Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Relocation of professional sports teams

Relocation of professional sports teams

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Relocation of professional sports teams'
Start a new discussion about 'Relocation of professional sports teams'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Relocation of professional sports
Professional sports
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations...

 teams
is a practice which involves a sporting franchise moving from one metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 to another, although occasionally moves between municipalities in the same conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 are also included. Professional teams in North America are generally privately owned and operate according to the wishes of an owner, making this practice much more common there than in other areas of the world where sporting teams are clubs owned by local members.

Background


Unlike most professional sport systems worldwide, sports organizations in North America generally lack a system of promotion and relegation
Promotion and relegation
In many sports leagues around the world, promotion and relegation is a process that takes place at the end of each season. Through it, teams are transferred between divisions based on their performance that season...

 in which poorly performing teams are replaced with teams that do well in lower-level leagues. North America lacks comprehensive governing bodies whose authority extends from the amateur to the highest levels of a given sport. Unlike in other countries, where one may invest in a local lower-level club and through performance see that club rise to major league status, the only three ways a North American city can host a major league sports team are through league expansion, forming/joining a rival league or, most commonly, relocation.

A city wishing to get a team in a major professional sports league can wait for the league to expand and award new franchises. However, as of 2010 each of the major leagues has 30 or 32 franchises. Many current owners believe this is the optimal size for a major league, and with the possible exception of the NFL's desire to return to Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, North America's second largest market, none of the major leagues are believed to be imminently considering expansion, and in fact Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

 actually considered contraction in 2002 to be effective for the season (of the Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
The Montreal Expos were a Major League Baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 through 2004, holding the first MLB franchise awarded outside the United States. After the 2004 season, MLB moved the Expos to Washington, D.C. and renamed them the Nationals.Named after the Expo 67 World's...

 and Minnesota Twins
Minnesota Twins
The Minnesota Twins are a professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They play in the Central Division of Major League Baseball's American League. The team is named after the Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and St. Paul. They played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the...

), until the union got a contract prohibiting it. In the end, nothing happened to the Twins and the Expos relocated to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 to become the Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
The Washington Nationals are a professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals are a member of the Eastern Division of the National League of Major League Baseball . The team moved into the newly built Nationals Park in 2008, after playing their first three seasons in RFK Stadium...

.

In past decades, aspiring owners whose overtures had been rejected by the established leagues would respond by forming a rival league in hopes that the existing major league will eventually agree to a merger, the new league will attain major league status in its own right and/or the established league is compelled to expand. The 1960s American Football League
American Football League
The American Football League was a major American Professional Football league that operated from 1960 until 1969, when the established National Football League merged with it. The upstart AFL operated in direct competition with the more established NFL throughout its existence...

 is perhaps the most prominent example of a successful rival league, having achieved each of the three goals listed above in reverse order. However, all major sports have had a rival league achieve at least some of these goals in the past five decades. Baseball's proposed Continental League
Continental League
The Continental League was a proposed third major league for baseball, announced in 1959 and scheduled to begin play in the 1961 season...

 did not play a game, but only because Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

 responded to the proposal by adding teams in some of the proposed CL cities. The American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association
The American Basketball Association was a professional basketball league founded in 1967. The ABA ceased to exist with the ABA–NBA merger in 1976.-League history:...

  and World Hockey Association
World Hockey Association
The World Hockey Association was a professional ice hockey league that operated in North America from 1972 to 1979. It was the first major competition for the National Hockey League since the collapse of the Western Hockey League in 1926...

 each succeeded in getting some of their franchises accepted into the established leagues, which had both unsuccessfully attempted to cause their upstart rivals to fold outright by adding more teams.

However, these upstart leagues owed their success in large part to the reluctance of owners in the established leagues to devote the majority of their revenues to player salaries and also on sports leagues' former reliance primarily on gate receipts
Gate receipts
Gate receipts is the sum of money taken at a sporting venue for the sale of tickets.Traditionally, gate receipts were largely or entirely taken in cash. Today, many sporting venues will operate a season ticket scheme, which will mean they allocate a proportion of season ticket moneys when...

 for revenue. Under those conditions, an ambitious rival could often afford to lure away the sport's top players with promises of better pay, in hopes of giving the new league immediate respect and credibility from fans. Today, however, established leagues derive a large portion of their revenue from lucrative television contracts that would not be offered to an untested rival. Also, the activism of players' unions has resulted in the established leagues paying a majority of their revenues to players, thus the average salary in each of the big four leagues is now well in excess of $1 million per season.

Under present market and financial conditions, any serious attempt to form a rival league in the early 21st century would likely require hundreds of millions (if not billions) of dollars in investment and initial losses, and even if such resources were made available the upstart league's success would be far from guaranteed, as evidenced by the failure of the WWF/NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

-backed XFL
XFL
The XFL was a professional American football league that played for one season in 2001. The league was founded by Vince McMahon, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of WWE...

 in 2001. Not even at any point since the start of the 1980s have any of the established leagues so much as added expansion teams while a rival was operating (or establishment of a rival league was being seriously considered). Therefore, so long as leagues choose not to expand and/or reject a city's application, the only realistic recourse is to convince the owner(s) of an existing team to move it (or convince a prospective owner to purchase a team with the intent of moving it).

Owners usually move teams because of weak fan support or the team organization is in debt and needs an adequate population for financial support or because another city offers a bigger local market or a more financially lucrative stadium
Stadium
A modern stadium is a place or venue for outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event...

/arena
Arena
An arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events. It is composed of a large open space surrounded on most or all sides by tiered seating for spectators. The key feature of an arena is that the event space is the...

 deal. Governments may offer lucrative deals to team owners to attract or retain a team. For example, to attract the National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

's Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
The Cleveland Browns are a professional football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They are currently members of the North Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

 in 1995, the state of Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

 agreed to build a new stadium
M&T Bank Stadium
M&T Bank Stadium is a multi-purpose football stadium located in Baltimore, Maryland. It is the home of the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League. The stadium is immediately adjacent to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, the home of the Baltimore Orioles. Served by the Hamburg Street station of...

 and allow the team to use it rent-free and keep all parking, advertising and concession revenue. (This move proved so unpopular
Cleveland Browns relocation controversy
The Cleveland Browns relocation controversy was the decision by then Browns owner Art Modell to move the National Football League team from its longtime home of Cleveland, Ohio to Baltimore, Maryland for the 1996 NFL season...

 in Cleveland that the move was treated as the Baltimore Ravens
Baltimore Ravens
The Baltimore Ravens are a professional football franchise based in Baltimore, Maryland.The Baltimore Ravens are officially a quasi-expansion franchise, having originated in 1995 with the Cleveland Browns relocation controversy after Art Modell, then owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced his...

 being awarded an expansion franchise, while the Browns name and their official lineage would remain in Cleveland for a "reactivated" team founded in a few years later.) A little more than a decade earlier, the Baltimore Colts
Indianapolis Colts
The Indianapolis Colts are a professional American football team based in Indianapolis. They are currently members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League ....

 left for Indianapolis
Baltimore Colts relocation controversy
The Baltimore Colts relocation controversy was the decision by then-Colts owner Robert Irsay to move the National Football League team from Baltimore, Maryland to Indianapolis, Indiana completely unannounced and in the wee hours of March 29, 1984 after years of fighting over a new stadium to...

 (NFL owners voted to give Irsay permission to move his franchise to the city of his choosing after no satisfactory stadium would be built), having literally sneaked away after the Maryland legislature passed a bill threatening to seize the team.

The relocation of sports teams is often controversial. Opponents criticize owners for leaving behind faithful fans and governments for spending millions of dollars of tax money on attracting teams. However, since sports teams in the USA are generally treated like any other business under antitrust
Antitrust
The United States antitrust law is a body of laws that prohibits anti-competitive behavior and unfair business practices. Antitrust laws are intended to encourage competition in the marketplace. These competition laws make illegal certain practices deemed to hurt businesses or consumers or both,...

 law, there is little sports leagues can do to prevent teams from flocking to the highest bidders (for instance the Los Angeles Rams filed suit when the other NFL owners initialy blocked their move to St. Louis which caused the NFL to back down allowing that relocation to proceed). Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

, unique among the major professional sports leagues, has an exemption
Federal Baseball Club v. National League
Federal Baseball Club v. National League, , is a case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Sherman Antitrust Act did not apply to Major League Baseball.-Background:...

 from antitrust laws won through a Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

 decision but nonetheless has allowed several teams to change cities. Also recently, courts had denied the attempted relocation of the Phoenix Coyotes
Phoenix Coyotes
The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They play their home games at Jobing.com Arena....

 by siding with the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 which claimed that it had final authority over franchise moves.

Newer sports leagues tend to have more transient franchises than more-established, "major" leagues, but in the mid-1990s, several NFL and National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 teams moved to other cities, and the threat of a move pushed cities with major-league teams in any sport to build new stadiums and arenas using taxpayer money. Critics referred to the movement of teams to the highest-bidding city as "franchise free agency."

List of relocations


The following charts list movements of franchises in the modern eras of the major North American sports leagues. It does not include:
  • Moves within a city, which have occurred many times in all major leagues.
  • Short distance moves from one major city in a metro area to another major city in the same metro area. (For example, San Francisco to Oakland
    Oakland, California
    Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

    .)
  • Short-distance city-suburb moves. (For example, Los Angeles
    Los Ángeles
    Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

     to Anaheim
    Anaheim, California
    Anaheim is a city in Orange County, California. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was about 365,463, making it the most populated city in Orange County, the 10th most-populated city in California, and ranked 54th in the United States...

    , both of which are in the same urban agglomeration.) However, one move within the New York
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

     metropolitan area is listed because the team involved dramatically changed its primary market within the area.
  • Team moves that happened before the organization joined its current league.
  • Moves of teams that as of 2011 no longer exist. There were many such moves in the early years of the NFL in particular.
  • Teams that have threatened relocation as leverage for a new stadium
    Stadium
    A modern stadium is a place or venue for outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event...

     or arena
    Arena
    An arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events. It is composed of a large open space surrounded on most or all sides by tiered seating for spectators. The key feature of an arena is that the event space is the...

     in their current market without actually moving, as well as teams that nearly moved for other reasons not related to team dissatisfaction in a given market. (For example, the Pittsburgh Pirates
    Pittsburgh Pirates
    The Pittsburgh Pirates are a Major League Baseball club based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They play in the Central Division of the National League, and are five-time World Series Champions...

     nearly moving to Denver, Colorado
    Colorado
    Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

     following the Pittsburgh drug trials
    Pittsburgh drug trials
    The Pittsburgh drug trials of 1985 were the catalyst for a baseball-related cocaine scandal which resulted in the harshest Major League Baseball penalties since the Black Sox scandal of 1919...

     in 1985.)

Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

  • 1902: Milwaukee Brewers became the St. Louis Browns.
  • 1903: Baltimore Orioles became the New York
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

     Highlanders and then the Yankees
    New York Yankees
    The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the The Bronx, New York. They compete in Major League Baseball in the American League's East Division...

    .
  • 1953: Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee.
  • 1954: St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore and became the Orioles
    Baltimore Orioles
    The Baltimore Orioles are a professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland in the United States. They are a member of the Eastern Division of Major League Baseball's American League. One of the American League's eight charter franchises in 1901, it spent its first year as a major league...

    .
  • 1955: Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City
    Kansas City, Missouri
    Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

    .
  • 1958: Brooklyn Dodgers
    History of the Brooklyn Dodgers
    -Early Brooklyn baseball:Brooklyn was home to numerous baseball clubs in the mid-1850s. Eight of 16 participants in the first convention were from Brooklyn, including the Atlantic, Eckford, and Excelsior clubs that combined to dominate play for most of the 1860s...

     moved to Los Angeles
    Los Angeles Dodgers
    The Los Angeles Dodgers are a professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers are members of Major League Baseball's National League West Division. Established in 1883, the team originated in Brooklyn, New York, where it was known by a number of nicknames before becoming...

    ; New York Giants
    History of the New York Giants (NL)
    The history of the New York Giants, before the franchise moved to San Francisco, lasted from 1883 to 1957. It featured five of the franchise's six World Series wins and 17 of its 21 National League pennants...

     moved to San Francisco
    San Francisco Giants
    The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball team based in San Francisco, California, playing in the National League West Division....

    . These were the first major league teams on the West Coast; the teams moved simultaneously to facilitate travel for other NL teams.
  • 1961: Washington Senators moved to the Twin Cities area and became the Minnesota Twins
    Minnesota Twins
    The Minnesota Twins are a professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They play in the Central Division of Major League Baseball's American League. The team is named after the Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and St. Paul. They played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the...

    . Not wishing to alienate Washington and its powerful baseball fans, MLB granted the city a new franchise, also called the Senators.
  • 1966: Milwaukee Braves moved to Atlanta.
  • 1968: Kansas City Athletics moved to Oakland
    Oakland, California
    Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

    .
  • 1970: Seattle Pilots
    Seattle Pilots
    The Seattle Pilots were an American professional baseball team based in Seattle, Washington for one season, . The Pilots played home games at Sick's Stadium and were a member of the West Division of Major League Baseball's American League...

     moved to Milwaukee and became the Brewers
    Milwaukee Brewers
    The Milwaukee Brewers are a professional baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, currently playing in the Central Division of Major League Baseball's National League...

    . The MLB would grant Seattle a new franchise
    Seattle Mariners
    The Seattle Mariners are a professional baseball team based in Seattle, Washington. Enfranchised in , the Mariners are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League. Safeco Field has been the Mariners' home ballpark since July...

     in .
  • 1972: Second Washington Senators moved to Arlington, Texas
    Arlington, Texas
    Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas within the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census results, the city had a population of 365,438, making it the third largest municipality in the Metroplex...

     and became the Texas Rangers
    Texas Rangers (baseball)
    The Texas Rangers are a professional baseball team in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, based in Arlington, Texas. The Rangers are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League, and are the reigning A.L. Western Division and A.L. Champions. Since , the Rangers have...

    .
  • 2005: Montreal Expos
    Montreal Expos
    The Montreal Expos were a Major League Baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 through 2004, holding the first MLB franchise awarded outside the United States. After the 2004 season, MLB moved the Expos to Washington, D.C. and renamed them the Nationals.Named after the Expo 67 World's...

     moved to Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

     and became the Washington Nationals
    Washington Nationals
    The Washington Nationals are a professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals are a member of the Eastern Division of the National League of Major League Baseball . The team moved into the newly built Nationals Park in 2008, after playing their first three seasons in RFK Stadium...

    . The Expos had split time between Montreal
    Montreal
    Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

     and San Juan, Puerto Rico
    San Juan, Puerto Rico
    San Juan , officially Municipio de la Ciudad Capital San Juan Bautista , is the capital and most populous municipality in Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of...

     in 2003 and 2004. This was the first MLB relocation in 33 years.

National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...


  • 1921: Decatur
    Decatur, Illinois
    Decatur is the largest city and the county seat of Macon County in the U.S. state of Illinois. The city, sometimes called "the Soybean Capital of the World", was founded in 1823 and is located along the Sangamon River and Lake Decatur in Central Illinois. In 2000 the city population was 81,500,...

     Staleys moved to Chicago
    Chicago
    Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

     and were renamed Chicago Bears
    Chicago Bears
    The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the North Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

     one year later.
  • 1934: Portsmouth (Ohio)
    Portsmouth, Ohio
    Portsmouth is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Scioto County. The municipality is located on the northern banks of the Ohio River and east of the Scioto River in Southern Ohio. The population was 20,226 at the 2010 census.-Foundation:...

     Spartans became Detroit Lions
    Detroit Lions
    The Detroit Lions are a professional American football team based in Detroit, Michigan. They are members of the North Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League , and play their home games at Ford Field in Downtown Detroit.Originally based in Portsmouth, Ohio and...

    .
  • 1937: Boston
    Boston
    Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

     Redskins
    Washington Redskins
    The Washington Redskins are a professional American football team and members of the East Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League . The team plays at FedExField in Landover, Maryland, while its headquarters and training facility are at Redskin Park in Ashburn,...

     moved to Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

  • 1946: Cleveland Rams
    St. Louis Rams
    The St. Louis Rams are a professional American football team based in St. Louis, Missouri. They are currently members of the West Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League . The Rams have won three NFL Championships .The Rams began playing in 1936 in Cleveland,...

     moved to Los Angeles
    Los Ángeles
    Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

  • 1960: Chicago Cardinals
    Arizona Cardinals
    The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football team based in Glendale, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix. They are currently members of the Western Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

     moved to St. Louis
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

    .
  • 1961: Los Angeles Chargers moved to San Diego.
  • 1963: Dallas Texans moved to Kansas City after winning the AFL championship and became the Kansas City Chiefs
    Kansas City Chiefs
    The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri. They are a member of the Western Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League . Originally named the Dallas Texans, the club was founded by Lamar Hunt in 1960 as a...

    .
  • 1982: Oakland Raiders
    Oakland Raiders
    The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football team based in Oakland, California. They currently play in the Western Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

     moved to Los Angeles. The NFL refused permission for the move, but the team won the right to relocate in a court case.
  • 1984: Baltimore
    Baltimore
    Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

     Colts
    Indianapolis Colts
    The Indianapolis Colts are a professional American football team based in Indianapolis. They are currently members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League ....

     moved to Indianapolis
    Indianapolis
    Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population is 839,489. It is by far Indiana's largest city and, as of the 2010 U.S...

    . The team's offices were slipped out of Baltimore in the middle of the night to avoid a proposed eminent domain
    Eminent domain
    Eminent domain , compulsory purchase , resumption/compulsory acquisition , or expropriation is an action of the state to seize a citizen's private property, expropriate property, or seize a citizen's rights in property with due monetary compensation, but without the owner's consent...

     seizure by the state of Maryland
    Maryland
    Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

    .
  • 1988: St. Louis Cardinals
    Arizona Cardinals
    The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football team based in Glendale, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix. They are currently members of the Western Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

     moved to the Phoenix
    Phoenix, Arizona
    Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

     area, playing games in nearby Tempe
    Tempe, Arizona
    Tempe is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2010 population of 161,719. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix; it is bordered by Phoenix and Guadalupe on the west, Scottsdale...

