Research reactor

Research reactor

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Research reactors are nuclear reactor
Nuclear reactor
A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Most commonly they are used for generating electricity and for the propulsion of ships. Usually heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid , which runs through turbines that power either ship's...

s that serve primarily as a neutron source
Neutron source
A Neutron source is a device that emits neutrons. There is a wide variety of different sources, ranging from hand-held radioactive sources to neutron research facilities operating research reactors and spallation sources...

. They are also called non-power reactors, in contrast to power reactors that are used for electricity production
Nuclear power plant
A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. As in a conventional thermal power station the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity.Nuclear power plants are usually...

, heat generation, or maritime propulsion
Nuclear marine propulsion
Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship by a nuclear reactor. Naval nuclear propulsion is propulsion that specifically refers to naval warships...

.

Purpose


The neutron
Neutron
The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle which has the symbol or , no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. With the exception of hydrogen, nuclei of atoms consist of protons and neutrons, which are therefore collectively referred to as nucleons. The number of...

s produced by a research reactor are used for neutron scattering
Neutron scattering
Neutron scattering,the scattering of free neutrons by matter,is a physical processand an experimental technique using this processfor the investigation of materials.Neutron scattering as a physical process is of primordial importance...

, non-destructive testing, analysis and testing of materials, production of radioisotopes, research and public outreach and education. Research reactors that produce radioisotopes for medical or industrial use are sometimes called isotope reactors. Reactors that are optimised for beamline experiments nowadays compete with spallation sources.

Technical Aspects


Research reactors are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperatures. They need far less fuel, and far less fission products build up as the fuel is used. On the other hand, their fuel requires more highly enriched uranium, typically up to 20% U-235
Uranium-235
- References :* .* DOE Fundamentals handbook: Nuclear Physics and Reactor theory , .* A piece of U-235 the size of a grain of rice can produce energy equal to that contained in three tons of coal or fourteen barrels of oil. -External links:* * * one of the earliest articles on U-235 for the...

, although some use 93% U-235; while 20% enrichment is not generally considered usable in nuclear weapons, 93% is commonly referred to as "bomb grade." They also have a very high power density in the core, which requires special design features. Like power reactors, the core needs cooling, typically natural or forced convection
Convection
Convection is the movement of molecules within fluids and rheids. It cannot take place in solids, since neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion can take place in solids....

 with water, and a moderator
Neutron moderator
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235....

 is required to slow down the neutrons and enhance fission. As neutron production is their main function, most research reactors benefit from reflectors to reduce neutron loss from the core.

Conversion to LEU


The U.S. Department of Energy initiated a program in 1978 to develop the means to convert research reactors from using highly enriched uranium to the use of low enriched uranium, in support of its nonproliferation policy.http://web.archive.org/web/20041029185156/http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/na-20/rertr.shtml By that time the U.S. had supplied research reactors and highly enriched uranium to 41 countries as part of its Atoms for Peace
Atoms for Peace
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953....

 program. In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy extended its Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance program until 2019.http://web.archive.org/web/20060922192721/http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/na-20/usfrrsnf.shtml

Also in 2004, the Texas A&M reactor switched to LEU after decades using HEU. These changes are a part of an anti-terrorism initiative since 9/11
September 11, 2001 attacks
The September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th or 9/119/11 is pronounced "nine eleven". The slash is not part of the pronunciation...

 headed up by the Bush Administration
George W. Bush administration
The presidency of George W. Bush began on January 20, 2001, when he was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States of America. The oldest son of former president George H. W. Bush, George W...

.

Designers and constructors


While in the decades of the ´50s, ´60s and ´70s there were a number of companies that specialized in the design and construction of research reactors, the activity of this market cooled down afterwards, and many companies withdrew.

The market has consolidated today into a few companies that concentrate the key projects on a worldwide basis.

The most recent international tender (1999) for a research reactor was that organized by ANSTO for the design, construction and commissioning of the OPAL
OPAL
OPAL is a 20 megawatt pool-type nuclear research reactor that was officially opened on 20 April 2007 at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Research Establishment at Lucas Heights, located in South Sydney, Australia.The main reactor uses are:* Irradiation of target...

 reactor. Four companies were prequalified: AECL
AECL
AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

, INVAP
INVAP
INVAP S.E. is an Argentine high-technology company dedicated to the design, integration, construction and delivery of high complexity equipment, plants and devices.-Background:...

, Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

 and Technicatom. The project was awarded to INVAP that built the reactor. In recent years, AECL
AECL
AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

 withdrew from this market, and Siemens and Technicatom activities were merged into AREVA
Areva
AREVA is a French public multinational industrial conglomerate headquartered in the Tour Areva in Courbevoie, Paris. AREVA is mainly known for nuclear power; it also has interests in other energy projects. It was created on 3 September 2001, by the merger of Framatome , Cogema and...

.

Classes of Research Reactors

  • Aqueous homogeneous reactor
    Aqueous homogeneous reactor
    Aqueous homogeneous reactors are a type of nuclear reactor in which soluble nuclear salts have been dissolved in water. The fuel is mixed with the coolant and the moderator, thus the name "homogeneous" The water can be either heavy water or light water, both which need to be very pure...

  • Argonaut class reactor
    Argonaut class reactor
    The Argonaut class reactor is a design of small nuclear research reactor. Many have been built throughout the world, over a wide range of power levels...

  • DIDO class, six high-flux reactors worldwide
  • TRIGA
    TRIGA
    TRIGA is a class of small nuclear reactor designed and manufactured by General Atomics. The design team for TRIGA was led by the physicist Freeman Dyson.TRIGA is the acronym of Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics.-Design:...

    , a highly successful class with >50 installations worldwide
  • SLOWPOKE reactor
    SLOWPOKE reactor
    The SLOWPOKE is a low-energy, pool-type nuclear research reactor designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in the late 1960s. John W. Hilborn is the scientist most closely associated with its design...

     class, developed by AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    , Canada
  • Miniature neutron source reactor
    Miniature neutron source reactor
    The Chinese built Miniature Neutron Source reactor is a small and compact research reactor copied from a Canadian SLOWPOKE reactor design....

    , based on the SLOWPOKE design, developed by AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    , currently exported by China

Research Centers


Research centers that operate a reactor:
  • Helsinki University of Technology
    Helsinki University of Technology
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology , was the temporary name for Helsinki University of Technology during the process of forming the Aalto University...

     in Espoo
    Espoo
    Espoo is the second largest city and municipality in Finland. The population of the city of Espoo is . It is part of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area along with the cities of Helsinki, Vantaa, and Kauniainen. Espoo shares its eastern border with Helsinki and Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen....

    , Finland
    Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

  • Institut Laue-Langevin
    Institut Laue-Langevin
    The Institut Laue–Langevin, or ILL, is an internationally-financed scientific facility, situated in Grenoble, France. It is one of the world centres for research using neutrons...

    , a French-German-British neutron source in Grenoble
    Grenoble
    Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère...

    , France
  • Balseiro Institute / Bariloche Atomic Center operates RA-6, Argentina
    Argentina
    Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

  • CONSORT, a 100 kW reactor operated by Imperial College at a site near Ascot, Berkshire
    Ascot, Berkshire
    Ascot is a village within the civil parish of Sunninghill and Ascot, in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, Berkshire, England. It is most notable as the location of Ascot Racecourse, home of the prestigious Royal Ascot meeting...

    , England.
  • ZED-2
    ZED-2
    ZED-2 is the successor to the ZEEP reactor. Designed by AECL for CANDU reactor support, the unit saw first criticality in September 1960...

     (1960–) at AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    's Chalk River Laboratories
    Chalk River Laboratories
    The Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa in the province of Ontario.CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular CANDU reactor...

     near Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located along the Ottawa River, it lies about north-west of Ottawa on the Trans-Canada Highway...

    , Canada
  • McMaster Nuclear Reactor
    McMaster Nuclear Reactor
    The McMaster Nuclear Reactor is a 5MWth pool-type reactor located on the campus of McMaster University, in Hamilton, Ontario.-Description:...

     (5 MW, 1959–) in Hamilton, Ontario
    Hamilton, Ontario
    Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

    , Canada
  • National Research Universal Reactor
    National Research Universal Reactor
    The National Research Universal reactor, located in Chalk River, Ontario, is one of Canada’s national science facilities. It is a multipurpose science facility that serves three main roles....

