a house in northern Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland, built in 1909. Höfði is located at Félagstúni. Initially, it was built for the French consul Jean-Paul Brillouin in Iceland and was the exclusive residence of poet and businessman Einar Benediktsson for many years...

     — the house in which Gorbachev and Reagan met in 1986 for the Iceland Summit
    Reykjavik Summit
    The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. president Ronald Reagan and Secretary-General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in the famous house of Höfði in Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland, on October 11–12, 1986...

  • Kringlan
    Kringlan
    Kringlan is the largest shopping mall in Reykjavík with over 170 shops, restaurants and services. Built in 1987, it contains everything from a library, theatre and cinema to a liquor store, candy stores and a pub. It has grown over the years, and is thought by many to be the biggest threat for the...

     — the second largest mall in Iceland
  • Laugardalslaug — Swimming pool
  • Laugavegur
    Laugavegur (Reykjavík)
    Laugavegur is the primary commercial artery of downtown Reykjavík, Iceland and one of the oldest shopping streets. The name means "wash road", as it used to lead to the hot springs in Laugardalur where in olden times the women of Reykjavík took their laundry for washing.It has experienced economic...

     — main shopping street
  • Nauthólsvík
    Nauthólsvík
    Nauthólsvík is a small neighbourhood in Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland, about from Perlan. It has a beach with an artificial hot spring....

     — a geothermally heated beach
  • Perlan
    Perlan
    Perlan is a landmark building in Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland. It is 25.7 metres high. It was originally designed by Ingimundur Sveinsson. Perlan is situated on the hill Öskjuhlíð where there had been hot water storage tanks for decades. In 1991 the tanks were updated and a...

     — a glass dome resting on five water tanks
  • Rauðhólar
    Rauðhólar
    The Rauðhólar are remnants of a cluster of pseudocraters in Elliðaárhraun lava fields on the south-eastern outskirts of Reykjavík, Iceland. The Rauðhólar pseudocraters are part of Reykjavík's nature reserve of Heiðmörk....

     — a cluster of red volcanic craters
  • Ráðhús Reykjavíkur
    Ráðhús Reykjavíkur
    Ráðhús Reykjavíkur is situated by the Tjörnin in Reykjavík. It houses the offices of the mayor of Reykjavík, a café and a large 3D map of Iceland. It is sometimes used for art exhibitions....

     — city hall
  • Reykjavik Art Museum
    Reykjavik Art Museum
    Reykjavik Art Museum is the largest visual art institution in Iceland. It occupies three locations in Reykjavík; in Harbour House by the old harbour at Kjarvalsstaðir by Klambratún and in Ásmundur Sveinsson Sculpture Museum in Laugardalur...

     — the largest visual art institution in Iceland
  • Tjörnin
    Tjörnin
    Tjörnin is a small lake in central Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland. Although it is not among the biggest lakes in the country, it is one of the best known....

     — the pond
  • National and University Library of Iceland
    National and University Library of Iceland
    Landsbókasafn Íslands — Háskólabókasafn is the national library of Iceland which also functions as the university library of the University of Iceland. The library was established on December 1, 1994 in Reykjavík, Iceland, with the merger of the former national library, Landsbókasafn Íslands...

     (Þjóðarbókhlaðan)
  • National Museum of Iceland
    National Museum of Iceland
    The National Museum of Iceland was established on 24 February 1863, with Jón Árnason the first curator of the Icelandic collection, previously kept in Danish museums...

     (Þjóðminjasafnið)
  • University of Iceland
    University of Iceland
    The University of Iceland is a public research university in Reykjavík, Iceland, and the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education. Founded in 1911, it has grown steadily from a small civil servants' school to a modern comprehensive university, providing instruction for about...

  • Árbæjarsafn
    Árbæjarsafn
    Árbæjarsafn is the historical museum of the city of Reykjavík as well as an open air museum and a regional museum. Its purpose is to give the public an insight into the living conditions, work and recreational activities of the people of Reykjavík in earlier times.- History :Around the middle of...

     (Reykjavík Open Air Museum) — Reykjavík's Municipal Museum
  • Reykjavík 871±2
    Reykjavík 871±2
    Reykjavík 871±2 is an exhibition on the settlement of Reykjavík, Iceland, created by the Reykjavik City Museum . The exhibition is based on the archaeological excavation of the ruin of one of the first houses in Iceland and findings from other excavations in the city centre...