    . The team now plays in another Phoenix suburb, Glendale
    Glendale, Arizona
    Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 226,721....

    . The team was renamed the Arizona Cardinals
    Arizona Cardinals
    The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football team based in Glendale, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix. They are currently members of the Western Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

     in 1994.
  • 1995: Los Angeles Raiders moved back to Oakland
    Oakland, California
    Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

     after 13 previous seasons, the first "return" relocation of a North American professional sports team. Also the Los Angeles Rams moved to St. Louis
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

    . Since then, Los Angeles, the nation's second-largest market, has not hosted a NFL franchise.
  • 1996: Cleveland Browns
    Cleveland Browns
    The Cleveland Browns are a professional football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They are currently members of the North Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

     moved to Baltimore and became the Baltimore Ravens
    Baltimore Ravens
    The Baltimore Ravens are a professional football franchise based in Baltimore, Maryland.The Baltimore Ravens are officially a quasi-expansion franchise, having originated in 1995 with the Cleveland Browns relocation controversy after Art Modell, then owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced his...

    . The move was one of the most controversial in major professional sports history. In response to a fan revolt and legal threats, the NFL awarded a new franchise to Cleveland in , which for historical purposes is considered a continuation of the original Browns franchise.
  • 1997: Houston Oilers moved to Memphis
    Memphis, Tennessee
    Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers....

     and became the Tennessee Oilers. The team originally planned to play both 1997 and 1998 in Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium
    Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium
    Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium is a football stadium, located at the Mid-South Fairgrounds, in Midtown Memphis, Tennessee, United States. The stadium is the site of the annual AutoZone Liberty Bowl, and is the home field of the University of Memphis Tigers football team...

     in Memphis before moving to their intended destination of Nashville
    Nashville, Tennessee
    Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in Davidson County, in the north-central part of the state. The city is a center for the health care, publishing, banking and transportation industries, and is home...

    . However, due to poor attendance, the team moved to Nashville in 1998, playing in Vanderbilt University's stadium
    Vanderbilt Stadium
    Vanderbilt Stadium at Dudley Field is a football stadium located in Nashville, Tennessee. Completed in 1922 as the first stadium in the South to be used exclusively for college football, it is the home of the Vanderbilt University football team...

    . The team was renamed the Tennessee Titans
    Tennessee Titans
    The Tennessee Titans are a professional American football team based in Nashville, Tennessee, United States. They are members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League . Previously known as the Houston Oilers, the team began play in 1960 as a charter...

     in 1999, when their new stadium
    LP Field
    LP Field is a football stadium in Nashville, Tennessee, United States, owned by the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County....

     was opened. The NFL eventually awarded Houston an expansion team
    Houston Texans
    The Houston Texans are a professional American football team based in Houston, Texas. The team is currently a member of the Southern Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

     for 2002.

National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

  • 1946: Detroit Gems
    Los Angeles Lakers
    The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles, California. They play in the Pacific Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

     moved to Minneapolis and became the Lakers.
  • 1951: Tri-Cities Blackhawks
    Atlanta Hawks
    The Atlanta Hawks are an American professional basketball team based in Atlanta, Georgia. They are part of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference in the National Basketball Association .-The first years:...

     (the "Tri Cities" area is now generally referred to as "Quad Cities
    Quad Cities
    The Quad Cities is a group of five cities straddling the Mississippi River on the Iowa–Illinois boundary. These cities, Davenport and Bettendorf and Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline , are the center of the Quad Cities Metropolitan Area, which, as of 2010, had an estimated population of...

    ") moved to Milwaukee and became the Milwaukee Hawks.
  • 1955: Milwaukee Hawks moved to St. Louis
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

    .
  • 1957: Fort Wayne Pistons moved to Detroit.
  • 1957: Rochester Royals moved to Cincinnati.
  • 1960: Minneapolis Lakers moved to Los Angeles
    Los Ángeles
    Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

    .
  • 1962: Philadelphia Warriors moved to San Francisco.
  • 1963: Chicago Zephyrs became the Baltimore Bullets
    Washington Wizards
    The Washington Wizards are a professional basketball team based in Washington, D.C., previously known as Washington Bullets. They play in the National Basketball Association .-Early years:...

    .
  • 1963: Syracuse
    Syracuse, New York
    Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States, the largest U.S. city with the name "Syracuse", and the fifth most populous city in the state. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,170, and its metropolitan area had a population of 742,603...

     Nationals became the Philadelphia 76ers
    Philadelphia 76ers
    The Philadelphia 76ers are a professional basketball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They play in the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Basketball Association . Originally known as the Syracuse Nationals, they are one of the oldest franchises in the NBA...

    .
  • 1968: St. Louis Hawks moved to Atlanta.
  • 1971: San Diego Rockets
    Houston Rockets
    The Houston Rockets are an American professional basketball team based in Houston, Texas. The team plays in the Southwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association . The team was established in 1967, and played in San Diego, California for four years, before being...

     moved to Houston.
  • 1972: Cincinnati Royals moved to a new primary home in Kansas City
    Kansas City, Missouri
    Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

     and a secondary home in Omaha
    Omaha, Nebraska
    Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River...

    , carrying the name Kansas City-Omaha Kings. The team ceased Omaha operations in 1975 and became known as just the Kansas City Kings.
  • 1973:Dallas Chaparrals
    Dallas Chaparrals
    The Dallas Chaparrals were a charter member of the American Basketball Association, later becoming the San Antonio Spurs and joining the NBA.The team suffered from poor attendance and general disinterest in Dallas...

     became the San Antonio Spurs
    San Antonio Spurs
    The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. They are part of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association ....

    .
  • 1977: New York Nets, one year after the ABA-NBA merger
    ABA-NBA merger
    The ABA–NBA merger was the merger of the American Basketball Association with the National Basketball Association, which after multiple attempts over several years finally occurred in 1976.- Origins of ABA-NBA competition :...

    , become the New Jersey Nets
    New Jersey Nets
    The New Jersey Nets are a professional basketball team based in Newark, New Jersey. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference in the National Basketball Association...

    . Although the Nets moved within the New York metropolitan area
    New York metropolitan area
    The New York metropolitan area, also known as Greater New York, or the Tri-State area, is the region that composes of New York City and the surrounding region...

    , they dramatically changed their primary market within the area. When representing "New York", they played in Nassau County
    Nassau County, New York
    Nassau County is a suburban county on Long Island, east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York, within the New York Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,339,532...

     on Long Island
    Long Island
    Long Island is an island located in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which are boroughs of New York City , and two of which are mainly suburban...

    ; their primary fanbase is now in New Jersey. The Nets are scheduled to move again within the New York area in 2012, this time to Brooklyn
    Brooklyn
    Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with nearly 2.6 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated...

    , at which time they will become the Brooklyn Nets.
  • 1978: Buffalo
    Buffalo, New York
    Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

     Braves became the San Diego Clippers.
  • 1979: New Orleans Jazz
    Utah Jazz
    The Utah Jazz is a professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. They are currently a part of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

     moved to Salt Lake City, becoming the Utah Jazz
    Utah Jazz
    The Utah Jazz is a professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. They are currently a part of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

    .
  • 1984: San Diego Clippers moved to Los Angeles
    Los Ángeles
    Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

    .
  • 1985: Kansas City Kings moved to Sacramento
    Sacramento, California
    Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the county seat of Sacramento County. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census,...

    .
  • 2001: Vancouver Grizzlies
    Vancouver Grizzlies
    The Vancouver Grizzlies were a professional basketball team based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. They were part of the Midwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association . The team was established in 1995, along with the Toronto Raptors, as part of the NBA's...

     moved to Memphis
    Memphis, Tennessee
    Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers....

    , Tennessee
    Tennessee
    Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

    .
  • 2002: Charlotte Hornets moved to New Orleans.
  • 2005: New Orleans Hornets moved to Oklahoma City
    Oklahoma city
    Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma City may also refer to:*Oklahoma City metropolitan area*Downtown Oklahoma City*Uptown Oklahoma City*Oklahoma City bombing*Oklahoma City National Memorial...

     following Hurricane Katrina
    Hurricane Katrina
    Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

    . The relocation was temporary and the team moved back to New Orleans following the 2006-07 season.
  • 2008: The Seattle SuperSonics
    Seattle SuperSonics
    The Seattle SuperSonics were an American professional basketball team based in Seattle, Washington that played in the Pacific and Northwest Divisions of the National Basketball Association from 1967 until 2008. Following the 2007–08 season, the team relocated to Oklahoma City, and now plays as...

     became the Oklahoma City Thunder
    Oklahoma City Thunder
    The Oklahoma City Thunder are a professional basketball franchise based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. They play in the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association ; their home court is at Chesapeake Energy Arena....

    .

National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...


Relocations in the NHL have been unique in that most of the teams have changed their names after relocating, as opposed to keeping their identity with the old market. Only two NHL teams that relocated—both in the pre-Original Six
Original Six
The Original Six is a term for the group of six teams that composed the National Hockey League for the 25 seasons between the 1942–43 season and the 1967 NHL Expansion. These six teams are the Boston Bruins, Chicago Black Hawks, Detroit Red Wings, Montreal Canadiens, New York Rangers, and the...

 era and in the modern era—kept their names: the Calgary Flames
Calgary Flames
The Calgary Flames are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. They are members of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The club is the third major-professional ice hockey team to represent the city of Calgary, following the...

 and the Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. The...

. Although the Stars were previously known as the Minnesota North Stars
Minnesota North Stars
The Minnesota North Stars were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League for 26 seasons, from 1967 to 1993. The North Stars played their home games at the Met Center in Bloomington, and the team's colors for most of its history were green, yellow, gold and white...

, the team had begun to phase "North" out of the name two years before the move to Dallas as part of the "reverse merger" of the North Stars into the Minnesota Stars and the expansion San Jose Sharks
San Jose Sharks
The San Jose Sharks are a professional ice hockey team based in San Jose, California, United States. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League...

 (the California Golden Seals
California Golden Seals
The California Golden Seals were a team in the National Hockey League from 1967–76. Initially named California Seals, the team was renamed Oakland Seals part-way through the 1967–68 season, and then to California Golden Seals in 1970. The Seals were one of six teams added to the league as part of...

/Cleveland Barons
Cleveland Barons
The name Cleveland Barons has been used by three professional hockey teams and one junior team.*Cleveland Barons , the National Hockey League team that played between 1976 and 1978...

 had "merged" with Minnesota organization).

The Edmonton Oilers
Edmonton Oilers
The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. They are members of the Northwest Division in the Western Conference of the National Hockey League ....

 nearly relocated in 1998 but they remained in the city after a limited partnership raised enough money to purchase the franchise before the deadline. The Phoenix Coyotes
Phoenix Coyotes
The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They play their home games at Jobing.com Arena....

 were placed into bankruptcy
Phoenix Coyotes bankruptcy
In addition to the bankruptcy of the Phoenix Coyotes, this article discusses the NHL's efforts to sell the club since purchasing it out of bankruptcy.----...

 with the intend to circumvent the league's relocation rules, but this was blocked by a judge.
  • 1920: The Quebec Bulldogs
    Quebec Bulldogs
    The Quebec Bulldogs were a men's senior-level ice hockey team officially known as the Quebec Hockey Club, later as the Quebec Athletic Club. Their recorded play goes back as far as the Amateur Hockey Association of Canada in 1889, although the Quebec Hockey Club is known to have played since 1880...

     moved to Hamilton, Ontario
    Hamilton, Ontario
    Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

     and became the Hamilton Tigers.
  • 1925: The Hamilton Tigers franchise was dissolved and the players rights were acquired by the expansion New York Americans
    New York Americans
    The New York Americans were a professional ice hockey team based in New York, New York from 1925 to 1942. They were the third expansion team in the history of the National Hockey League and the second to play in the United States. The team never won the Stanley Cup, but reached the semifinals...

    .
  • 1930: The Pittsburgh Pirates
    Pittsburgh Pirates (NHL)
    The Pittsburgh Pirates were an American professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League , based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1925–26 to 1929–30. The nickname comes from the baseball team also based in the city...

     moved to Philadelphia from economic pressures of the Great Depression
    Great Depression
    The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

     and became the Philadelphia Quakers
    Philadelphia Quakers (NHL)
    The Philadelphia Quakers were an American professional ice hockey team that played only one full season in the National Hockey League , 1930–31, at the Philadelphia Arena in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...

    , lasting only until the end of the season before folding.
  • 1934: The Ottawa Senators
    Ottawa Senators (original)
    The Ottawa Senators were an amateur, and later, professional, ice hockey team based in Ottawa, Canada which existed from 1883 to 1954. The club was the first hockey club in Ontario, a founding member of the National Hockey League and played in the NHL from 1917 until 1934...

     moved to St. Louis
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

     and became the St. Louis Eagles
    St. Louis Eagles
    The St. Louis Eagles were a professional ice hockey team and a former member of the National Hockey League based in St. Louis, Missouri. The Eagles existed for only one year, playing in the 1934–35 NHL season....

    .
  • 1976: The California Golden Seals
    California Golden Seals
    The California Golden Seals were a team in the National Hockey League from 1967–76. Initially named California Seals, the team was renamed Oakland Seals part-way through the 1967–68 season, and then to California Golden Seals in 1970. The Seals were one of six teams added to the league as part of...

    , which played their home games in Oakland, moved to Cleveland and became the Cleveland Barons
    Cleveland Barons (NHL)
    The Cleveland Barons were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League from 1976–78. They were a relocation of the California Golden Seals franchise, which had played in Oakland since 1967...

    .
  • 1976: The Kansas City Scouts
    Kansas City Scouts
    The Kansas City Scouts was a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League from 1974–76. In 1976, the franchise relocated to Denver, Colorado and became the Colorado Rockies...

     moved to Denver and became the Colorado Rockies
    Colorado Rockies (NHL)
    The Colorado Rockies were an American professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League that played in Denver, Colorado, from 1976 to 1982. They were a relocation of the Kansas City Scouts, a 1974 expansion team. The franchise moved to East Rutherford, New Jersey, in 1982 and was...

    .
  • 1978: The Barons franchise was absorbed into the Minnesota North Stars
    Minnesota North Stars
    The Minnesota North Stars were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League for 26 seasons, from 1967 to 1993. The North Stars played their home games at the Met Center in Bloomington, and the team's colors for most of its history were green, yellow, gold and white...

     organization.
  • 1980: The Atlanta Flames
    Atlanta Flames
    The Atlanta Flames were a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA from 1972 to 1980. The team, a member of the National Hockey League , was relocated to Calgary, Alberta, Canada for the start of the 1980–81 NHL season and were re-named the Calgary Flames. The NHL returned to the...

     moved to Calgary
    Calgary
    Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

    ; Atlanta was awarded an expansion team
    Atlanta Thrashers
    The Atlanta Thrashers were a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Atlanta was granted a franchise in the National Hockey League on June 25, 1997, and became the league's 28th franchise when it began play in the 1999–2000 NHL season...

     in .
  • 1982: The Colorado Rockies moved to East Rutherford, New Jersey
    East Rutherford, New Jersey
    East Rutherford is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough population was 8,913. It is an inner-ring suburb of New York City, located west of Midtown Manhattan....

     and became the New Jersey Devils
    New Jersey Devils
    The New Jersey Devils are a professional ice hockey team based in Newark, New Jersey, United States. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League...

    .
  • 1991: The former Barons ownership splits off from the North Stars to return to the Bay Area with the expansion San Jose Sharks
    San Jose Sharks
    The San Jose Sharks are a professional ice hockey team based in San Jose, California, United States. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League...

    , comprising half the former North Stars' roster.
  • 1993: The Minnesota North Stars
    Minnesota North Stars
    The Minnesota North Stars were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League for 26 seasons, from 1967 to 1993. The North Stars played their home games at the Met Center in Bloomington, and the team's colors for most of its history were green, yellow, gold and white...

     moved to Dallas and became the Stars
    Dallas Stars
    The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. The...

    ; Minnesota was awarded an expansion team
    Minnesota Wild
    The Minnesota Wild are a professional ice hockey team based in St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. They are members of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League ....

     in .
  • 1995: The Quebec Nordiques
    Quebec Nordiques
    The Quebec Nordiques were a professional ice hockey team based in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The Nordiques played in the World Hockey Association and the National Hockey League...

     moved to Denver and became the Colorado Avalanche
    Colorado Avalanche
    The Colorado Avalanche are a professional ice hockey team based in Denver, Colorado, United States. They are members of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The Avalanche have won the Stanley Cup twice, in 1995–96 and 2000–01. The franchise...

    .
  • 1996: The Winnipeg Jets moved to Phoenix
    Phoenix, Arizona
    Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

     and became the Coyotes
    Phoenix Coyotes
    The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They play their home games at Jobing.com Arena....

    .
  • 1997: The Hartford Whalers
    Hartford Whalers
    The Hartford Whalers were a professional ice hockey team based for most of its existence in Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A.. The club played in the World Hockey Association from 1972–79 and in the National Hockey League from 1979–97...

     moved corporate offices to Raleigh, North Carolina
    Raleigh, North Carolina
    Raleigh is the capital and the second largest city in the state of North Carolina as well as the seat of Wake County. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city's 2010 population was 403,892, over an area of , making Raleigh...

     and became the Carolina Hurricanes
    Carolina Hurricanes
    The Carolina Hurricanes are a professional ice hockey team based in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. They are members of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League , and play their home games at the 18,680-seat RBC Center...