     (135 MW, 200MW, 1957–) at AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    's Chalk River Laboratories
    Chalk River Laboratories
    The Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa in the province of Ontario.CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular CANDU reactor...

     near Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located along the Ottawa River, it lies about north-west of Ottawa on the Trans-Canada Highway...

    , Canada
  • Petten nuclear reactor
    Petten nuclear reactor
    The Petten nuclear reactors are nuclear research reactors in Petten, Netherlands. There are two reactors on the premises of the Petten research centre: a high flux reactor and a low flux reactor....

    s (30 kW and 60MW, 1960–) in Petten, Netherlands
  • Orphee of the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin at Saclay
    Saclay
    Saclay is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris.It is best known for the large scientific facility CEA Saclay, mostly dealing with nuclear and particle physics....

    , France
  • FRM II at Technische Universität München in Garching, Germany (20 MW, 2004–)
  • Reactor Institute Delft
    Reactor Institute Delft
    The Reactor Institute Delft , or RID, is a nuclear research institute at Delft University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands.The institute features the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor The Reactor Institute Delft , or RID, is a nuclear research institute at Delft University of Technology in Delft, the...

     at the Delft University of Technology
    Delft University of Technology
    Delft University of Technology , also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university, located in Delft, Netherlands...

    , a 2 MWt pool-type research reactor, The Netherlands.
  • BER II located at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin
    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy is a research centre and part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. The institute carries out research into the structure and dynamics of novel materials and also investigates solar cell technology.Several large scale...

     in Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

    , Germany (10 MW)
  • IRT-2000 (2 MW) research reactor at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
    The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869. The Academy is autonomous and has a Society of Academicians, Correspondent Members and Foreign Members...

     research site, Sofia
    Sofia
    Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

    , Bulgaria
    Bulgaria
    Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

    .
  • OPAL
    OPAL
    OPAL is a 20 megawatt pool-type nuclear research reactor that was officially opened on 20 April 2007 at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Research Establishment at Lucas Heights, located in South Sydney, Australia.The main reactor uses are:* Irradiation of target...

     (20MW, 2006–) at Lucas Heights near Sydney
    Sydney
    Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

    , Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

  • IEA-R1 (3.5MW, 1957) pool-type reactor at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in São Paulo
    São Paulo
    São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

    , Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    .
  • Pool-type reactor at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute
    Moscow Engineering Physics Institute
    National Research Nuclear University MEPhI / NRNU MEPhI, NIYaU MEPhI or MEPhI) is one of the most recognized technical universities in Russia. MEPhI was founded in 1942 as the Moscow Mechanical Institute of Munitions , but it was soon renamed the Moscow Mechanical Institute. Its original mission...

     in Moscow.
  • SAFARI-1
    SAFARI-1
    SAFARI-1 is a 20 MW research reactor, initially used for high level nuclear physics research programmes and was commissioned in 1965.The reactor is owned and operated by NECSA at their facility in Pelindaba, South Africa....

     at NECSA
    NECSA
    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation was established as a public company by the Republic of South Africa Nuclear Energy Act in 1999 and is wholly owned by the State...

    , Pelindaba
    Pelindaba
    Pelindaba is South Africa's main Nuclear Research Centre, run by The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, and was the location where South Africa's atomic bombs of the 1970s were developed, constructed and subsequently stored...

    , South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

  • HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in Daejeon, South Korea
  • LVR-15 at Nuclear Research Institute http://www.nri.cz/eng/rsd_services.html, Řež
    Rez
    Rez, developed under the codename K-Project, Project Eden, and Vibes, is a rail shooter video game released by Sega in Japan in 2001 for the Dreamcast and PlayStation 2, with a European Dreamcast release and United States PlayStation 2 release in 2002...

