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A reverse osmosis plant
is a manufacturing plant
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production...
where the process of reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis is a membrane technical filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and...
takes place. An average modern reverse osmosis plant needs six kilowatt-hours of electricity to desalinate one cubic metre of water.http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/desalination.html
The process also results in an amount of salty briny waste. The challenge for these plants is to find ways to reduce energy consumption, use sustainable energy sources, improve the process of desalination and to innovate in the area of waste management
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal,managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics...
to deal with the waste.
Examples of reverse osmosis plants
- In Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...
Ashkelon is a coastal city in the South District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip. The ancient seaport of Ashkelon dates back to the Neolithic Age...
on the Mediterranean coast, the world's largest reverse osmosis plant is producing 320,000http://www.veoliawater.com/access/press/?news=1127 cubic metres of water a day at around possibly $0.50 USD per cubic metrehttp://www.water-technology.net/projects/israel/.
- In China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...
a desalination plant will be built for Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...
, to produce 100,000 cubic metres of desalinated seawater a day.http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/2/market-insight/2010-global-water-awards-desalination-plant-year.htmlhttp://www.nitto.com/dpage/5.html
- In Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...
20 reverse osmosis plants will be built along the Costas, expecting to meet slightly over 1 per cent of Spain's total water needs.http://www.technologyreview.com/microsites/spain/water/index.aspxhttp://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=5175http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2004/jun/18/water.spain