    . For two years they played home games in Greensboro
    Greensboro, North Carolina
    Greensboro is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is the third-largest city by population in North Carolina and the largest city in Guilford County and the surrounding Piedmont Triad metropolitan region. According to the 2010 U.S...

     while an arena was under construction in Raleigh.
  • 2011: The Atlanta Thrashers
    Atlanta Thrashers
    The Atlanta Thrashers were a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Atlanta was granted a franchise in the National Hockey League on June 25, 1997, and became the league's 28th franchise when it began play in the 1999–2000 NHL season...

     moved to Winnipeg, becoming the latest incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets
    Winnipeg Jets
    The Winnipeg Jets were a professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They began play in the World Hockey Association in 1972, moving to the National Hockey League in 1979 following the collapse of the WHA...

    .

Arena Football League
Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is the highest level of professional indoor American football in the United States. It is currently the second longest running professional football league in the United States, after the National Football League. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster...

  • 2010: The Bossier-Shreveport Battle Wings
    Bossier-Shreveport Battle Wings
    The Bossier Shreveport Battle Wings were an Arena Football League team based in Bossier City, Louisiana. They played at the CenturyTel Center in Bossier City and represented both Bossier City and Shreveport...

     moved to New Orleans and became the current incarnation of the New Orleans VooDoo
    New Orleans VooDoo
    The New Orleans VooDoo are an Arena Football League team based in New Orleans, Louisiana. They play their home games in New Orleans Arena....

    .
  • 2010: The Alabama Vipers moved to the Atlanta suburb of Duluth, Georgia
    Duluth, Georgia
    Duluth is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia and an increasingly more affluent and developed suburb of Atlanta. Unincorporated portions of Forsyth County also have Duluth as a mailing address, though this area is outside city limits...

     and became the current incarnation of the Georgia Force
    Georgia Force
    The Georgia Force are an Arena Football League team based in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States that plays in the South Division of the American Conference. The team is owned by Doug MacGregor and Donn Jennings...

    .
  • 2011: The Tulsa Talons
    Tulsa Talons
    The San Antonio Talons are a professional arena football franchise in San Antonio, Texas that plays in the Arena Football League.The Talons began in 2000 in Tulsa, Oklahoma as the Tulsa Talons, a charter member of the defunct minor league Arena Football 2, also known as af2...

     moved to San Antonio and became the San Antonio Talons.
  • 2013: The Dallas Vigilantes
    Dallas Vigilantes
    The Dallas Vigilantes were an Arena Football League team based in Dallas, Texas. Like its AFL predecessor, the Dallas Desperados, the Vigilantes played at the American Airlines Center. The Vigilantes and the Jacksonville Sharks began play in the 2010 season, the first after the league's...

     are rumored to be moving to Nashville
    Nashville, Tennessee
    Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in Davidson County, in the north-central part of the state. The city is a center for the health care, publishing, banking and transportation industries, and is home...

    .

Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer is a professional soccer league based in the United States and sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation . The league is composed of 19 teams — 16 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada...

  • 2006: The San Jose Earthquakes
    San Jose Earthquakes
    The San Jose Earthquakes professional soccer team is located in the San Jose, California, United States suburb of Santa Clara, and participates in Major League Soccer , the top level soccer league in the United States and Canada....

     moved to Houston and became the Houston Dynamo
    Houston Dynamo
    The Houston Dynamo is an American professional soccer club, based in Houston, Texas, that plays in Major League Soccer, the top professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. Founded in 2005 as Houston 1836, the team name was renamed to Houston Dynamo following protests from Hispanic...

    ; however, the team records, logo, colors, championships and history were left in San Jose
    San Jose, California
    San Jose is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S., and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay...

    . An option for an MLS franchise was awarded to Oakland Athletics
    Oakland Athletics
    The Oakland Athletics are a Major League Baseball team based in Oakland, California. The Athletics are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League. From to the present, the Athletics have played in the O.co Coliseum....

     owner Lew Wolff in 2006, and the option was exercised in 2007. The Earthquakes resumed play in MLS in 2008 as a continuation of the previous Earthquakes franchise.

United Soccer Leagues
United Soccer Leagues
The United Soccer Leagues is the organizer of several soccer leagues with teams in the United States, Canada and the Caribbean. It includes men's and women's leagues, both professional and amateur. Leagues currently organized are the USL Pro, the USL Premier Development League, the W-League, and...


Austin Aztex FC of the USL First Division
USL First Division
The United Soccer Leagues First Division was a professional men's soccer league in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico....

 and USSF Division 2 Professional League
USSF Division 2 Professional League
USSF Division 2 Professional League was a temporary professional soccer league created by the United States Soccer Federation in 2010 to last just one season. The twelve-team league was formed as a compromise between the feuding United Soccer Leagues and the North American Soccer League...

 (both of which were former second-tier levels of the United States soccer pyramid) were relocated to Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

 in October, 2010, and became Orlando City S.C.  Club owner Phil Rawlins, a board member of Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City Football Club is an English professional football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire that plays in the Premier League. Founded in 1863, it is the oldest club in the Premier League, and considered to be the second oldest professional football club in the world, after Notts...

 in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, cited problems finding sufficient investors in Austin. Brendan Flood, majority owner of England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

's Burnley F.C.
Burnley F.C.
Burnley Football Club are a professional English Football League club based in Burnley, Lancashire. Nicknamed the Clarets, due to the dominant colour of their home shirts, they were founder members of the Football League in 1888...

, had wanted to establish a new soccer club in Florida, and decided to pair with Rawlins as co-owners. Less than one year after the relocation to Orlando, Austin Aztex
Austin Aztex
Austin Aztex FC was an American professional soccer team based in Austin, Texas, United States. Founded in 2008, the team played in the USL First Division, and in the USL Division of the USSF D2 Pro League, the second tier of the American Soccer Pyramid...

 were re-born in the fourth-division USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...

, when David Markley (founder and minority owner of the previous Aztex) re-established the club.

WNBA
Women's National Basketball Association
The Women's National Basketball Association is a women's professional basketball league in the United States. It currently is composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association...

  • 2002: Two teams relocated following the league's 2002 season:
    • The Utah Starzz
      Utah Starzz
      The Utah Starzz were a Women's National Basketball Association team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. They began play in the 1997 WNBA season as one of the league's eight original teams. The Starzz relocated, in 2003, to San Antonio, Texas where the team became the San Antonio Silver Stars...

       moved to San Antonio, becoming the San Antonio Silver Stars
      San Antonio Silver Stars
      The San Antonio Silver Stars are a professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas, playing in the Western Conference in the Women's National Basketball Association . The team was founded in Salt Lake City, Utah before the league's inaugural 1997 season began; the team moved to San Antonio...

      .
    • The Orlando Miracle
      Orlando Miracle
      The Orlando Miracle was a Women's National Basketball Association team based in Orlando, Florida. They began play in the 1999 WNBA season. The Miracle relocated, in 2003,to Uncasville, Connecticut where the team became the Connecticut Sun...

       were purchased by the Mohegan
      Mohegan
      The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe that lives in the eastern upper Thames River valley of Connecticut. Mohegan translates to "People of the Wolf". At the time of European contact, the Mohegan and Pequot were one people, historically living in the lower Connecticut region...

       Native American
      Native Americans in the United States
      Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

       tribe and moved to the tribe's Mohegan Sun
      Mohegan Sun
      Mohegan Sun, located in Uncasville, Connecticut, is the second largest casino in the United States with of gaming space. It is located on along the banks of the Thames River. It is at the heart of the scenic foothills of southeastern Connecticut, where 60 percent of the state's tourism is...

       casino in Uncasville, Connecticut
      Uncasville, Connecticut
      Uncasville is an area in the town of Montville, Connecticut. The area traditionally known as Uncasville is a village in southeastern Montville, at the mouth of the Oxoboxo River...

      , becoming the Connecticut Sun
      Connecticut Sun
      The Connecticut Sun is a professional basketball team based in Uncasville, Connecticut, playing in the Eastern Conference in the Women's National Basketball Association . The team was founded in Orlando, Florida before the 1999 season began; the team moved to Connecticut before the 2003 season...

      . This transaction is notable in that the Sun became the first WNBA team to be owned by a party other than an NBA team owner.
  • 2009: The Detroit Shock
    Detroit Shock
    The Detroit Shock was a Women's National Basketball Association team based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. They were the 2003, 2006 and 2008 WNBA champion...

    , despite considerable success on the court in Detroit, including seven straight playoff berths and three WNBA titles, moved after the 2009 season to Tulsa, Oklahoma
    Tulsa, Oklahoma
    Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 46th-largest city in the United States. With a population of 391,906 as of the 2010 census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 937,478 residents in the MSA and 988,454 in the CSA. Tulsa's...

     and now plays as the Tulsa Shock.

Women's Professional Soccer
Women's Professional Soccer
Women's Professional Soccer is the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States. It began play on March 29, 2009. The league was composed of seven teams for its first two seasons and fielded 6 teams for the 2011 season, with continued plans for future expansion...


The league, started in 2009, saw its first major relocation before the 2011 season
2011 Women's Professional Soccer season
The 2011 Women's Professional Soccer season is the third season for the WPS, the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States...

. The former Washington Freedom
Washington Freedom
The Washington Freedom was an American professional soccer club based in the Washington, D.C. suburb of Germantown, Maryland that participated in Women's Professional Soccer. The Freedom was originally founded in 2001 as a member of the defunct Women's United Soccer Association. Since 2004, the...

, which previously played in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, was purchased by Dan Borislow
Dan Borislow
Daniel M. Borislow is an American entrepreneur, sports team owner, inventor, and thoroughbred horse breeder. Originating in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area, Borislow attended Widener University and worked in cable construction and landscaping before going into the telephone business. He...

, founder of the VoIP company magicJack
MagicJack
MagicJack is a device that plugs into a USB port on the user's computer and that has a standard RJ-11 phone jack into which any standard phone can be plugged. This allows the user to make phone calls to almost any phone in the U.S...

, and moved to Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton is a city in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA, incorporated in May 1925. In the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 74,764; the 2006 population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau was 86,396. However, the majority of the people under the postal address of Boca Raton, about...

. The team played as magicJack
MagicJack (WPS)
MagicJack was an American professional soccer club based in Boca Raton, Florida. The team competed in Women's Professional Soccer. MagicJack was originally founded in 2001 as the Washington Freedom of the defunct Women's United Soccer Association. In 2011, the team relocated to Boca Raton, Florida...

 in the 2011 season, which was marked by near-constant conflict between the league and Borislow. WPS terminated the franchise after that season.

Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....


The Baltimore Stallions
Baltimore Stallions
The Baltimore Stallions were a Canadian Football League team based in Baltimore, Maryland, which played the 1994 and 1995 seasons. They were the most successful American team in the Canadian Football League, having two winning seasons and a division title. In 1995 they became the only American team...

 moved to Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 in 1996 to become the Montreal Alouettes
Montreal Alouettes
The Montreal Alouettes are a Canadian Football League team based in Montreal, Quebec.The current franchise named the Alouettes moved to Montreal from Baltimore, Maryland, in 1996 where they had been known as the Baltimore Stallions...

. When the Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
The Cleveland Browns are a professional football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. They are currently members of the North Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

 announced that they would relocate to Baltimore, the Stallions recognized that they could not compete with it and relocated to Montreal where it assumed the defunct Montreal Alouettes' name along with its records, history and traditions. Although cosmetic rather than substantive, the CFL officially considers the modern Alouettes to be a continuation of the previous Alouettes team in an effort to distance itself from the American expansion experiment
CFL USA
The term CFL USA refers to the abortive expansion of the Canadian Football League into the United States in the early-to-mid 1990s. The 1993 CFL season saw the addition of the first American team to the league, the Sacramento Gold Miners...

 of which the Stallions were members and to keep the Alouettes' legacy viewed collectively. The current Alouettes do not consider the Stallions' legacy, including its Grey Cup victory, as part of the team's current legacy, even though the two teams never played concurrently. The only other team to relocate in the CFL's history was the Sacramento Gold Miners
Sacramento Gold Miners
The Sacramento Gold Miners were a Canadian football team based in Sacramento, California. The franchise was the first American team in the Canadian Football League. The Gold Miners were originally the "descendants" of the Sacramento Surge from the defunct World League of American Football...

, another American team, who moved to become the San Antonio Texans
San Antonio Texans
The San Antonio Texans were a Canadian Football League team that played in the Alamodome in San Antonio, Texas, in the 1995 CFL season. They had relocated from Sacramento, California, where the team had been called the Sacramento Gold Miners...

 in 1995. The staff of the Ottawa Rough Riders
Ottawa Rough Riders
The Ottawa Rough Riders were a Canadian Football League team based in Ottawa, Ontario, founded in 1876. One of the oldest and longest lived professional sports teams in North America, the Rough Riders won the Grey Cup championship nine times. Their most dominant era was the 1960s and 1970s, a...

 moved from Ottawa to Shreveport, Louisiana to become the Shreveport Pirates
Shreveport Pirates
The Shreveport Pirates were a Canadian Football League team, playing at Independence Stadium in Shreveport, Louisiana, USA, in 1994 and 1995....

 in 1993, but the CFL forced the team itself to be left in Ottawa, where a new owner kept the franchise alive.

Outside of the American expansion, the CFL has never relocated any of its core Canadian franchises from one market to another.

Team relocation in Europe


In Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, this sort of move is very rare. This is due to the different relationship between clubs and their league in the European system of professional sports league organization
Professional sports league organization
Professional sports leagues are organized in numerous ways. The two most significant types are a European model, characterised by a tiered structure using promotion and relegation to determine participation in a hierarchy of leagues or divisions and a North American model characterized by its use...

. In most sports, teams can be relegated
Promotion and relegation
In many sports leagues around the world, promotion and relegation is a process that takes place at the end of each season. Through it, teams are transferred between divisions based on their performance that season...

 from their current league down to a lower one, or promoted
Promotion and relegation
In many sports leagues around the world, promotion and relegation is a process that takes place at the end of each season. Through it, teams are transferred between divisions based on their performance that season...

 up a league to the one above. Membership of the national top division
Premier League (disambiguation)
Premier League refers to the Premier League in England. It may also refer to a number of other professional sport leagues:-Cricket:* Indian Premier League* English Premier League-Association football:* Armenian Premier League* Belarusian Premier League...

 is gained and held through excellent performance — and lost when performance slips. This arrangement is equally true for every level in the Football pyramid. The pyramid system inevitably leads to nearly every sizable city or town having at least a semi-pro team (or teams) that will have likely have secured the loyalty of the town's fanbase, thus making the town unattractive to anyone looking to move a team there even if it plays in a higher division. Thus, any person or city wanting a top-league team can invest in the already-existing lower-level team that will likely be there and hope the team can advance to the top division. Wigan Athletic
Wigan Athletic F.C.
Wigan Athletic Football Club is an English Premier League Association football club based in Wigan, Greater Manchester, having been promoted from the Championship in 2005. Wigan's current spell in the Premier League is the only top flight run in the club's history.They have played at the DW...

 in England, Gretna
Gretna F.C.
Gretna Football Club was a Scottish football club that represented the town of Gretna, Dumfries and Galloway, close to the border between England and Scotland...

 in Scotland, and 1899 Hoffenheim in Germany are examples of teams that have risen up the pyramid dramatically due to investment. Gretna also illustrates the danger of relying on a single large investor—after its owner, Brooks Mileson
Brooks Mileson
Brooks John Joseph Mileson was an English businessman and the former owner of Scottish football club Gretna as well as being a philanthropist to 70 non-league clubs.-Early life:...

, withdrew his support in February 2008 due to what eventually proved to be a fatal illness, the club went bankrupt and was liquidated within six months.

Additionally, the background of many clubs in these leagues is of social and community organisations rather than a commercial venture by an owner or owners which is why teams are usually referred to as clubs regardless of their current ownership structure. Whilst teams are now commonly privatised and often associated heavily with high profile owners, this historical basis may be why even private concerns are reluctant to move.

Football

  • In England
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

    , Wimbledon F.C.
    Wimbledon F.C.
    Wimbledon Football Club was an English professional association football club from Wimbledon, south-west London. Founded in 1889 as Wimbledon Old Central Football Club, the club spent most of its history in amateur and semi-professional non-League football before being elected to the Football...

    's Norwegian owners
    Kjell Inge Røkke
    Kjell Inge Røkke is a Norwegian businessman and among the richest people in Norway, controlling the Norwegian company Aker Solutions...

     moved the club
    Relocation of Wimbledon F.C. to Milton Keynes
    Wimbledon Football Club was an English professional football club from Wimbledon, south-west London. Founded in 1889, the club spent most of its history in amateur and semi-professional non-League football prior to a "fairytale" rise through the divisions following election to The Football League...

     from South London
    South London
    South London is the southern part of London, England, United Kingdom.According to the 2011 official Boundary Commission for England definition, South London includes the London boroughs of Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Greenwich, Kingston, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Southwark, Sutton and...

     to Milton Keynes
    Milton Keynes
    Milton Keynes , sometimes abbreviated MK, is a large town in Buckinghamshire, in the south east of England, about north-west of London. It is the administrative centre of the Borough of Milton Keynes...

    , a town more than 60 miles (100 km) away and one of the few large towns (due to its status as a new town
    New towns in the United Kingdom
    Below is a list of some of the new towns in the United Kingdom created under the various New Town Acts of the 20th century. Some earlier towns were developed as Garden Cities or overspill estates early in the twentieth century. The New Towns proper were planned to disperse population following the...

     constructed in 1967) without a league football team. For doing so, they were widely criticised by the English footballing community, who began to refer disparagingly to the club as "Franchise F.C.": though this isn't technically 'franchising'
    Professional sports league organization
    Professional sports leagues are organized in numerous ways. The two most significant types are a European model, characterised by a tiered structure using promotion and relegation to determine participation in a hierarchy of leagues or divisions and a North American model characterized by its use...

    , the fact of continuing to call it Wimbledon (where it was nowhere near) made it reminiscent of US practice (see "Background" above). London fans created a new local team, AFC Wimbledon
    AFC Wimbledon
    AFC Wimbledon is a professional English football club that traces its origins to Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton. Based at Kingsmeadow, Kingston upon Thames, the club are members of Football League Two, the fourth tier of English football....