     — exhibition of an archaeological excavation of a Viking age longhouse, from about 930 AD
  • Smáratorg Tower
    Smáratorg Tower
    Smáratorg 3 is an office and retail building in Iceland. It is the tallest building in Iceland, surpassing the Hallgrímskirkja in height, and is the fifth tallest architectural structure in the country after the Eiðar longwave transmitter, the masts of Naval Radio Transmitter Facility Grindavik...

     - 20 floor office tower that has restaurants, stores, gym and more.

Secondary schools

  • Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti
    Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti
    Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti is an Icelandic gymnasium.Founded in 1975, the school currently has a student population of around 2800 people divided between about 1600 students in morning classes and about 500 students in evening classes and about 700 students in summer school.The school is known...

     (FB)
  • Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík
    Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík
    Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík is the oldest gymnasium in Reykjavík, Iceland....

     (MR)
  • Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð
    Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð
    Hamrahlid College or MH is a gymnasium in Reykjavík, Iceland. The school was founded in 1966 by the Icelandic Ministry of Education; the first graduating class occurred in 1970. The school was based on the traditional class system from 1966 to 1973, when a points-based system was adopted, which...

     (MH)
  • Menntaskólinn við Sund
    Menntaskólinn við Sund
    Menntaskólinn við Sund , a secondary school in Reykjavík, was founded in 1969. At the time, there were only 4 other such schools in Iceland. It was originally named Menntaskólinn við Tjörnina ....

     (MS)
  • Borgarholtsskóli (Borgó)
  • Fjölbrautaskólinn við Ármúla (FÁ)
  • Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut
    Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut
    Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut, or, simply, Hraðbraut , is an Icelandic secondary school founded in 1996 and began operating in 2003. The school awards a student degree after two years of study instead of the standard four, giving the school its name...

  • Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík (Kvennó)
  • Tækniskólinn
  • Verzlunarskóli Íslands (Verzló)

Universities

  • The University of Iceland
    University of Iceland
    The University of Iceland is a public research university in Reykjavík, Iceland, and the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education. Founded in 1911, it has grown steadily from a small civil servants' school to a modern comprehensive university, providing instruction for about...

  • Reykjavík University
    Reykjavík University
    Reykjavík University is a private university in Reykjavík, Iceland, and is chartered by the Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Icelandic Industries, and the Confederation of Icelandic Employers....

  • Iceland Academy of the Arts

Sports teams

  • Glímufélagið Ármann (Ármann)
  • Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir
    Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir
    Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir is an multi sport club from Iceland. The club is located in Grafarvogur, Reykjavík. The club was founded in 1988 under the original name Ungmennafélagið Grafarvogur however because another team already had the abbreviation UMFG the name was changed to Ungmennafélagið...

  • Fylkir
    Fylkir
    Fylkir FC is an athletic club in Árbær, in the eastern part of Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland.Former players include Helgi Valur Daníelsson, who now plays for AIK, and Ólafur Ingi Skúlason, formerly of Arsenal and currently plays for Zulte Waregem in Belgium. Ragnar Sigurðsson who plays with...

  • Fram
    Knattspyrnufélagið Fram
    Knattspyrnufélagið Fram is an Icelandic sports club, best known for its football team. In European competitions it is known as Fram Reykjavík. It was founded on 1 May 1908 in Reykjavík. Based at Safamýri, located in the Laugardalur district of Reykjavík City Center. They are currently playing in...

  • Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur
    Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur
    Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur, , for short KR or KR Reykjavík, is an Icelandic athletic club based in the capital, Reykjavík. KR is the oldest and most successful club in Icelandic football.-History:...

     (KR Reykjavík)
  • Víkingur
    Knattspyrnufélagið Víkingur
    Knattspyrnufélagið Víkingur is a sports club in Reykjavík, Iceland. It is best known for its football team. The club was founded in 1908 and has been fairly successful over the years. Its last Icelandic title came in 1991, when the team won the Icelandic championship.The club operates several other...