    , Czech Republic
    Czech Republic
    The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

  • HFIR
    High Flux Isotope Reactor
    The High Flux Isotope Reactor is a nuclear research reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States...

     at Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle. ORNL is the DOE's largest science and energy laboratory. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville...

     in Oak Ridge, TN, USA
  • ATR
    Advanced Test Reactor
    The Advanced Test Reactor is a research reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, located east of Arco, Idaho. This reactor is primarily designed and used to test materials to be used in other, larger-scale and prototype reactors. It can operate at a maximum power of 250 MW and has a "Four...

     at Idaho National Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory is an complex located in the high desert of eastern Idaho, between the town of Arco to the west and the cities of Idaho Falls and Blackfoot to the east. It lies within Butte, Bingham, Bonneville and Jefferson counties...

     in Idaho Falls, ID, USA
  • the University of Missouri Research Reactor
  • http://www.wsu.edu/nrc/the Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center, (WSUR
    Washington State University Reactor
    The Washington State University Reactor is housed in the Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center , and was completed in 1961. The Washington State College Reactor was the brainchild of Harold W. Dodgen, a former researcher on the Manhattan Project where he earned his PhD from 1943 to...

    )]
  • CROCUS
    CROCUS
    CROCUS is a research reactor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, sometimes described as zero power but in fact limited to 100 W....

    , a nuclear reactor operated by the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
    École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
    The École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology and is located in Lausanne, Switzerland.The school was founded by the Swiss Federal Government with the stated mission to:...

  • Maria reactor
    Maria reactor
    The Maria reactor is Poland's second research nuclear reactor and the only one still in use. It is located at Świerk-Otwock, near Warsaw and named in honor of Maria Skłodowska-Curie...

     (30 MW) at POLATOM Institute of Nuclear Energy in Świerk-Otwock
    Otwock
    Otwock is a town in central Poland, some southeast of Warsaw, with 42,765 inhabitants . It is situated on the right bank of Vistula River below the mouth of Swider River. Otwock is home to a unique architectural style called Swidermajer....

    , near Warsaw
    Warsaw
    Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

    , Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...



Decommissioned research reactors:
  • ASTRA
    Astra (reactor)
    ASTRA was a type of nuclear research reactor built in Seibersdorf, Austria. The acronym stands for Adaptierter Schwimmbecken-Typ-Reaktor Austria . ASTRA operated from 1960 to 1999. See also: Austrian Research Centers .-Timeline:-External links:**, an IRPA paper from ARC *...

    , 10MW, 1960–1999, in Seibersdorf
    Seibersdorf
    Seibersdorf is an Austrian market town with 1,283 residents in the District of Baden in Lower Austria.-Geography:Seibersdorf lies in the industrial belt of Lower Austria...

    , Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

  • JASON reactor
    JASON reactor
    JASON was a nuclear reactor installed by the Ministry of Defence at the Royal Naval College in Greenwich, London.It was an Argonaut series 10 kW research reactor designed by the US Argonne National Laboratory, and was used by the Royal Navy for experimental and training purposes...

     (Argonaut
    Argonaut class reactor
    The Argonaut class reactor is a design of small nuclear research reactor. Many have been built throughout the world, over a wide range of power levels...

    , 10 kW, 1962–1996) in a 17th century building at the Royal Naval College
    Old Royal Naval College
    The Old Royal Naval College is the architectural centrepiece of Maritime Greenwich, a World Heritage Site in Greenwich, London, described by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation as being of “outstanding universal value” and reckoned to be the “finest and most...

     in Greenwich
    Greenwich
    Greenwich is a district of south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich.Greenwich is best known for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian and Greenwich Mean Time...

     near London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

  • MOATA
    MOATA
    Moata was a 100 kW thermal Argonaut class reactor located at Lucas Heights near Sydney, Australia. Moata went critical at 5:50am on 10 April 1961 and ended operations on 31 May 1995. The reactor has since been permanently shutdown, and is in the final stages of dismantling ..Moata is an...

     (Argonaut
    Argonaut class reactor
    The Argonaut class reactor is a design of small nuclear research reactor. Many have been built throughout the world, over a wide range of power levels...

    , 100 kW, 1961–1995) and HIFAR
    HIFAR
    High Flux Australian Reactor was Australia's first nuclear reactor. It was built at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment at Lucas Heights....