    ; Wimbledon F.C. went into administration, was bought out of administration and subsequently relaunched with a new name, Milton Keynes Dons F.C.
    Milton Keynes Dons F.C.
    .Milton Keynes Dons Football Club is an English professional football club founded in 2004 and based since 2007 at Stadium mk, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire...

    . Twelve years before the move to Milton Keynes, they had already left their London borough
    London borough
    The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. Inner London comprises twelve of these boroughs plus the City of London. Outer London comprises the twenty remaining boroughs of Greater London.-Functions:...

     of Merton
    London Borough of Merton
    The London Borough of Merton is a borough in southwest London, England.The borough was formed under the London Government Act in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Mitcham, the Municipal Borough of Wimbledon and the Merton and Morden Urban District, all formerly within Surrey...

     home
    Plough Lane
    Plough Lane was a football stadium in Wimbledon, south west London. It was the home ground of Wimbledon Football Club from September 1912 to May 1991, when the club moved their first team home matches to Selhurst Park as part of a groundshare agreement with Crystal Palace. Both clubs' reserve teams...

     for Selhurst Park
    Selhurst Park
    Selhurst Park is an English football stadium located in the London suburb of South Norwood in the Borough of Croydon. It is the current home ground of Crystal Palace Football Club. Its present capacity is 26,309.-History:...

     in (the London borough of) Croydon
    Croydon
    Croydon is a town in South London, England, located within the London Borough of Croydon to which it gives its name. It is situated south of Charing Cross...

    . Although this was a supposedly temporary move, it had lasted 12 years by the time of their migration.
  • More recently in Scotland
    Scotland
    Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

    , Meadowbank Thistle, a struggling Edinburgh
    Edinburgh
    Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

     club controversially relocated in 1995 to the new town of Livingston
    Livingston, Scotland
    Livingston is a town in West Lothian, Scotland. It is the fourth post-WWII new town to be built in Scotland, designated in 1962. It is about 15 miles west of Edinburgh and 30 miles east of Glasgow, and is bordered by the towns of Broxburn to the northeast and Bathgate to the northwest.Livingston...

    , 19 miles away. It changed its name to Livingston F.C.
    Livingston F.C.
    Livingston Football Club is a Scottish association football club based in Livingston, West Lothian. The club currently plays in the Scottish Football League First Division.The club was founded in 1943 as Ferranti Thistle, a works team...

    , its fortunes improved and it won the Scottish League Cup
    Scottish League Cup
    The Scottish League Cup is a football competition open to all Scottish Football League and Scottish Premier League clubs. At present it is also known as the Scottish Communities League Cup owing to the sponsorship deal in place with the Scottish Government. In the past it has been sponsored by...

     in 2004. However several unfortunate boardroom and management changes, along with a small support base and weak financial position, resulted the club being first relegated, and later forcibly demoted to the bottom tier of the Scottish football setup (and the division in which Meadowbank were relegated to in their final season before relocation) by 2009.
  • Also in Scotland, Airdrie United F.C.
    Airdrie United F.C.
    Airdrie United Football Club are a Scottish professional football team based in the town of Airdrie, North Lanarkshire. They are currently managed by ex-Airdrieonians player and former Airdrie United Under 19s coach Jimmy Boyle. They are members of the Scottish Football League and play in the...

     took over Clydebank F.C.
    Clydebank F.C.
    Clydebank Football Club are a Scottish football club based in the town of Clydebank, West Dunbartonshire, near Yoker. The present club, formed in 2003, is a member of the Scottish Junior Football Association, and currently plays in West Super League Premier Division...

     and played their games at Airdrie
    Airdrie, North Lanarkshire
    Airdrie is a town within North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It lies on a plateau roughly 400 ft above sea level, and is approximately 12 miles east of Glasgow city centre. Airdrie forms part of a conurbation with its neighbour Coatbridge, in the former district known as the Monklands. As of 2006,...

     following the earlier liquidation of Airdrieonians F.C.
    Airdrieonians F.C.
    Airdrieonians Football Club, more commonly known as Airdrie, were a Scottish professional football team from the town of Airdrie, in the Monklands area of Lanarkshire....

    , though the club was founded as a continuation of Airdrieonians and did not take over Clydebank until after their application for the old Airdrie club's league place was refused. As a result, Airdrie United were placed in Division Two for the 2002-03 season
    2002-03 in Scottish football
    The 2002–03 season was the 106th season of competitive football in Scotland.-Scottish Premier League:The 2002–03 Scottish Premier League was won on goal difference by Rangers by a single goal over Celtic. Both Rangers and Celtic qualified for the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League and...

    , taking the place that would have been occupied by Clydebank. A year later, the Clydebank fans founded a new club, bearing the same name.
  • Again in Scotland, Clyde F.C.
    Clyde F.C.
    Clyde Football Club are a Scottish professional football team currently playing in the Third Division of the Scottish Football League. Although based for the last fifteen years in the new town of Cumbernauld, they are traditionally associated with an area that covers Rutherglen in South...

     moved from Shawfield Stadium
    Shawfield Stadium
    Shawfield Stadium is a greyhound racing venue in the town of Rutherglen, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, located close to the boundary with Glasgow. It has also previously been a regular venue for football and speedway, as home to Clyde F.C. and the Glasgow Tigers respectively...

     (near Rutherglen
    Rutherglen
    Rutherglen is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. In 1975, it lost its own local council and administratively became a component of the City of Glasgow. In 1996 Rutherglen was reallocated to the South Lanarkshire council area.-History:...

     in the south east of Glasgow
    Glasgow
    Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

    ) to the new town
    New town
    A new town is a specific type of a planned community, or planned city, that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are uncommon in new...

     of Cumbernauld
    Cumbernauld
    Cumbernauld is a Scottish new town in North Lanarkshire. It was created in 1956 as a population overspill for Glasgow City. It is the eighth most populous settlement in Scotland and the largest in North Lanarkshire...

     in 1994. They had been evicted from Shawfield in 1986. By 1990, Clyde secured an agreement to build a home of their own in the new town of Cumbernauld, which had grown in population and was by 1990 one of the larger settlements in Scotland without senior football. They were homeless from 1986 until Broadwood Stadium
    Broadwood Stadium
    Broadwood Stadium, also referred to as simply Broadwood, is a football stadium and multi-use community sports complex situated in Cumbernauld, North Lanarkshire, Scotland. The stadium was opened in 1994 and since then has been the home venue of Scottish Third Division side, Clyde F.C....

     was built in Cumbernauld in 1994. The move allowed Clyde to continue as a semi-professional club but they did not attract many supporters and found themselves in a perilous financial situation on several occasions.
  • In Northern Ireland, Belfast based Distillery FC were homeless for many seasons in the 1970s sharing grounds with other clubs until settling in Lisburn, later adding the towns name to theirs, now known as Lisburn Distillery F.C.
    Lisburn Distillery F.C.
    Lisburn Distillery is a semi-professional, Northern Irish football club playing in the IFA Premiership. The club, founded in 1880, originated in west Belfast, where it was based at Grosvenor Park at Distillery Street off the Grosvenor Road until 1971...



Other examples of relocation out of the original district are slightly more common. In certain cases, the club has moved within a conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

:
  • Arsenal
    Arsenal F.C.
    Arsenal Football Club is a professional English Premier League football club based in North London. One of the most successful clubs in English football, it has won 13 First Division and Premier League titles and 10 FA Cups...

     moved from Woolwich
    Woolwich
    Woolwich is a district in south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.Woolwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created...

     in south London to Highbury
    Highbury
    - Early Highbury :The area now known as Islington was part of the larger manor of Tolentone, which is mentioned in the Domesday Book. Tolentone was owned by Ranulf brother of Ilger and included all the areas north and east of Canonbury and Holloway Road. The manor house was situated by what is now...

     in north London in 1913. They moved again to Holloway
    Holloway, London
    Holloway is an inner-city district in the London Borough of Islington located north of Charing Cross and follows for the most part, the line of the Holloway Road . At the centre of Holloway is the Nag's Head area...

    , a neighbourhood adjacent to Highbury, in 2006, though this was a much shorter distance than they had moved when relocating 93 years earlier, and kept the club in the London Borough of Islington
    London Borough of Islington
    The London Borough of Islington is a London borough in Inner London. It was formed in 1965 by merging the former metropolitan boroughs of Islington and Finsbury. The borough contains two Westminster parliamentary constituencies, Islington North and Islington South & Finsbury...

    .
  • Manchester United
    Manchester United F.C.
    Manchester United Football Club is an English professional football club, based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that plays in the Premier League. Founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, the club changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to Old Trafford in 1910.The 1958...

     were founded (as Newton Heath) in the Manchester neighbourhood of Newton Heath
    Newton Heath
    Newton Heath is an urban area of the city of Manchester, in Greater Manchester, England. It is east north east of Manchester city centre and has a population of 9,883....

     in 1878, and moved within the city to Clayton in 1893. After adopting the Manchester United name in 1902, they moved just outside the city to Stretford
    Stretford
    Stretford is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, in Greater Manchester, England. Lying on flat ground between the River Mersey and the Manchester Ship Canal, it is to the southwest of Manchester city centre, south-southwest of Salford and northeast of Altrincham...

     in 1910, where they remain to this day. However, the creation of the Greater Manchester
    Greater Manchester
    Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.6 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the...

     metropolitan county in 1974 and Manchester being its post town means that Stretford is considered part of Manchester.
  • Grimsby Town
    Grimsby Town F.C.
    Grimsby Town Football Club is an English football club based in the seaside town of Cleethorpes, in North East Lincolnshire, England, who compete in the Conference National. They were formed in 1878 as Grimsby Pelham and later became Grimsby Town...

     play in the town of Cleethorpes
    Cleethorpes
    Cleethorpes is a town and unparished area in North East Lincolnshire, England, situated on the estuary of the Humber. It has a population of 31,853 and is a seaside resort.- History :...

    , a town to the east of Grimsby that has been absorbed by the former's outward growth during the 20th century.
  • Partick Thistle is a Scottish football club that moved from the Glasgow
    Glasgow
    Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

     district of Partick
    Partick
    Partick is an area of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde, just across from Govan. To the west lies Whiteinch. Partick was a Police burgh from 1852 until 1912 when it was incorporated into the city.-History:...

     to that of Maryhill
    Maryhill
    Maryhill is an area of the City of Glasgow in Scotland. Maryhill is a former burgh. The population of Maryhill is about 52,000. Maryhill stretches over along Maryhill Road...

     but retains its name.
  • Nottingham Forest
    Nottingham Forest F.C.
    Nottingham Forest Football Club is an English Association Football club based in West Bridgford, Nottingham, that plays in the Football League Championship...

     have long played outside of the Forest district of Nottingham and now reside in West Bridgford
    West Bridgford
    West Bridgford is a town in the Rushcliffe borough of Nottinghamshire, England. It lies immediately south of the city of Nottingham, delimited by the River Trent; this proximity means that it forms a continuous urban area with Nottingham, effectively makes West Bridgford a suburb of the city, and...

    , just outside Nottingham's
    Nottingham
    Nottingham is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England. It is located in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire and represents one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group...

     city limits, although they retain a Nottingham postal address. Interestingly, Notts County's Meadow Lane ground is within the city boundary despite their county name.
  • Bolton Wanderers
    Bolton Wanderers F.C.
    Bolton Wanderers Football Club is an English professional association football club based in the area of Horwich in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester. They began their current spell in the Premier League in 2001....

     play at the Reebok Stadium
    Reebok Stadium
    The Reebok Stadium is the home stadium of English Premier League football club Bolton Wanderers, and is located on the Middlebrook Retail Park in Horwich, in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester. It is commonly known as 'The Reebok'...

    , which is situated in the neighbouring town of Horwich
    Horwich
    Horwich is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, in Greater Manchester, England. It is southeast of Chorley, northwest of Bolton and northwest from the city of Manchester. It lies at the southern edge of the West Pennine Moors with the M61 motorway close to the...

    , since their relocation from 101-year-old Burnden Park
    Burnden Park
    Burnden Park was the home of English FA Premier League football club Bolton Wanderers who played home games here between 1895 and 1997. As well as hosting an FA Cup Final replay it was the scene of one of the greatest disasters in English football and the subject of an L. S...

     in 1997.
  • Gravesend and Northfleet F.C. changed their name to Ebbsfleet United F.C. in 2007. Ebbsfleet is a new town
    New towns in the United Kingdom
    Below is a list of some of the new towns in the United Kingdom created under the various New Town Acts of the 20th century. Some earlier towns were developed as Garden Cities or overspill estates early in the twentieth century. The New Towns proper were planned to disperse population following the...

     a mile or so away from Gravesend
    Gravesend, Kent
    Gravesend is a town in northwest Kent, England, on the south bank of the Thames, opposite Tilbury in Essex. It is the administrative town of the Borough of Gravesham and, because of its geographical position, has always had an important role to play in the history and communications of this part of...

     and the club are looking to move to a new stadium there in the future.
  • Another similar, but less well known move, is that from South Shields
    South Shields
    South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, located at the mouth of the River Tyne to Tyne Dock, and about downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne...

    . In 1974, South Shields F.C.
    South Shields F.C.
    South Shields F.C. are a football club based in South Shields, England. They have a long and complicated history, with three distinct incarnations taking the name...

     became Gateshead United F.C. after a move between the two towns that are 10 miles apart — repeating a similar migration in 1930. (This club folded in 1973. The present Gateshead F.C.
    Gateshead F.C.
    Gateshead Football Club are a professional Association football club, based in Gateshead, England. They currently play in the Conference National, the fifth level of the English football league system.Ian Bogie is the current manager....

     and South Shields F.C.
    South Shields F.C.
    South Shields F.C. are a football club based in South Shields, England. They have a long and complicated history, with three distinct incarnations taking the name...

     are new clubs).
  • Sunderland
    Sunderland A.F.C.
    Sunderland Association Football Club is an English association football club based in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear who currently play in the Premier League...

     were founded in 1879 and began their life in the Sunderland neighbourhood of Hendon. They moved four times in seven years before settling in their first proper stadium, Newcastle Road, also located in Sunderland, in 1886. Then, in 1898, they moved outside the city to Roker Park
    Roker Park
    Roker Park was an English football stadium situated in Roker, Sunderland. The stadium was the home of the English football club Sunderland A.F.C. from 1897 to 1997 before the club moved to the Stadium of Light. Near the end of the stadium's history, its capacity was around 22,500 with only a small...

     in the suburb of Roker, remaining there for 99 years. Their most recent move, in 1997, saw them return to the city of Sunderland at the new Stadium of Light
    Stadium of Light
    The Stadium of Light is an all-seater football stadium in Sunderland, England. With space for 49,000 spectators, the Stadium of Light has the fifth-largest capacity of any English football stadium. The stadium primarily hosts Sunderland A.F.C. matches...

     near the city centre.
  • West Ham United
    West Ham United F.C.
    West Ham United Football Club is an English professional football club based in Upton Park, Newham, East London. They play in The Football League Championship. The club was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks FC and reformed in 1900 as West Ham United. In 1904 the club relocated to their current...

     have been located in what is now the London Borough of Newham
    London Borough of Newham
    The London Borough of Newham is a London borough formed from the towns of West Ham and East Ham, within East London.It is situated east of the City of London, and is north of the River Thames. According to 2006 estimates, Newham has one of the highest ethnic minority populations of all the...

     since their creation as Thames Ironworks F.C.
    Thames Ironworks F.C.
    Thames Ironworks Football Club, the club that later became West Ham United, was founded by Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd owner Arnold Hills and foreman Dave Taylor in 1895. Thames Ironworks took over the tenancy of The Old Castle Swifts' Hermit Road ground in Canning Town until their...

     in 1895, but played in several different neighbourhoods within that area in their early history. Their first home was Hermit Road
    Hermit Road
    Hermit Road was the first home stadium of London football club Thames Ironworks, the team that would become West Ham United, and was located in Canning Town. Thames had taken over the tenancy of the ground in the summer of 1895 from Old Castle Swifts F.C., who were the first professional football...

     in Canning Town
    Canning Town
    Canning Town is an area of east London, England. It is part of the London Borough of Newham and is situated in the area of the former London docks on the north side of the River Thames. It is the location of Rathbone Market...

    , followed by Browning Road
    Browning Road
    Browning Road was the home ground of London football club Thames Ironworks, the team that would become West Ham United, towards the end of the 1896-97 season....

     in East Ham
    East Ham
    East Ham is a suburban district of London, England, and part of the London Borough of Newham. It is a built-up district located 8 miles east-northeast of Charing Cross...

    , before returning to Canning Town at the Memorial Grounds
    Memorial Grounds
    Memorial Grounds was the home stadium of east London football club Thames Ironworks from the beginning of the 1897-98 season, until the end of the 1899-1900 season. The team continued to play at the stadium, under its new name of West Ham United, until they moved to their current home at the...

    . After severing ties with the Thames Ironworks company and reforming as West Ham United in 1900, they initially played at the Memorial Grounds, but became a transient team in 1901, playing at several local clubs' grounds in another nearby neighbourhood, Upton Park. In 1904, they built the Boleyn Ground
    Boleyn Ground
    The Boleyn Ground, more commonly referred to as Upton Park due to its location in Upton Park, London is the football stadium of West Ham United.-History:...

     in Upton Park, where they have remained to this day. After the 2012 Summer Olympics
    2012 Summer Olympics
    The 2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the "London 2012 Olympic Games", are scheduled to take place in London, England, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012...

    , West Ham will take over the Olympic Stadium
    Olympic Stadium (London)
    The London Olympic Stadium will be the centrepiece of the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The stadium is located at Marshgate Lane in Stratford in the Lower Lea Valley and has capacity for the Games of approximately 80,000 making it temporarily the third largest stadium in Britain behind...