  • Þróttur
  • Knattspyrnufélagið Valur
    Valur
    Knattspyrnufélagið Valur is an Icelandic athletic club based in Reykjavík, Iceland. One of Iceland's most prolific clubs it celebrates its 100th birthday in 2011. The club is situated close to the city centre, in the traditional east side of town, at the old farmgrounds of Hlíðarendi...

     (Valur)
  • Íþróttafélag fatlaðra í Reykjavík — for disabled people
  • Íþróttafélag Reykjavíkur
    Íþróttafélag Reykjavíkur
    Íþróttafélag Reykjavíkur is an Icelandic sport club, based in Reykjavík. It competes in the following:*Dance*Track and field*Handball*Bowling*Basketball*Football*Skiing*Taekwondo*Judo-Basketball honours:...

     (Í.R.)
  • Skotfélag Reykjavíkur
  • Skautafélag Reykjavíkur
    Skautafélag Reykjavíkur
    Skautafelag Reykjavikur is an ice hockey team in Reykjavik, Iceland. They play in the Icelandic Hockey League.-History:The club was founded in 1991, and immediately joined the Icelandic Hockey League. They have played there since their founding, and have won 5 Icelandic Championships, second to...

  • Tennis- og badmintonfélag Reykjavíkur
  • Skylmingafélag Reykjavíkur
  • Leiknir
    Leiknir Reykjavík
    Leiknir is an Icelandic football club in the suburb of Breiðholt in Reykjavík. The male team is a member of Fyrsta Deild, the league below Pepsi deildin, the top division in the Icelandic football ladder. The club runs a youth setup in its district for boys and girls aged 6–16, but does not...


Twin towns and sister cities

Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 Caracas
Caracas
Caracas , officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English . It is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range...

, Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Helsinki
Helsinki
Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is , making it by far the most populous municipality in Finland. Helsinki is...

, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 Nuuk
Nuuk
Nuuk, is the capital of Greenland, the northernmost capital in North America and the largest city in Greenland. Located in the Nuup Kangerlua fjord, the city lies on the eastern shore of the Labrador Sea and on the west coast of Sermersooq. Nuuk is the largest cultural and economic center in...

, Greenland
Greenland
Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for...

 Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

Seattle
Seattle, Washington
Seattle is the county seat of King County, Washington. With 608,660 residents as of the 2010 Census, Seattle is the largest city in the Northwestern United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of about 3.4 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the country...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Tórshavn
Tórshavn
Tórshavn is the capital and largest town of the Faroe Islands. It is located in the southern part on the east coast of Streymoy. To the north west of the town lies the high mountain Húsareyn, and to the southwest, the high Kirkjubøreyn...

, Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
The Faroe Islands are an island group situated between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately halfway between Scotland and Iceland. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing territory within the Kingdom of Denmark, along with Denmark proper and Greenland...

Vilnius
Vilnius
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania, and its largest city, with a population of 560,190 as of 2010. It is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County...

, Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

 Winnipeg, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 Strumica
Strumica
Strumica is the largest city in eastern Macedonia, near the Novo Selo-Petrich border crossing with Bulgaria. About 100,000 people live in the region surrounding the city. The city is named after the Strumica River which runs through it...

, Macedonia Zevenaar
Zevenaar
Zevenaar is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands, near the border with Germany.- Population centres :*Angerlo*Babberich*Giesbeek*Lathum*Ooy*Oud Zevenaar*Zevenaar...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...


See also

  • Alþingi
  • Beer Day (Iceland)
  • Kringlan
    Kringlan
    Kringlan is the largest shopping mall in Reykjavík with over 170 shops, restaurants and services. Built in 1987, it contains everything from a library, theatre and cinema to a liquor store, candy stores and a pub. It has grown over the years, and is thought by many to be the biggest threat for the...

  • Menningarnótt
    Menningarnótt
    Menningarnótt or "cultural night" is a yearly event held in Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland, usually on the first Saturday after the 18th of August...

  • Rail transport in Iceland
    Rail transport in Iceland
    Iceland does not have a public railway system and though there have been three small railways none has formed a part of the public transport network.- Reykjavík Harbour Railway :- The track network :...

  • Reykjavík Green Days
    Reykjavík Green Days
    The Reykjavík Green Days is a national event which took place in Reykjavik, Iceland from August 17 to August 21, 2009. A second edition is scheduled to take place the second week of August 2010....


External links