Renewable energy in India

Renewable energy in India

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Renewable energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 in India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

is a sector that is still undeveloped. India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in early 1980s. However its success has been very spotty. In recent years India has been lagging behind other nations in the use of renewable energy (RE). The share of RE in the energy sector is 10.63%(as on 31/03/11) of total generation capacity of India. Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy or MNRE is a ministry of Government of India. The ministry is headed by Farooq Abdullah, a Cabinet Minister. The ministry was established as the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources in 1992...


Solar power

India is densely populated and has high solar insolation
Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. It is commonly expressed as average irradiance in watts per square meter or kilowatt-hours per square meter per day...

, an ideal combination for using solar power
Solar power
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available...

 in India. Much of the country does not have an electrical grid, so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water pumping, to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pump
Water Pump
Water Pump is one of the neighbourhoods of Gulberg Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is near main Water Pump that supplies fresh water to the city of Karachi....

s, each consuming about 3.5 kilowatts, and off-grid lighting. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km² area of the Thar Desert
Thar Desert
The Thar Desert |Punjab]] province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.-Location and description:...

 has been set aside for solar power
Solar power
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available...

 projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 gigawatts.

The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
The United Nations Environment Programme coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and has its...

 has won the prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping to establish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems. Over the span of three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed through 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet extend.

Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of India's largest banks, the Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank.

Announced in November 2009, the Government of India proposed to launch its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenges. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the...

 under the National Action Plan on Climate Change with plans to generate 1,000 MW of power by 2013 and up to 20,000 MW grid-based solar power, 2,000 MW of off-grid solar power and cover 20 million sq metres with collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission in 2020.

Also, TERI
The Energy and Resources Institute
The Energy and Resources Institute, commonly known as TERI , established in 1974, is a research institute based in New Delhi focusing its research activities in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development.-Introduction:TERI is an independent, not-for-profit, research institute...

's Lighting a Billion Lives Campaign started in 2008 aims to replace kerosene and paraffin lamps with CFL
Compact fluorescent lamp
A compact fluorescent lamp , also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent lamp; some types fit into light fixtures formerly used for incandescent lamps...

s to provide off-the-grid lighting to villages and thus ease the load on the power grid while at the same time provide the people with safe, non-polluting light at night. So far, it has provided 35,000 CFLs to 640 villages in 16 states in India and also about 500 CFLs in Myanmar. This campaign has reportedly benefited 175,000 people.
India's largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants
Name of Plant DC Peak Power
Sivaganga Photovoltaic Plant   5 Completed December 2010
Kolar Photovoltaic Plant   3 Completed May 2010
Itnal Photovoltaic Plant, Belgaum   3 Completed April 2010
Azure Power - Photovoltaic Plant   2 2009
Jamuria Photovoltaic Plant   2 2009
NDPC Photovoltaic Plant   1 2010
Thyagaraj stadium Plant-Delhi   1 April, 2010
Gandhinagar Solar Plant   1 January 21, 2011
Tata - Mulshi, Maharashtra   3 Commissioned April 2011
Azure Power - Sabarkantha, Gujarat 10 Commissioned June 2011
Moser Baer - Patan, Gujarat 30 To Be Commissioned July 2011
Tata - Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu   1 Commissioned July 2011
REHPL - Sadeipali, (Bolangir) Orissa   1 Commissioned July 2011
TATA - Osmanabad, Maharastra   1 Commissioned 1st Aug 2011
Green Infra Solar Energy Limited- Rajkot, Gujarat   10 Commissioned November 2011
Total 74

Wind power

The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 or the US, domestic policy support for wind power
Wind power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships....

 has led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.

As of December 2010 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 13,065.37 MW, mainly spread across Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

 (4132.72 MW), Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 (1837.85 MW), Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

 (1184.45 MW), Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 (670.97 MW), Gujarat (1432.71 MW), Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third...

 (122.45 MW), Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 (187.69 MW), Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

 (23.00 MW), West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

(1.10 MW), other states (3.20 MW) It is estimated that 6,000 MW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power.

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