    , located in the Newham neighbourhood of Stratford
    Stratford, London
    Stratford is a place in the London Borough of Newham, England. It is located east northeast of Charing Cross and is one of the major centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically an agrarian settlement in the ancient parish of West Ham, which transformed into an industrial suburb...

    .

Rugby league


In 1999, just one year after the Sheffield Eagles
Sheffield Eagles
Sheffield Eagles RLFC are an English rugby league club based in the South Yorkshire city of Sheffield. They currently play in the Co-operative Championship. Their home games are played at Bramall Lane after leaving Don Valley Stadium in late 2009....

 won the Challenge Cup
Challenge Cup
The Challenge Cup is a knockout cup competition for rugby league clubs organised by the Rugby Football League. Originally it was contested only by British teams but in recent years has been expanded to allow teams from France and Russia to take part....

, they accepted an offer from the RFL
Rugby Football League
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league football in England. Based at Red Hall in Leeds, it administers the England national rugby league team, the Challenge Cup, Super League and the Rugby League Championships...

 to merge with the Huddersfield Giants
Huddersfield Giants
Huddersfield Giants are a professional rugby league club from Huddersfield, West Yorkshire who play in the European Super League competition. They play their home games at the Galpharm Stadium which is shared with Huddersfield Town F.C....

. The new team, Huddersfield-Sheffield Giants, played some matches in Sheffield
Sheffield
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and with some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely...

's Don Valley Stadium
Don Valley Stadium
The Don Valley Stadium is a stadium in Sheffield, England and is the home of Rotherham United F.C.. The stadium is an athletics stadium which has hosted major UK Athletic events and the 1991 World Student Games. Sheffield Eagles RLFC and Parramore Sports FC also use the stadium. It was designed by...

 and some in Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Huddersfield is a large market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England, situated halfway between Leeds and Manchester. It lies north of London, and south of Bradford, the nearest city....

's McAlpine Stadium
Galpharm Stadium
The Galpharm Stadium, formerly the Alfred McAlpine Stadium, is a multi-use sports in Huddersfield in West Yorkshire, England. Since 1994, it has been the home ground of Huddersfield Town and Super League side, Huddersfield Giants.-The Stadium:...

. However, the new team consisting of mostly ex-Sheffield players, whilst retaining the old -Giants suffix resulted in a lack of acceptance from both sets of fans (though primarily Sheffield), and the team reverted to the Huddersfield Giants name the following season, effectively a franchise of the team. A new Sheffield Eagles started from scratch that following season, and now compete in the second-tier Championship.

The same year, Gateshead Thunder
Gateshead Thunder
Gateshead Thunder is a professional rugby league club based in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear in England. They currently play in the Championship 1 competition, the third tier of rugby league in the United Kingdom...

, who had only been playing in the English Super League for one year, were taken over by Hull Sharks, who then reverted to their traditional brand of Hull. The merged club played all its home games in Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

. As with Sheffield, a new Gateshead Thunder team was set up by supporters of the old side to play in the National Leagues, since renamed the Championship and Championship 1
Championship 1
Championship 1, known as The Co-operative Championship 1 due to sponsorship by The Co-operative Group, is a rugby league competition based in the United Kingdom. It acts as the country's third-tier competition behind the Championship, with which it has a system of promotion and relegation. It is...

. The current incarnation of Gateshead Thunder competes in Championship 1.

Following their inaugural Super League
Super League
Super League is the top-level professional rugby league football club competition in Europe. As a result of sponsorship from engage Mutual Assurance the competition is currently officially known as the engage Super League. The League features fourteen teams: thirteen from England and one from...

 season in 2009
Super League XIV
The 2009 Super League season is the fourteenth season of rugby league since the Super League format was introduced in 1996...

, the Celtic Crusaders, based in the South Wales
South Wales
South Wales is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west. The most densely populated region in the south-west of the United Kingdom, it is home to around 2.1 million people and includes the capital city of...

 town of Bridgend
Bridgend
Bridgend is a town in the Bridgend County Borough in Wales, west of the capital, Cardiff. The river crossed by the original bridge, which gave the town its name, is the River Ogmore but the River Ewenny also passes to the south of the town...

 since their formation in 2005, moved to the North Wales
North Wales
North Wales is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales. It is bordered to the south by the counties of Ceredigion and Powys in Mid Wales and to the east by the counties of Shropshire in the West Midlands and Cheshire in North West England...

 town of Wrexham
Wrexham
Wrexham is a town in Wales. It is the administrative centre of the wider Wrexham County Borough, and the largest town in North Wales, located in the east of the region. It is situated between the Welsh mountains and the lower Dee Valley close to the border with Cheshire, England...

 and renamed themselves Crusaders Rugby League. The team folded after the 2011 season
Super League XVI
The 2011 Super League season was the sixteenth season of rugby league football since the Super League format was introduced in 1996...

 and was replaced by the North Wales Crusaders
North Wales Crusaders
-Coaches:...

, which will compete in Championship 1.

Rugby union


A number of rugby union clubs have made minor relocations from time to time, almost always within their current conurbation.

Three of the four Premiership clubs whose historic roots are in London now play their home matches outside Greater London, though still within the London commuter belt
London commuter belt
The London commuter belt is the metropolitan area surrounding London, England from which it is practical to commute to work in the capital. It is alternatively known as the Greater South East, the London metropolitan area or the Southeast metropolitan area...

:
  • London Irish
    London Irish
    London Irish RFC is an English rugby union club based in Sunbury, Surrey, where the senior squad train, the youth teams and senior academy play home games, and the club maintain their administrative offices. The senior squad play home games at the Madejski Stadium in Reading and compete in the top...

     were founded in London in 1898 for the city's Irish community
    Irish diaspora
    thumb|Night Train with Reaper by London Irish artist [[Brian Whelan]] from the book Myth of Return, 2007The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, Mexico, South Africa,...

    . The club established their first home ground at The Avenue
    The Avenue
    The Avenue is a Rugby Union stadium at Sunbury-on-Thames that has belonged to the English club London Irish since 1931 when the team purchased eleven acres to establish a club there. While the team moved to Madjeski Stadium in 1999, the stadium survived the team's 2009 proposed redevelopment plan,...

     in Sunbury
    Sunbury-on-Thames
    Sunbury-on-Thames, also known as Sunbury, is a town in the Surrey borough of Spelthorne, England, and part of the London commuter belt. It is located 16 miles southwest of central London and bordered by Feltham and Hampton, flanked on the south by the River Thames.-History:The earliest evidence of...

    , Middlesex
    Middlesex
    Middlesex is one of the historic counties of England and the second smallest by area. The low-lying county contained the wealthy and politically independent City of London on its southern boundary and was dominated by it from a very early time...

     in 1931. In 1965, most of Middlesex was incorporated into Greater London, but Sunbury was instead attached to Surrey
    Surrey
    Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of...

    . In 2000, London Irish moved their senior team to Madejski Stadium
    Madejski Stadium
    The Madejski Stadium is a stadium in Reading, Berkshire, England. The stadium is the home of Reading Football Club and to the rugby union club London Irish as tenants. It also provides the finish for the Reading Half Marathon...

     in Reading
    Reading, Berkshire
    Reading is a large town and unitary authority area in England. It is located in the Thames Valley at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, and on both the Great Western Main Line railway and the M4 motorway, some west of London....

     (groundsharing with Reading F.C.
    Reading F.C.
    Reading Football Club is an English association football club based in the town of Reading, Berkshire who currently play in the Championship...

    ), though their headquarters remain in Sunbury.
  • London Wasps
    London Wasps
    London Wasps is an English professional rugby union team. The men's first team, which forms London Wasps, was derived from Wasps Football Club who were formed in 1867 at the now defunct Eton and Middlesex Tavern in North London, at the turn of professionalism in 1999...

     were founded in 1867 in North London via a membership split of Hampstead Football Club, which had been created a year earlier. They established their first permanent ground in Sudbury
    Sudbury, London
    Sudbury is a suburb in the London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, located in northwest London, UK.Sudbury is an historical area having once extended from the 'South Manor- Sudbury' to the area that is now known as Wembley Central...

     in 1923. In 1996, they moved within Greater London to groundshare with Queens Park Rangers
    Queens Park Rangers F.C.
    Queens Park Rangers Football Club is an English professional football club, based in White City, Hammersmith and Fulham, west London. As the 2010-11 Football League Championship champions, they now play in the top tier of English football the Premier League, for the first time in 15 years...

     at Loftus Road
    Loftus Road
    Loftus Road is a football stadium in Shepherd's Bush, London. It is home to the English football team Queens Park Rangers of the Premier League and has a capacity of around 18,500. The four stands are called the Loftus Road End , Ellerslie Road Stand, South Africa Road Stand and the School End,...

    . They moved outside Greater London in 2002 to share Adams Park
    Adams Park
    Adams Park is a football stadium in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. It is the home ground of Wycombe Wanderers F.C. and the Aviva Premiership Rugby Union club London Wasps...

     in High Wycombe
    High Wycombe
    High Wycombe , commonly known as Wycombe and formally called Chepping Wycombe or Chipping Wycombe until 1946,is a large town in Buckinghamshire, England. It is west-north-west of Charing Cross in London; this figure is engraved on the Corn Market building in the centre of the town...

     with Wycombe Wanderers
    Wycombe Wanderers F.C.
    Wycombe Wanderers Football Club is an English professional football team from High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, which has been promoted to Football League One after finishing third in Football League Two in the season 2010–11. The club's nicknames are "The Chairboys" and "The Blues", and they play...

    . Wasps have moved their headquarters to Adams Park.
  • Saracens
    Saracens F.C.
    Saracens are a professional rugby union team based in St. Albans, England – although they play their home games at Vicarage Road, in Watford. They are currently members of the Aviva Premiership, the top level of domestic rugby union in England...

     were founded in 1876 in Marylebone
    Marylebone
    Marylebone is an affluent inner-city area of central London, located within the City of Westminster. It is sometimes written as St. Marylebone or Mary-le-bone....

    , and moved numerous times within what is now Greater London. At the dawn of the professional era in 1995, they moved again within Greater London to Enfield
    London Borough of Enfield
    The London Borough of Enfield is the most northerly London borough and forms part of Outer London. It borders the London Boroughs of Barnet, Haringey and Waltham Forest...

    , and then moved outside the boundary in 1997 to groundshare with Watford F.C.
    Watford F.C.
    Watford Football Club is an English professional football club based in Watford, Hertfordshire. It is often referred to as Watford F.C., Watford, or by the team's nickname The Hornets . Watford Rovers, Founded in 1881, entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1886, and the Southern League a decade...

     at Vicarage Road
    Vicarage Road
    Vicarage Road, a stadium in Watford, Hertfordshire, England, is the home of the football club Watford and their tenants, the Saracens rugby union club. An all-seater stadium, its current capacity is 17,477.-History:...

    . Saracens plan to return home matches to Greater London at the Barnet Copthall
    Barnet Copthall
    Barnet Copthall is a leisure complex in Hendon, London NW4, near the border with Mill Hill.Today, the complex houses a local authority-owned swimming pool, athletics stadium and gymnasium facilities...

     complex in 2012. The club currently maintain their headquarters outside Greater London in St Albans
    St Albans
    St Albans is a city in southern Hertfordshire, England, around north of central London, which forms the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans. It is a historic market town, and is now a sought-after dormitory town within the London commuter belt...

    .


The fourth London club, Harlequins
Harlequin F.C.
The Harlequin Football Club is an English rugby union team who play in the top level of English rugby, the Aviva Premiership. Their ground in London is Twickenham Stoop...

, were the second part of the Hampstead F.C. split. They played at a number of grounds in London until the RFU
Rugby Football Union
The Rugby Football Union was founded in 1871 as the governing body for the sport of rugby union, and performed as the international governing body prior to the formation of the International Rugby Board in 1886...

 invited them to play at Twickenham
Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium is a stadium located in Twickenham, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It is the largest rugby union stadium in the United Kingdom and has recently been enlarged to seat 82,000...

 in 1906. The club acquired an athletics ground across the road from Twickenham in 1963, built today's Twickenham Stoop on the site, and have played there ever since. Quins have long been headquartered at Twickenham—first at the RFU stadium, and now at The Stoop.

Another Premiership club, Sale Sharks
Sale Sharks
Sale Sharks are a professional rugby union club who play in England in the Aviva Premiership.The club is an offshoot of Sale FC, which is based at Heywood Road in Sale, Greater Manchester, but Sharks currently play in Stockport at Edgeley Park, ground sharing with Stockport County F.C.Part of the...

, have moved their home ground from their original base, though within the same conurbation. Founded in Sale
Sale, Greater Manchester
Sale is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, in Greater Manchester, England. Historically part of Cheshire, the town lies on flat ground on the south bank of the River Mersey, south of Stretford, northeast of Altrincham, and southwest of the city of Manchester...

 and still headquartered at their longtime home of Heywood Road
Heywood Road
Heywood Road is a rugby union stadium in Sale, Greater Manchester. It has been the home ground of Sale F.C. since 1905. It was the home ground of spin-off professional club Sale Sharks until 2003, when the club moved it's matches to Edgeley Park, Stockport. It's capacity was 5,400 in 2003. Sale...

, they have groundshared with Stockport County F.C.
Stockport County F.C.
Stockport County Football Club is an English football club based in Stockport, Greater Manchester. The club formed in 1883 as Heaton Norris Rovers, shortly afterwards merging with Heaton Norris F.C., and adopted the current name on 24 May 1890 on the creation of the County Borough of Stockport...

 at Edgeley Park
Edgeley Park
Edgeley Park is an association football and rugby union stadium in Stockport, England. The stadium was initially built for the rugby league club Stockport in 1901, but by 1902, the rugby club was defunct and in the same year, Stockport County Football Club, who were looking for a bigger ground,...

 in Stockport
Stockport
Stockport is a town in Greater Manchester, England. It lies on elevated ground southeast of Manchester city centre, at the point where the rivers Goyt and Tame join and create the River Mersey. Stockport is the largest settlement in the metropolitan borough of the same name...

 since 2003.

Germany


While football club relocation has so far been unusual in West German football, it was a rather common practice in communist East Germany. As teams were dependent on the regime, it intervened several times to promote an equal distribution of teams across the country. A number of prominent East German teams were affected by these political moves, and even in modern-day Germany, the reason for the regional dominance of some teams and the roots of many strong rivalries can be found there.

Major relocations in the DDR-Oberliga
DDR-Oberliga
The DDR-Oberliga was, prior to German reunification in 1990, the elite level of football competition in the DDR , being roughly equivalent to the Oberliga or Bundesliga in West Germany.-Overview:Following World...

:
  • In 1954, the entire team of Empor Lauter
    Lauter
    Lauter may refer to:In towns:*Lauter, Saxony, town in the district of Aue-Schwarzenberg, Saxony, Germany*Lauter, Bavaria, village in the district of Bamberg, Bavaria, GermanyIn rivers:*Lauter , tributary to the Baunach, Germany...

    , a club from a small industrial town in southern Saxony, were relocated to the very north of the country to compete as Empor Rostock
    Rostock
    Rostock -Early history:In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc ; the name Rostock is derived from that designation. The Danish king Valdemar I set the town aflame in 1161.Afterwards the place was settled by German traders...

    . Under the name Hansa Rostock, they have been the most successful East German team since 1990.
  • Also in 1954, Dynamo Dresden
    Dynamo Dresden
    SG Dynamo Dresden are a German association football club, based in Dresden, Saxony. They were founded in 1950, as a club affiliated with the East German police, and became one of the most popular and successful clubs in East German football, winning eight league titles...

     lost all its players to the newly formed side of Dynamo Berlin
    Dynamo Berlin
    Dynamo Berlin may refer to:* SC Dynamo Berlin, a multi-sports club in East Berlin from 1954 to 1991* Berliner FC Dynamo, an association football club separated out of SC Dynamo Berlin in 1966 and still extant...

    . Dresden passed almost a decade in the lower leagues, returned to top-level football in 1962 and became one of the fiercest rivals of by-then record champion Dynamo Berlin.
  • Vorwärts Frankfurt (Oder) was the only major team to be relocated twice. Founded as Vorwärts Leipzig
    Leipzig
    Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

     in 1951, the team was moved to East Berlin
    East Berlin
    East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. It consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin that was established in 1945. The American, British and French sectors became West Berlin, a part strongly associated with West Germany but a free city...

     in 1953, where they won six East German championships. They became Vorwärts Frankfurt
    Frankfurt (Oder)
    Frankfurt is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice which was a part of Frankfurt until 1945. At the end of the 1980s it reached a population peak with more than 87,000 inhabitants...

     in 1971 and were renamed to FFC Viktoria
    FC Viktoria Frankfurt
    Frankfurter FC Viktoria is a German association football club based in Frankfurt , Brandenburg. The club was originally founded in East Germany as the army club SV Vorwärts der HVA Leipzig in 1951 in the city of Leipzig.- History :One of the characteristics of East German football after World War...

     in 1991.


In recent times, team relocation has become a more common feature in sports that are less popular with the German public. Notable examples include former ice hockey team München Barons
Munich Barons
The Munich Barons were a professional ice hockey team between 1999 and 2002 run by the Anschutz Entertainment Group in the German Ice Hockey League ...

 (became the Hamburg Freezers
Hamburg Freezers
The Hamburg Freezers are a member of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga that play their games in Hamburg, Germany. Originally known as the Munich Barons from 1999 until 2002, team owner Philip Anschutz relocated the franchise to Hamburg for financial reasons on 3 June 2002, and renamed the team the...

 in 2002), former handball side VfL Bad Schwartau (became HSV Handball
HSV Handball
HSV Hamburg is a team handball club from Germany, locates in Hamburg. Currently, HSV Hamburg competes in the Bundesliga First Division. The full name in German is Handball Sport Verein Hamburg e.V. but the club is usually called HSV Handball, HSV Hamburg or just HSV.HSV Hamburg is the former...

 in 2002) and basketball club Bayer Giants Leverkusen
Bayer Giants Leverkusen
Bayer Giants Leverkusen is a professional basketball club, part of the Bayer Leverkusen sports club based in Leverkusen, Germany. Based on the number of titles, Leverkusen is the most successful team in the history of German Basketball. In 2009, the Bayer company cut down sponsorship and the club...