     (DIDO, 1958–2007 at Lucas Heights near Sydney
    Sydney
    Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

    , Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

  • Nuclear Power Demonstration
    Nuclear Power Demonstration
    Nuclear Power Demonstration was the first Canadian nuclear power reactor, and the prototype for the CANDU reactor design. Built by Canadian General Electric , in partnership with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro , it consisted of a single 22 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor ...

     (20 MW, 1961–1987) at AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    's Rolphton plant near Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located along the Ottawa River, it lies about north-west of Ottawa on the Trans-Canada Highway...

     Canada
  • NRX
    NRX
    NRX was a heavy water moderated, light water cooled, nuclear research reactor at the Canadian Chalk River Laboratories, which came into operation in 1947 at a design power rating of 10 MW , increasing to 42 MW by 1954...

     (1952–1992) at AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    's Chalk River Laboratories
    Chalk River Laboratories
    The Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa in the province of Ontario.CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular CANDU reactor...

     in Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located along the Ottawa River, it lies about north-west of Ottawa on the Trans-Canada Highway...

    , Canada
  • PLUTO reactor
    PLUTO reactor
    PLUTO was a nuclear reactor at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom, one of five reactors on the site....

     (DIDO, 26MW, 1957–1990) in Harwell, Oxfordshire
    Harwell, Oxfordshire
    Harwell is a village and civil parish in the Vale of White Horse west of Didcot. It was part of Berkshire until the 1974 boundary changes transferred it to Oxfordshire.-Amenities:...

    , England
  • Pool Test Reactor
    Pool Test Reactor
    Pool Test Reactor was a 10 kWt light water moderated pool-type reactor fueled with highly enriched uranium built at Chalk River in 1957. It used 93% enriched uranium-aluminum plate-type fuel. The reactor, was used for burnup measurement of fissile samples from NRX...

     (10 kW, 1957–1990) at AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    's Chalk River Laboratories
    Chalk River Laboratories
    The Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa in the province of Ontario.CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular CANDU reactor...

     in Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located along the Ottawa River, it lies about north-west of Ottawa on the Trans-Canada Highway...

    , Canada
  • WR-1
    WR-1
    The WR-1 reactor was a research reactor located at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories, located near Pinawa, Manitoba.The 60 MWt WR-1 was designed and built by Canadian General Electric, and first achieved criticality in 1965. The reactor was built at a cost of $14.5 Million CDN . The original purpose...

     (60 MW, 1965–1985) at AECL
    AECL
    AECL is an acronym that can stand for:*Advanced Electronics Company Limited*Atomic Energy of Canada Limited*Australian Egg Corporation Limited...

    's Whiteshell Laboratories
    Whiteshell Laboratories
    The Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, now Whiteshell Laboratories, was established by the Government of Canada in 1963 as an AECL research laboratory in Pinawa, Manitoba...

    , near Pinawa, Manitoba
    Pinawa, Manitoba
    Pinawa is a small Canadian community of about 1500 residents located in southeastern Manitoba, 110 kilometres north-east of Winnipeg. The town is situated on the Canadian Shield within the western boundary of Whiteshell Provincial Park, which lies near the Manitoba-Ontario provincial boundary...

  • ZEEP
    ZEEP
    The ZEEP reactor was a nuclear reactor built at the Chalk River Laboratories near Chalk River, Ontario, Canada . ZEEP first went critical at 3:45 PM, September 5, 1945...

     (1945–1973) of the Chalk River Laboratories
    Chalk River Laboratories
    The Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa in the province of Ontario.CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular CANDU reactor...

     in Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River, Ontario
    Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located along the Ottawa River, it lies about north-west of Ottawa on the Trans-Canada Highway...

    , Canada
  • Ewa reactor
    Ewa reactor
    The Ewa Reactor was Poland's first research nuclear reactor. Its name is derived from the first letters of the Polish words: Eksperymentalny , Wodny , and Atomowy as a reference to the Eve Curie....

     (2–10 MW, 1958–1995) at POLATOM Institute of Nuclear Energy in Świerk-Otwock
    Otwock
    Otwock is a town in central Poland, some southeast of Warsaw, with 42,765 inhabitants . It is situated on the right bank of Vistula River below the mouth of Swider River. Otwock is home to a unique architectural style called Swidermajer....

    , near Warsaw
    Warsaw
    Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

    , Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...


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