 (Düsseldorf Giants since 2008).

Italy


Football club relocation is present also practice in Italian football, especially at lower levels. Current Italian football laws allow relocation of clubs only between bordering cities. Some examples of current football clubs born as relocation of previous ones include:
  • In 2004, after Cosenza Calcio 1914
    A.S. Cosenza Calcio
    Nuova Cosenza Calcio is an Italian football club, based in Cosenza, Calabria. The team's official colours are red and blue.-Early times and Serie B:...

     was not admitted to Serie B, a new ownership bought sports rights from then-Serie D
    Serie D
    Serie D is the top level of the Italian non-professional football association called Lega Nazionale Dilettanti. The association represents over a million football players and thousands of football teams across Italy. Serie D ranks just below Lega Pro Seconda Divisione , and is thus considered the...

     club Castrovillari
    U.S. Castrovillari Calcio
    Unione Sportiva Castrovillari Calcio is an Italian association football club located in Castrovillari, Calabria.It currently plays in Eccellenza Calabria.Its colors are red and black.-2009–2010 squad:-External links:* *...

     in order to permit a Cosenza franchise to play football in the upcoming season. The new club however proved to be short-lived, as it declared bankruptcy in 2007, but was promptly replaced by Fortitudo Cosenza, born as relocation of neighbouring Serie D club Rende Calcio.
  • Serie D's Neapolis, located in Naples
    Naples
    Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

    , was born as a relocation of Sangiuseppese, a club hailing from the neighbouring city of San Giuseppe Vesuviano
    San Giuseppe Vesuviano
    San Giuseppe Vesuviano is a comune in the Province of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located about 20 km east of Naples...

    .
  • In 1994, one year after the cancellation of Calcio Catania
    Calcio Catania
    Calcio Catania is an Italian football club founded in 1908 and based in Catania, Sicily. The club has spent much of its history in Serie B, gaining promotion to Italy's top league Serie A five times...

    , Atletico Leonzio's chairman Franco Proto relocated his club, renaming it Atletico Catania
    A.S.D. Atletico Catania F.C.
    Unione Sportiva Dilettantistica Atletico Catania is an Italian association football club founded in 1986 and based in Catania, Sicily. Throughout its history, the club played extensively at Serie C1 and Serie C2 professional level, almost gaining promotion to Serie B on two occasions during the 1990s...

    . The club, previously located in Lentini
    Lentini
    Lentini , historically Leontini, Leontinoi , or Leontium, is a town and comune in the Province of Syracuse, southeast Sicily .-History:...

    , went on to play up to Serie C1 (the league now known as Lega Pro Prima Divisione), losing promotion to Serie B
    Serie B
    Serie B, currently named Serie bwin due to sponsorship reasons, is the second-highest division in the Italian football league system after the Serie A. It is contested by 22 teams and organized by the Lega Serie B since July 2010, after the split of Lega Calcio that previously took care of both the...

     on playoffs twice before being cancelled in 2001 because of financial difficulties also related to Calcio Catania's return into professional football and the consequent drop in attendance.


More recent examples include A.C.D. Città di Vittoria, born in 2007 as merger of Serie D's Comiso with minor league club Junior Vittoria (possibly a trick in order to allow the club to legally relocate from Comiso
Comiso
Comiso is an Italian municipality in the Province of Ragusa in Sicily.-Geography:Comiso consists of three boroughs: Comiso, Pedalino, and Quaglio. It lies some 22 km west of Ragusa in the South of Sicily...

 to Vittoria). A.S.D. Pol. Libertas Acate of Serie D
Serie D
Serie D is the top level of the Italian non-professional football association called Lega Nazionale Dilettanti. The association represents over a million football players and thousands of football teams across Italy. Serie D ranks just below Lega Pro Seconda Divisione , and is thus considered the...

 are a club officially settled in Acate
Acate
Acate is a small town and comune in the south of Sicily, Italy, part of the province of Ragusa. It is located in the Dirillo River valley, 34 kilometers from Ragusa....

, which however actually plays their home matches in Modica
Modica
-External links:*...

 and are recognized by both fans and the regional press as Modica's club, being frequently referred to as Libertas Acate-Modica. In fact, after a takeover bid in 2006 the club left Acate to play their home matches in Modica despite the fact they were not eligible to change the "legal" home city.

Relocation has also occurred in Italian basketball. Before the 2010–11 season, Triboldi
Gruppo Triboldi Basket
Gruppo Triboldi Basket, also known for sponsorship reasons as Vanoli Soresina or Vanoli Cremona, is an Italian League professional basketball team whose legal domicile is in Soresina but plays its home games in Cremona...

 were legally domiciled in Soresina
Soresina
Soresina is a comune in the Province of Cremona in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 km southeast of Milan and about 25 km northwest of Cremona....

, but played their home games in nearby Cremona
Cremona
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana . It is the capital of the province of Cremona and the seat of the local City and Province governments...

, a community in the same province
Province of Cremona
The Province of Cremona is a province in the Lombardy region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Cremona.The province has an area of 1,771 km² and in 2008 census, had a population of 358,628. There are 115 comuni...

. The club has now changed its domicile to Cremona. Nuova Sebastiani Basket moved from Rieti
Rieti
Rieti is a city and comune in Lazio, central Italy, with a population of c. 47,700. It is the capital of province of Rieti.The town centre rests on a small hilltop, commanding a wide plain at the southern edge of an ancient lake. The area is now the fertile basin of the Velino River...

, a city in the Lazio region near Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, to the southern city of Naples
Naples
Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

 effective with the 2009–10 season.

Ireland


Irish clubs relocating out of their original district are slightly more common. In certain cases, the club has moved within a conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

.
  • Shamrock Rovers
    Shamrock Rovers F.C.
    Shamrock Rovers Football Club are a professional football club from Dublin, Ireland. They compete in the Premier Division of the League of Ireland and are the most successful club in Irish football history. The club have won the League of Ireland title a record 17 times and the FAI Cup a record 24...

     Played in Glenmalure Park
    Glenmalure Park
    Glenmalure Park, often simply known as "Milltown", was a football stadium on the Southside of Dublin city in Ireland. Located in the suburb of Milltown, it was home to Shamrock Rovers from 1926 to 1987, when it was sold to property developers by the club's directors...

     on the Southside
    Southside (Dublin)
    The Southside is not an official administrative area but a colloquial term referring to the area of County Dublin bounded to the north by the River Liffey to the east by Dublin Bay, to the south and west by the boundaries of County Dublin...

     from 1926 to 1987. The clubs owner Louis Kilcoyne announced he was selling Glenmalure Park, which they had recently purchased from the Jesuits
    Society of Jesus
    The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

    . The team played the entire 1987–88 season in an almost empty Tolka Park
    Tolka Park
    Tolka Park is an Irish football ground located in the north Dublin suburb of Drumcondra, on the northern banks of the River Tolka. It is currently the home ground of League of Ireland club Shelbourne...

     on Dublin's Northside
    Northside (Dublin)
    The Northside is the area in County Dublin, Ireland bounded to the south by the River Liffey to the east by Dublin Bay, to the north and west by the boundaries of County Dublin.- Introduction :...

     as a result of a boycott called for by the Shamrock Rovers Supporters Club and KRAM (Keep Rovers At Milltown), which was observed by the vast majority of Hoops fans. Following the completion of the boycott season in Tolka, the Kilcoynes sold the football club to Dublin businessman, John McNamara, who put forward a controversial proposal to move in with Rivals Bohemians at Dalymount Park
    Dalymount Park
    Dalymount Park is an Irish football stadium situated on Dublin's Northside. It is the home of Bohemian F.C., who have played there since the early 20th century. Affectionately known as 'Dalyer' by fans, it was also historically the "home of Irish football" holding Irish internationals and FAI Cup...

    . KRAM congregated to vote on whether to lift the boycott and on the proposal to move to Dalymount. Both motions were passed and the club spent the next two seasons at the Phibsboro
    Phibsboro
    Phibsborough , often formerly shortened to Phibsboro and later Phibsboro , is a district of Dublin in Ireland.-Location:Phibsboro' is located in the Dublin 7 postal district on the Northside of the city. The area is very close to the city centre, about two kilometres from the River Liffey which...

     venue, with an unrecognisable side playing in front of small attendances.Rovers spent two season's in Dalymount Park before moving to the RDS Arena
    RDS Arena
    RDS Arena is a multi-purpose sports stadium, owned by the Royal Dublin Society and located in the Dublin suburb of Ballsbridge, Ireland.The arena was originally developed to host equestrian events, including the annual Dublin Horse Show, which was first held there in 1868. The site was acquired in...

     in Ballsbridge
    Ballsbridge
    Ballsbridge is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland, named for the bridge spanning the River Dodder on the south side of the city. The sign on the bridge still proclaims it as "Ball's Bridge" in recognition of the fact that the original bridge in this location was built and owned by a Mr...

    , just two miles away from Glenmalure Park. In 1996 the clubs new owner Alan McGrath unveiled a plan to build a permanent home state-of-the-art stadium in the Dublin southwest suburb of Tallaght
    Tallaght
    Tallaght is the largest town, and county town, of South Dublin County, Ireland. The village area, dating from at least the 17th century, held one of the earliest settlements known in the southern part of the island, and one of medieval Ireland's more important monastic centres.Up to the 1960s...

     for Rovers, The club also played home matches in Morton Stadium
    Morton Stadium
    Morton Stadium, or the National Athletics Stadium, is an athletics stadium in Santry, in the north of Dublin City. Often called Santry Stadium, it is the centre for athletics events in Ireland, and home track of Clonliffe Harriers. It was home to Sporting Fingal FC...

    , Richmond Park
    Richmond Park
    Richmond Park is a 2,360 acre park within London. It is the largest of the Royal Parks in London and Britain's second largest urban walled park after Sutton Park, Birmingham. It is close to Richmond, Ham, Kingston upon Thames, Wimbledon, Roehampton and East Sheen...

     and again in Tolka Park
    Tolka Park
    Tolka Park is an Irish football ground located in the north Dublin suburb of Drumcondra, on the northern banks of the River Tolka. It is currently the home ground of League of Ireland club Shelbourne...

     before moving to their new home in Tallaght
    Tallaght Stadium
    Tallaght Stadium is a football stadium in the Southside suburb of Tallaght, Dublin. Shamrock Rovers originally announced details of the stadium back in July 1996...

     in 2009.
  • Shelbourne
    Shelbourne F.C.
    Shelbourne Football Club is an Irish professional football club based in the Drumcondra area of Dublin, currently playing in the League of Ireland Premier Division....

     were originally from Ringsend
    Ringsend
    Ringsend is a southside inner suburb of Dublin, the capital of Ireland. It is located on the south bank of the River Liffey, about two kilometres east of the city centre, and is the southern terminus of the East Link Toll Bridge....

     in the South of Dublin. The club played in Harold's Cross Stadium
    Harold's Cross Stadium
    Harold's Cross Stadium is a greyhound racing stadium in the south Dublin city district of Harold's Cross, owned and operated by the Irish Greyhound Board. In the late 1990s, major redevelopment work saw the venue transformed from a basic gambling driven venue to a fairly well known social event...

     in Harold's Cross briefly in the 1970's before moving to the stadium in 1982 where they remained until 1989 when they moved to Tolka Park
    Tolka Park
    Tolka Park is an Irish football ground located in the north Dublin suburb of Drumcondra, on the northern banks of the River Tolka. It is currently the home ground of League of Ireland club Shelbourne...

    , in the North of Dublin.

Netherlands


Team relocation is very rare in the Netherlands. The most prominent case involves professional football club Almere City FC. When 1964 Eredivisie
Eredivisie
The Eredivisie is the highest football league in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956 two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. It is currently ranked the ninth best league in Europe by UEFA....

 champion and 1964-65 European Cup
European Cup 1964-65
The season 1964–65 of the European Cup football club tournament was won by Internazionale for the second time in row, in a final match against two-time former champions Benfica, making it three consecutive titles for Italy ....

 quarter finalist Door Wilskracht Sterk
Door Wilskracht Sterk
AFC Door Wilskracht Sterk is a Dutch football club from Amsterdam.-History:AFC Door Wilskracht Sterk was founded on 11 October 1907, by the trio of Robert Beijerbacht, Theo Beijerbacht and Jansen van Galen under the name of Fortuna which was soon changed to Hercules. The team played in a blue and...

 was merged into FC Amsterdam
FC Amsterdam
FC Amsterdam was a Dutch football club which was founded on June 20, 1972, from the merger of the Amsterdam football clubs Blauw Wit and DWS. The club Volewijckers joined the side for the 1973-1974 season...

, its supporters founded amateur football club De Zwarte Schapen, named after their nickname, which translates as Black Sheep. The club quickly rose through the ranks of amateur football, eventually reaching the Hoofdklasse
Hoofdklasse
The Hoofdklasse is the 2nd highest league of amateur football in the Netherlands, and the fourth tier in general.-Background:The league is divided into two sections: Saturday and Sunday. This is a result of the traditional pillarisation , the segregation of Dutch society. The Saturday-clubs are by...

. After several violent incidents on the pitch and a six month suspension by the Royal Dutch Football Association
Royal Dutch Football Association
The Royal Dutch Football Association is the governing body of football in the Netherlands. It organises the main Dutch football leagues , the amateur leagues, the KNVB Cup, and the Dutch national football team. It is based in the municipality of Zeist.The KNVB came into being on 8 December 1889...

, the club moved from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 to nearby Almere
Almere
Almere is a planned city and municipality in the province of Flevoland, the Netherlands, bordering Lelystad and Zeewolde. The municipality of Almere comprises the districts Almere Stad, Almere Haven, Almere Buiten, Almere Hout, Almere Poort and Almere Pampus .Almere is the youngest city in the...

 (a "new town") and changed its name to Sporting Flevoland. That name was changed to FC Omniworld
FC Omniworld
Almere City Football Club is a Dutch football club. The club was founded in 2001, and is an expression of the ambitions of the city council of Almere to play an active role in top sports. To that end, a sports club was formed, which now comprises a volleyball branch, a basketball branch and a...

 in the 1990s, and FC Omniworld was admitted to the Eerste Divisie
Eerste Divisie
The Eerste Divisie is the second-highest division of football in the Netherlands. It is linked with the top-level Eredivisie via a promotion/relegation system. It is also known as the Jupiler League due to sponsorship, which is the same name as the top league in Belgium...

 for the 2005-06 season
Eerste Divisie 2005-06
The 2005/2006 season of the Eerste Divisie began on August 12, 2005 and ended on April 7, 2006. The title was won by Excelsior Rotterdam.-Newly admitted team:The following team was admitted to the Eerste Divisie at the start of the season:*FC Omniworld...

.

Team relocation is slightly more common in other sports in the Netherlands. Volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

 club AMVJ, for instance, moved from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 to Amstelveen
Amstelveen
' is a suburban municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is part of the metropolitan area of Amsterdam. The municipality of Amstelveen consists of the following villages and/or districts: Amstelveen, Bovenkerk, Westwijk, Bankras-Kostverloren, Groenelaan, Waardhuizen,...

 in 1980. The men's team was subsequently relocated to Almere
Almere
Almere is a planned city and municipality in the province of Flevoland, the Netherlands, bordering Lelystad and Zeewolde. The municipality of Almere comprises the districts Almere Stad, Almere Haven, Almere Buiten, Almere Hout, Almere Poort and Almere Pampus .Almere is the youngest city in the...

 in 1999, becoming Omniworld.

Norway


Team relocation is rare, although mergers, for instance of teams of neighboring settlements, are common. Relocation has sometimes happened on the top level of women's football. SK Sprint-Jeløy was moved from Jeløy
Jeløy
Jeløy is a former municipality in Østfold county, Norway.Jeløy was established as a municipality January 1, 1838...

 to Moss
Moss, Norway
is a coastal city and a municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Moss. The city of Moss was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838...

 under the new name FK Athene Moss
FK Athene Moss
FK Athene Moss is a Norwegian women's football club from Moss. It is named after Athena in Greek mythology.It was founded in 1996, replacing SK Sprint-Jeløy which was a former successful club from Moss. Athene Moss played in the Toppserien until 2001, when it was relegated...

. Asker Fotball's women's team was absorbed by Stabæk Fotball ahead of the 2009 season. Ahead of the 2010 season Team Strømmen FK
Team Strømmen FK
LSK Kvinner Fotballklubb is a Norwegian women's football club from Lillestrøm.-History:It was founded in 1989 as a merger between the women's football branches of Setskog IF and Høland IL...

 (which formerly had been moved from Aurskog-Høland
Aurskog-Høland
Aurskog-Høland is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the Romerike traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Bjørkelangen.- Name :...

) was absorbed by Lillestrøm SK, and Gjøvik FK
Gjøvik FK
Gjøvik Fotballklubb is a Norwegian women's football club from Gjøvik. Founded in on 15 August 1991, its women's team plays in the First Division, the second tier in Norway.Their most famous player is cross-country skier Ingvild Flugstad Østberg.-References:...

 absorbed by Raufoss IL
Raufoss IL
Raufoss I.L. is a sports club from Raufoss, Norway. The club was formed in 1918. It was played in First League between 1937-1948 , between 1957–1960, in 1964 and between 1973-1974 ....

.

Spain


Again, team relocation in Spain is highly unusual. However, at the end of the 2006-2007 season Segunda Division
Segunda División
The Segunda División is the lower tier of the two professional football leagues in Spain. From the season 2008-09 onwards, the name of the league is Liga Adelante.-History:...

 side Ciudad de Murcia
Ciudad de Murcia
Club de Fútbol Atlético Ciudad was a Spanish football club based in Murcia, in the autonomous community of Murcia. Founded in 2007, it played its last season in Segunda División B , holding home matches at Estadio Juan de la Cierva, with a 1,600-seat capacity.-History:On June 6, 2007, Ciudad de...

 was acquired by an investor from Granada
Granada
Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of three rivers, the Beiro, the Darro and the Genil. It sits at an elevation of 738 metres above sea...

, transferring it to that city and renaming it to Granada 74 CF
Granada 74 CF
Granada 74 Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., commonly known as Granada 74, is a Spanish football team based in Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia...

. The players still under contract with Ciudad had the option to cancel their contract or stay on with the newly formed club.

Turkey


Süleymaniye Sirkeci was founded in 1912 and had black-white colors. The club played in the old Third Division (now TFF Second League) before relocating to Küçükçekmece
Küçükçekmece
Küçükçekmece is a large, crowded suburb on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey 23 km out of the city, beyond Atatürk Airport. The population of the area reaches 600,000. This area covers 118 km².-Location:...

 at the end of the 1989-90 season. It was renamed as "Küçükçekmecespor" and changed its colors to green-white.

Beyoğlu Kapalıçarşı was founded in 1983 in Beyoğlu district. The club moved to Güngören one and was renamed as Güngören Belediyespor
Güngören Belediyespor
İstanbul Güngörenspor is a sports club located in Güngören, İstanbul, Turkey. This club was formed as Beyoğlu Kapalıçarşıspor in 1983. They moved to Güngören and changed their name to Güngören Belediyespor in 1994. The club is owned by the municipality of Güngören. This club played in the TFF...

 after the end of the 1993-94 season.

Team Relocations in Australia


The two major professional sporting leagues in Australia are the Australian Football League
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is both the governing body and the major professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football...

 (AFL) and National Rugby League
National Rugby League
The National Rugby League is the top league of professional rugby league football clubs in Australasia. The NRL's main competition, called the Telstra Premiership , is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand...

 (NRL). Both competitions were originally based in one city (Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

 and Sydney
Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

 respectively) and expanded to a national level, and through this process there have been team relocations, mergers and closures in both leagues. The clubs are owned by members, not privately, but the North American franchise model exists, which means entry to the league is restricted. This hybrid model has meant that the leading promotor of relocation is the league itself, trying to grow the football code by encouraging poorly performing clubs to relocate interstate.

AFL


The AFL is the national competition in Australian rules football
Australian rules football
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, Aussie rules or footy is a sport played between two teams of 22 players on either...

 and grew out of the mostly suburban Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

 based Victorian Football League competition; as a result the member clubs have had to move to adjust to a changing national focus.

Major Interstate Relocations and Mergers

  • South Melbourne Swans - in 1982 relocated interstate to Sydney 963 kilometres north and became the Sydney Swans
    Sydney Swans
    The Sydney Swans Football Club is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based in Sydney, New South Wales. The club, founded in 1874, was known as the South Melbourne Football Club until it relocated to Sydney in 1982 to become the Sydney...

    . Despite early struggles, the club has more than tripled its membership since.
  • Fitzroy Lions - in 1996 the Melbourne based club merged its playing operations with the interstate Brisbane Bears
    Brisbane Bears
    The Brisbane Football Club, formerly nicknamed The Bears was an Australian rules football club and the first Queensland-based club in the Victorian Football League . The club played its first match in 1987, but struggled on and off the field until it made the finals for the first time in 1995...

    , a club 1669 kilometres north of its original home, with the Bears becoming the Brisbane Lions
    Brisbane Lions
    The Brisbane Lions is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based in Brisbane, Queensland. The club was formed from the merger of the Brisbane Bears and the Fitzroy Lions in 1996...

    . Since the merger, the Brisbane club almost doubled its membership. Though the Fitzroy Football Club ceased as a professional sporting club, it continued as a standalone entity based at its traditional home, and fields a team in the amateur VAFA.

Minor Relocations

  • St Kilda Football Club - in 1964 relocated from the Junction Oval
    Junction Oval
    The Junction Oval is an historic sports ground in the suburb of St Kilda in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its location near the St Kilda Junction gave rise to its nickname...

     in St Kilda to the Moorabbin Oval
    Moorabbin Oval
    Moorabbin Oval, also known by its sponsorship name of Linen House Oval, is an Australian Rules Football ground in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia at Linton Street in the suburb of Moorabbin....

     in the South Eastern Melbourne suburb of Moorabbin. Two years later they won their first and only premiership. From 1993 to 1999 they played their home games to Waverley Park
    Waverley Park
    Waverley Park was an Australian rules football stadium in Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia. For most of its history, its purpose was as a neutral venue and used by all Victorian based Victorian Football League/Australian Football League clubs. However, during the 1990s it became the home ground of...

     in Mulgrave
    Mulgrave, Victoria
    Mulgrave is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 21 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Monash. At the 2006 Census, Mulgrave had a population of 16,280....

     in Melbourne's east. St Kilda were one of the first tenants of the new Colonial Stadium in 2000, but their administration remained at Moorabbin. In late 2007, it was confirmed that the club would leave Moorabbin to set up base in Frankston, Victoria
    Frankston, Victoria
    Frankston is a suburb within the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area in Victoria, Australia. It is located 40 km southeast of the state capital Melbourne at the southernmost edge of Greater Melbourne, near the beginnings of the Mornington Peninsula...

    , a region (the Mornington Peninsula
    Mornington Peninsula
    The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula located south-east of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia. It is surrounded by Port Phillip to the west, Western Port to the east and Bass Strait to the south, and is connected to the mainland in the north. Geographically, the peninsula begins its protrusion...

    ) in which the club had grown its supporter base significantly.
  • Hawthorn Football Club
    Hawthorn Football Club
    The Hawthorn Football Club, nicknamed the Hawks, is a professional Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League . The club, founded in 1902, is the youngest of the Victorian-based teams in the AFL. The team play in Brown & Gold vertically striped guernseys...

     - in 1973 moved from suburban Hawthorn to Princes Park in Carlton
    Carlton, Victoria
    Carlton is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2 km north from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Melbourne...

    , an inner Northern suburb of Melbourne, and then to Waverley Park in 1991. In 2000, the club moved its home games to the Melbourne Cricket Ground
    Melbourne Cricket Ground
    The Melbourne Cricket Ground is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne and is home to the Melbourne Cricket Club. It is the tenth largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest stadium for playing cricket, and holds the world record for the highest light...

    . In 2005, some years after Waverley Park's demise as an official VFL/AFL venue, the club permanently relocated to Waverley, but the name of the club did not change.
  • Brisbane Bears
    Brisbane Bears
    The Brisbane Football Club, formerly nicknamed The Bears was an Australian rules football club and the first Queensland-based club in the Victorian Football League . The club played its first match in 1987, but struggled on and off the field until it made the finals for the first time in 1995...

     - in 1993 relocated to the Brisbane Cricket Ground in Brisbane
    Brisbane
    Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

     for the 1993 season and membership and attendances instantly tripled. Formed in 1986, the perhaps incorrectly named side had initially established itself in Carrara, Queensland
    Carrara, Queensland
    Carrara is a suburb on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia, located on the southern bank of the Nerang River. At the 2006 Census, Carrara had a population of 10,687....

    , a suburb of the city of Gold Coast, Queensland
    Gold Coast, Queensland
    Gold Coast is a coastal city of Australia located in South East Queensland, 94km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 in 2010, it is the second most populous city in the state, the sixth most populous city in the country, and also the most populous...

    , some 80 kilometres south of the city of Brisbane.
  • Collingwood Football Club
    Collingwood Football Club
    The Collingwood Football Club, nicknamed The Magpies, is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League...

     - in 1999 played their last game at Victoria Park
    Victoria Park, Melbourne
    Victoria Park is a sports venue in Abbotsford a suburb of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia. Built for the purpose of both Australian rules football and cricket, the stadium is oval shaped....

     in Collingwood and moved to the larger and more central Melbourne Cricket Ground
    Melbourne Cricket Ground
    The Melbourne Cricket Ground is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne and is home to the Melbourne Cricket Club. It is the tenth largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest stadium for playing cricket, and holds the world record for the highest light...

    . The headquarters of the club moved to the Lexus Centre
    Lexus Centre
    The Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Centre is the indoor training and administration centre for the Collingwood Football Club of the AFL and the Victorian Institute of Sport located in Melbourne, Australia....

     in Richmond, Victoria
    Richmond, Victoria
    Richmond is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Yarra...

     in 2005.

Home Ground Only Relocations

  • Fitzroy Football Club
    Fitzroy Football Club
    The Fitzroy Football Club, formerly nicknamed The Lions, is an Australian rules football club formed in 1883 to represent the inner Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy, Victoria and was a foundation member club of the Victorian Football League on its inception in 1897...

     - in 1967 moved its home ground from the Brunswick Street Oval
    Brunswick Street Oval
    The Brunswick Street Oval, currently known as WT Peterson Community Oval, also known as the Fitzroy Cricket Ground is a cricket and Australian rules football ground located in Edinburgh Gardens in Fitzroy North, Victoria...

     in Fitzroy to Princes Park, Carlton
    Princes Park, Carlton
    Princes Park is a 38.6 hectare park in the inner-Melbourne suburb of Carlton North, Victoria. It is located directly north of the University of Melbourne and bounded on its eastern and western sides by Melbourne General Cemetery and Royal Parade respectively...

    . In 1970, the club again moved its home game to the Junction Oval
    Junction Oval
    The Junction Oval is an historic sports ground in the suburb of St Kilda in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its location near the St Kilda Junction gave rise to its nickname...

     in 1970, then the Whitten Oval
    Whitten Oval
    Whitten Oval is a stadium in the inner-western suburbs of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia located at 417 Barkly Street, West Footscray. It is the training and administrative headquarters of the Western Bulldogs Football Club, which competes in the Australian Football League.Formerly known as the...

     in 1984 before eventually merging with an interstate club.
  • Essendon Football Club
    Essendon Football Club
    The Essendon Football Club, nicknamed The Bombers, is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League...

     - in 1993 moved their home ground from Windy Hill, Essendon
    Windy Hill, Essendon
    Windy Hill is an Australian rules football ground located in Essendon, a northwestern suburb of the Melbourne metropolitan area....

     to the larger and more central Melbourne Cricket Ground
    Melbourne Cricket Ground
    The Melbourne Cricket Ground is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne and is home to the Melbourne Cricket Club. It is the tenth largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest stadium for playing cricket, and holds the world record for the highest light...

    . In 2000, the club again moved home games to the Telstra Dome, though the headquarters of the club remained in Essendon.
  • Port Adelaide Football Club
    Port Adelaide Football Club
    The Port Adelaide Football Club is an Australian rules football club based in Alberton, South Australia, which plays in the Australian Football League and the South Australian National Football League...

     - in 1997, on admission to the AFL moved its home games to AAMI Stadium. The club retained its administration and training base at Alberton Oval
    Alberton Oval
    Alberton Oval is located in Alberton, a north-western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. The ground is primarily used for Australian rules football and has a capacity of 17,000 people with seated grandstands holding 2,000,...

     in Port Adelaide
    Port Adelaide
    Port Adelaide is a suburb of Adelaide lying about 14 kilometres northwest of the City of Adelaide. It lies within the City of Port Adelaide Enfield and is the main port for the city of Adelaide...

    .
  • North Melbourne Football Club
    North Melbourne Football Club
    The North Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed The Kangaroos, is the fourth oldest Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League and is one of the oldest sporting clubs in Australia and the world...

     - in 2000 moved home ground to the Telstra Dome, but retained the Arden Street Oval
    Arden Street Oval
    Arden Street Oval is a sports oval based in Arden Street, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is currently the training base of Australian rules team North Melbourne Football Club and up to the end of the 1985 season it was used for elite-level VFL/AFL matches.-History:The North Melbourne...

     in North Melbourne as official headquarters.
  • Geelong Football Club
    Geelong Football Club
    The Geelong Football Club, nicknamed The Cats, is a professional Australian rules football club, named after and based in the city of Geelong, playing in the Australian Football League . The club has been the VFL/AFL premiers nine times, with a record equalling 3 in the AFL era. Geelong has also...

     - in 2000, the provincial Victorian club became the AFL's first true dual-home club, playing the larger games at the Telstra Dome 75 kilometres away in Melbourne. The club's administration remains based at Kardinia Park in Geelong.
  • Footscray Football Club
    Western Bulldogs
    The Western Bulldogs are an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based at the Whitten Oval in West Footscray, an inner-western suburb of Melbourne...

     - in 2002 moved permanently from the Whitten Oval
    Whitten Oval
    Whitten Oval is a stadium in the inner-western suburbs of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia located at 417 Barkly Street, West Footscray. It is the training and administrative headquarters of the Western Bulldogs Football Club, which competes in the Australian Football League.Formerly known as the...

     in Footscray
    Footscray, Victoria
    Footscray is a suburb 5 km west of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its Local Government Area is the City of Maribyrnong. At the 2006 Census, Footscray had a population of 11,401....

     to the larger and more central Telstra Dome and changed their name to the Western Bulldogs
    Western Bulldogs
    The Western Bulldogs are an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based at the Whitten Oval in West Footscray, an inner-western suburb of Melbourne...

    , though the club's headquarters is still in Footscray.
  • Richmond Football Club
    Richmond Football Club
    The Richmond Football Club, nicknamed The Tigers, is an Australian rules football club which competes in the Australian Football League. Richmond shares healthy rivalries with Carlton, Collingwood and Essendon. After winning five premierships between 1967 and 1980, the club hit the depths in 1990,...

     - moved their home games from Punt Road Oval
    Punt Road Oval
    Punt Road Oval is a sporting ground located in Yarra Park, East Melbourne, Victoria situated only a few hundred metres to the east of the famous Melbourne Cricket Ground....

     next door to the much larger Melbourne Cricket Ground
    Melbourne Cricket Ground
    The Melbourne Cricket Ground is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne and is home to the Melbourne Cricket Club. It is the tenth largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest stadium for playing cricket, and holds the world record for the highest light...

    . The club still trains and has administration quarters at the Punt Road Oval.
  • Melbourne Football Club
    Melbourne Football Club
    The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed The Demons, is an Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League , based in Melbourne, Victoria....

     - During the re-development ot their home, the Melbourne Cricket Ground
    Melbourne Cricket Ground
    The Melbourne Cricket Ground is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne and is home to the Melbourne Cricket Club. It is the tenth largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest stadium for playing cricket, and holds the world record for the highest light...

    , the training and administration headquarters of the club were temporarily moved to Sandringham, Victoria
    Sandringham, Victoria
    Sandringham is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 16 km south-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Bayside. At the 2006 Census, Sandringham had a population of 8693.-History:...

     with the Victorian Football League
    Victorian Football League
    The Victorian Football League which evolved from the former Victorian Football Association , taking its new name as from the 1996 season, is the premier Australian rules football league in Victoria The Victorian Football League (VFL) which evolved from the former Victorian Football Association...

     affiliate, the Sandringham Football Club. The club's training headquarters are currently at the Junction Oval
    Junction Oval
    The Junction Oval is an historic sports ground in the suburb of St Kilda in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its location near the St Kilda Junction gave rise to its nickname...

     which proves troublesome during the summer as it is used for cricket. The club hopes to remove the problems associated with separate administration and training headquarters when it moves all operation to its new headquarters at a refurbished Olympic Park Stadium
    Olympic Park Stadium
    Olympic Park Stadium was a multi-purpose outdoor stadium located on Olympic Boulevard in inner Melbourne. The stadium was built as an athletics training venue for the 1956 Olympics, a short distance from the MCG, which served as the Olympic Stadium...

     in 2007.
  • Carlton Football Club
    Carlton Football Club
    The Carlton Football Club is a professional Australian rules football club based in Melbourne, Victoria. The club competes in the Australian Football League, and was one of the eight founding members of that competition in 1897...

     - at the end of the 2005 season moved from Optus Oval in Carlton, to the larger and more central Telstra Dome, although retained its administration headquarters at Princes Park. The club was the last suburban based Melbourne club to leave its former home ground.

Secondary Interstate 'Home's


Some Melbourne based clubs began selling home games interstate in the late 1990s and conducting community camp clinics to build up local supporter bases.
  • Western Bulldogs
    Western Bulldogs
    The Western Bulldogs are an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based at the Whitten Oval in West Footscray, an inner-western suburb of Melbourne...

     - Darwin, Northern Territory
    Darwin, Northern Territory
    Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory, Australia. Situated on the Timor Sea, Darwin has a population of 127,500, making it by far the largest and most populated city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, but the least populous of all Australia's capital cities...

     since 2000 (approximately 1-2 games a year). In 2007, the Bulldogs reduced their commitment to 1 game and signed a deal to also play 1 game a year in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

    .
  • St Kilda Football Club - Launceston, Tasmania
    Launceston, Tasmania
    Launceston is a city in the north of the state of Tasmania, Australia at the junction of the North Esk and South Esk rivers where they become the Tamar River. Launceston is the second largest city in Tasmania after the state capital Hobart...

     (approximately 2 games a year between 2002–2006).
  • Hawthorn Football Club
    Hawthorn Football Club
    The Hawthorn Football Club, nicknamed the Hawks, is a professional Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League . The club, founded in 1902, is the youngest of the Victorian-based teams in the AFL. The team play in Brown & Gold vertically striped guernseys...

     - Launceston, Tasmania
    Launceston, Tasmania
    Launceston is a city in the north of the state of Tasmania, Australia at the junction of the North Esk and South Esk rivers where they become the Tamar River. Launceston is the second largest city in Tasmania after the state capital Hobart...

     (approximately 2 games a year between 2002–2006). In 2006, changed their naming rights to the Tassie Hawks and increased the number of games to 4 per year
  • North Melbourne Football Club
    North Melbourne Football Club
    The North Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed The Kangaroos, is the fourth oldest Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League and is one of the oldest sporting clubs in Australia and the world...

     - in 1999, backed by the AFL, the club changed their trading name to the Kangaroos, and played a handful of home games interstate in Sydney
    Sydney
    Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

    . The move proved unsuccessful, and the club has since played in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

     for several years (2002–2006) before abandoning the area for the more lucrative, and potential goldmine at the Gold Coast, Queensland
    Gold Coast, Queensland
    Gold Coast is a coastal city of Australia located in South East Queensland, 94km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 in 2010, it is the second most populous city in the state, the sixth most populous city in the country, and also the most populous...

     (2007–2008). However, the club pulled out from relocating 'home' games altogether after declining a league offer of full relocation to the Gold Coast.
  • Melbourne Football Club
    Melbourne Football Club
    The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed The Demons, is an Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League , based in Melbourne, Victoria....

     - a single home game a year to the Brisbane Lions
    Brisbane Lions
    The Brisbane Lions is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based in Brisbane, Queensland. The club was formed from the merger of the Brisbane Bears and the Fitzroy Lions in 1996...

     at the Brisbane Cricket Ground
    Brisbane Cricket Ground
    The Brisbane Cricket Ground, commonly known as The Gabba, is a major sports stadium in Brisbane, the capital of Queensland. It is named after the suburb of Woolloongabba, in which it is located....

     in Queensland
    Queensland
    Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

     (2005–2007). The Demons added a single game to Gold Coast, Queensland
    Gold Coast, Queensland
    Gold Coast is a coastal city of Australia located in South East Queensland, 94km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 in 2010, it is the second most populous city in the state, the sixth most populous city in the country, and also the most populous...

     in Queensland in 2006. In 2007, the Demons shifted its Gold Coast commitment to Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

     for a single game each year whilst also playing one game a year in Brisbane.

NRL


The NRL is the national competition in rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 and was born out of the Sydney based Australian Rugby League
Australian Rugby League
The Australian Rugby League is the governing body for the sport of rugby league in Australia. It is made up of state bodies, including the New South Wales Rugby League and the Queensland Rugby League...

 and New South Wales Rugby League
New South Wales Rugby League
The New South Wales Rugby League is the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales and is a member of the Australian Rugby League. It was formed in Sydney on 8 August 1907 and was known as the New South Wales Rugby Football League until 1984 when forward thinking marketing managers decided...

 competitions. In 1987, the Western Suburbs Magpies
Western Suburbs Magpies
The Western Suburbs Magpies are an Australian rugby league football club based in the western suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales. Formed in 1908, Wests, as they are commonly referred to, were one of the nine foundation clubs of the first New South Wales Rugby League competition in Australia...

 agreed to relocate from its (inner) Western suburbs base to the outer south-western Macarthur district following a prior move west to Lidcombe Oval
Lidcombe Oval
Lidcombe Oval is a playing field in the Western Sydney suburb of Lidcombe, and is part of Wyatt Park. Situated in Church Street, on the northern side of the railway line, it has a capacity of more than 20,000 and is used mainly for football matches of various codes...

. In 1999, they merged with the remaining Inner Western team, the Balmain Tigers
Balmain Tigers
The Balmain Tigers are a rugby league football club based in the inner-western Sydney suburb of Balmain. They were a founding member of the New South Wales Rugby League and one of the most successful in the history of the premiership, with eleven titles...

, (both teams having been established in 1908) to become Wests Tigers
Wests Tigers
The Wests Tigers are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Sydney's mid-western suburbs. They have competed in the National Rugby League since they were formed at the end of the 1999 season as a joint-venture club between the Balmain Tigers and the Western Suburbs...

.
The North Sydney Bears
North Sydney Bears
The North Sydney Bears are an Australian rugby league football club based in North Sydney, New South Wales. They currently compete in the New South Wales Cup, having exited the National Rugby League following the 1999 NRL season after 92 years of top-grade competition. The Bears are based on...

 attempted to move from their Northern Suburbs base to the swiftly growing Central Coast region just north of Sydney in 1999, however problems with construction at the proposed home ground now known as Bluetongue Central Coast Stadium
Bluetongue Central Coast Stadium
Central Coast Stadium, named Bluetongue Stadium due to sponsorship, is a sports venue in Gosford, on the Central Coast of New South Wales. The stadium is home to the Central Coast Mariners Football Club who compete in the A-League...

 meant that the Bears continued to play home matches in a variety of Sydney grounds before being forced into a merger with the Manly Sea Eagles as the Northern Eagles
Northern Eagles
The Northern Eagles were a rugby league team, that competed in the National Rugby League between 2000 and 2002. The club was formed during the rationalisation process of the NRL by the merger of the North Sydney Bears and the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles in 2000...

. The merged clubs played home matches at both the Central Coast and Manly's home ground of Brookvale Oval
Brookvale Oval
Brookvale Oval is a sporting ground located within Brookvale Park at Brookvale, New South Wales, Australia. The ground is owned by Warringah Council and is primarily used by the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles rugby league team...

, but after the bears were expelled from the partnership, poor crowds at the former location led to a reversion to the name of Manly and games played exclusively at Brookvale Oval. Subsequently one of the owners of Bluetongue Central Coast Stadium, John Singleton
John Singleton (Australian entrepreneur)
John Desmond Singleton AM is an Australian entrepreneur. He built his success and wealth in the advertising business in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s...

, has attempted to lure another club to play there, notably the South Sydney Rabbitohs
South Sydney Rabbitohs
The South Sydney Rabbitohs are an Australian professional rugby league football team based in Redfern, a suburb of South-central Sydney, New South Wales. They participate in the National Rugby League premiership and are one of nine existing teams from the state capital...

 whom have experienced poor crowds at their new home ground of ANZ Stadium.

The Canterbury Bulldogs
Canterbury Bulldogs
The Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Belmore, a suburb in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney. They compete in the National Rugby League premiership, as well as New South Wales Rugby League junior competitions...

 were formed in 1935 and played their first season without a home ground. In 1936, they settled at Belmore Oval (renamed the Belmore Sports Ground) and played home matches there until the end of the 1998 season. The Bulldogs trialled a number of alternative home grounds during the 1990s, including Concord Oval in 1994. In 1995 they changed their name to the Sydney Bulldogs played most of the Premiership winning season at Parramatta Stadium, sharing the ground with bitter rivals, the Parramatta Eels and the also renamed and relocated Sydney (Balmain) Tigers. They finally settled on Stadium Australia, the main stadium for the Sydney 2000 Olympic games as their home ground, and in 2008, relocated their training and administration facilities from Belmore to the Homebush Olympic Park Site.

Other clubs have relocated to new home grounds but have retained their original base.

Relocations in other parts of the world


Relocations in other countries are done according to the type of sport played and/or the predominant style of league organization, as well as individual economic circumstances. For instance, Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 (run like MLB) has relocated several franchises out of crowded markets, the most recent being Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters (originally based in Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

) and Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks
Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks
The are a Japanese baseball team based in Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture. The team was bought on January 28, 2005 by the SoftBank Corporation.The team was formerly known as the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks. In 1988, Daiei bought the team from Osaka's Nankai Electric Railway Co., and its headquarters were...

 (originally based in Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

). The J. League
J. League
The or is the top division of and is the top professional association football league in Japan. It is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football and the only league given top class 'A' ranking by the AFC. Currently, J. League Division 1 is the first level of the Japanese...

 (also in Japan but run like European football leagues) has by contrast allowed only a few teams to move out of crowded or unprofitable markets, the only prominent example being Tokyo Verdy moving from Kawasaki, Kanagawa
Kawasaki, Kanagawa
is a city located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, between Tokyo and Yokohama. It is the 9th most populated city in Japan and one of the main cities forming the Greater Tokyo Area and Keihin Industrial Area....

 to Tokyo. (Thespa Kusatsu
Thespa Kusatsu
is a professional football club based in Gunma Prefecture in Japan. The club plays in J. League Division 2. J. League Division 2 is the second professional football league in Japan....

 actually plays in the nearby larger city of Maebashi, Gunma
Maebashi, Gunma
is the capital city of Gunma Prefecture, Japan.The city was founded on April 1, 1892, by the samurai Makuba Kawai.On December 5, 2004 the town of Ōgo, and the villages of Kasukawa and Miyagi, all from Seta District, were merged into Maebashi....

 because Kusatsu
Kusatsu, Gunma
is a small town in Agatsuma District in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Kusatsu is situated about 1,200 meters above sea level. The active volcano Kusatsu-Shirane and the inactive Mount Tengu and Mount Motoshirane are located west of Kusatsu.-Climate:Due to the altitude Kusatsu's annual average...

 does not have a large stadium; Verdy, F.C. Tokyo and Gamba Osaka
Gamba Osaka
is a Japanese professional association football club, currently playing in the J. League Division 1. The team's name comes from the Italian word "gamba" meaning "leg" and the Japanese , meaning "to do your best" or "to stand firm". Located in Suita, Osaka, the team's home stadium is Osaka Expo '70...

 play outside their city limits but in Tokyo's case it's more a question of practicality than location.)

In Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, the Atlante F.C.
Atlante F.C.
Club de Fútbol Atlante, is a Mexican professional football club, currently playing in the Mexican First Division League. The club is based in Cancún, Mexico as of the start of the 2007-08 season, when they relocated from Mexico City, and plays its home games in Estadio Andrés Quintana Roo.-Domestic...

 football club recently moved out of Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 to Cancún
Cancún
Cancún is a city of international tourism development certified by the UNWTO . Located on the northeast coast of Quintana Roo in southern Mexico, more than 1,700 km from Mexico City, the Project began operations in 1974 as Integrally Planned Center, a pioneer of FONATUR Cancún is a city of...

 in the south (Primera División de México
Primera División de México
The Primera División Profesional , known simply as the Primera División, is the top level of the Mexican football league system and is administered by the Mexican Football Federation. It was established in 1943 and as of 2011 has 18 clubs. Up to June 2011, it was divided into three groups competing...

 has a relegation system but its teams have some territorial rights recognized, perhaps due to U.S. influence as many league matches are aired in the U.S., where only traditional top-flight teams are perceived to most effectively reach the immigrant fanbase). Club Necaxa also moved from Mexico City to Aguascalientes. Relocations are also common when an amateur or semi-professional club tries to acquire its own facilities in order to become a professional club, and no money and/or space is available to build their own in a long-established location. In Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 several teams have had to use already built large stadiums, including ones in the interior of the country, to be able to participate in Primera División Peruana
Primera División Peruana
The Peruvian Primera División is the top professional division of Peruvian football. It is known today as Torneo Descentralizado de Fútbol Profesional Peruano...

; this includes several teams from the capital, Lima, who have not been able to establish fanbases in their districts due to the required moves.

In South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, there were 3 professional football clubs Ilhwa Chunma
Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma
Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma is a South Korean professional football club, based in Seongnam, South Korea, that plays in the K-League...

, LG Cheetahs
FC Seoul
FC Seoul is a South Korean professional football club based in Seoul, South Korea, that plays in the K-League. It is currently owned by GS Sports, a subsidiary of GS Group....

, Yukong Kokkiri
Jeju United FC
Jeju United Football Club is a South Korean professional football club. The club is based in Seogwipo, Jeju of South Korea.-History:...

 in Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 by 1995. However, due to K-League's decentralization policy, these three clubs were forced to move to another city in 1996, changing their name in the process. As a result, Ilhwa Chunma
Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma
Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma is a South Korean professional football club, based in Seongnam, South Korea, that plays in the K-League...

 became Cheonan
Cheonan
Cheonan is a city located in the northeast corner of South Chungcheong, a province of South Korea, and is 83.6 km south of the capital, Seoul...

, LG Cheetahs
FC Seoul
FC Seoul is a South Korean professional football club based in Seoul, South Korea, that plays in the K-League. It is currently owned by GS Sports, a subsidiary of GS Group....

 became Anyang
Anyang
Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, People's Republic of China. The northernmost city in Henan, Anyang borders Puyang to the east, Hebi and Xinxiang to the south, and the provinces of Shanxi and Hebei to its west and north respectively....

, and Yukong Kokkiri
Jeju United FC
Jeju United Football Club is a South Korean professional football club. The club is based in Seogwipo, Jeju of South Korea.-History:...

 became Bucheon
Bucheon
Bucheon is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. It is sandwiched between Incheon and Seoul. Manufacturing operations are located in the city.Bucheon promotes itself as the cultural centre of the Seoul Metropolitan Area...

. These moves are done under the accord that if any of these teams build a football specific stadium in Seoul, they can return there.

Anyang LG Cheetahs returned in 2004, assuming a small part of the construction costs of the vacant Seoul World Cup Stadium
Seoul World Cup Stadium
The Seoul World Cup Stadium, also known as Sangam Stadium, is located in Seongsan, Mapo-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It was built for the 2002 FIFA World Cup and opened in 2001. It was designed to represent the image of a traditional Korean kite...

 and renamed as FC Seoul
FC Seoul
FC Seoul is a South Korean professional football club based in Seoul, South Korea, that plays in the K-League. It is currently owned by GS Sports, a subsidiary of GS Group....

. Two years later to the day, on February 2, 2006, Bucheon
Bucheon
Bucheon is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. It is sandwiched between Incheon and Seoul. Manufacturing operations are located in the city.Bucheon promotes itself as the cultural centre of the Seoul Metropolitan Area...

's club was moved by its owner, SK Group
SK Group
SK Group is the third largest conglomerate in South Korea. The SK Group is composed of 92 subsidiary and affiliate companies that share the SK brand and culture....

, to Jeju Island
Jeju-do
Jeju-do is the only special autonomous province of South Korea, situated on and coterminous with the country's largest island. Jeju-do lies in the Korea Strait, southwest of Jeollanam-do Province, of which it was a part before it became a separate province in 1946...

 and the vacant Jeju World Cup Stadium
Jeju World Cup Stadium
Jeju World Cup Stadium is a football stadium with a 42,256-person capacity that is located in the city of Seogwipo on the small South Korean island province of Jeju-do...

, without notice, and rechristened Jeju United. South Korea has three national tiers, but as in the North American system, there is no promotion or relegation between them. This is because of disagreement between the Korea Football Association
Korea Football Association
The Korea Football Association is the governing body of football in Korea. The first governing body of Korean football was the Joseon Football Association , founded on 19 September 1933....

 and the chaebol
Chaebol
Chaebol refers to a South Korean form of business conglomerate. They are global multinationals owning numerous international enterprises. The term is often used in a context similar to that of the English word "conglomerate"...

s that back the top clubs. Many, if not most, of K2 and K3
K3 League
The Challengers League is a top amateur football competition in South Korea. Created in 2007, it is the third tier of South Korean football league system-History:2007 was the inaugural season of the K3 League, and ten teams competed in the competition....

 clubs are fan-owned teams.

In France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Red Star Olympique merged with Toulouse FC (1937)
Toulouse FC (1937)
Toulouse Football Club was a French association football team playing in the city of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne. The team was founded in 1937 and disappeared in 1967, in a merge with Red Star Olympique. Even though this team held the same name as Toulouse's current main club , the two teams are not to...

, but Toulouse FC disappeared and a new Toulouse FC
Toulouse FC
Toulouse Football Club is a French association football club based in the city of Toulouse. The club was founded in 1970 and currently play in Ligue 1, the top level of French football. Toulouse plays its home matches at the Stadium Municipal located within the city. The first team is managed by...

 was reformed later.

In Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 historic teams from First Division are rarely relocated, but newer teams created in second division
Categoría Primera B
Categoría Primera B, also known as Torneo Postobón for sponsorship reasons, is the second division football league in Colombia. The league is divided into two six-month seasons and into two regional divisions of nine teams where each team plays the region's other eight teams both home and away...

 are often moved from city to city looking for a responding fan base. 2008 Colombian Champions Chicó F.C.
Chicó F.C.
Boyacá Chicó Fútbol Club is a Colombian football club based in the city of Tunja. The club was founded on March 26, 2002 in Bogotá as Deportivo Bogotá Chicó F.C. named after one of the city's neighborhoods...

 started as a B team in Bogotá
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

 Only to relocate to Tunja after promoting to First Division.

In Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, the first relocation of a first division
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
The Campeonato Brasileiro de Clubes da Série A , popularly known as the Brasileirão , is a professional football league at the top of the Brazilian football league system held annually since 1959. Contested by twenty clubs, it operates a system of promotion and relegation with the Série B...

 football team was in 2010. Grêmio Barueri relocated to Presidente Prudente
Presidente Prudente
Presidente Prudente is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The city has a population of 207,610 inhabitants and area of 562.8 km². The city is named after president Prudente de Morais. Prudente is located 558 km from the city of São Paulo.Presidente Prudente is considered the...

, becaming Grêmio Prudente, only to return as Grêmio Barueri in the middle of 2011. In other sports, such as volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

, basketball or futsal
Futsal
Futsal is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller pitch and mainly played indoors. Its name is a portmanteau of the Portuguese futebol de salão and the Spanish fútbol de salón , which can be translated as "hall football" or "indoor football"...

, relocation is a bit more common, although it doesn't occur frequently.

In South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 most football clubs are privately owned, and club relocation is relatively common. Several clubs, including top division Premier Soccer League
Premier Soccer League
Premier Soccer League is the trading name of the National Soccer League of South Africa. The top league is the ABSA Premiership, sponsored by ABSA...

 clubs have moved and taken on new identities. The most recent PSL team to do this was Benoni Premier United, who moved to Kwa-Zulu Natal and became Thanda Royal Zulu. There are many other cases of South African relocations.

External links


See also

  • Professional sports league organization
    Professional sports league organization
    Professional sports leagues are organized in numerous ways. The two most significant types are a European model, characterised by a tiered structure using promotion and relegation to determine participation in a hierarchy of leagues or divisions and a North American model characterized by its use...