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Regions of Ancient Greece

Regions of Ancient Greece

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The regions of ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

were areas identified by the ancient Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world. These regions are described in the works of ancient historians and geographers, and in the legends and myths of the ancient Greeks.

Conceptually, there is no clear theme to the structure of these regions. Some, particularly in the Peloponnese, can be seen primarily as distinct geo-physical units, defined by physical boundaries such as mountain ranges and rivers. These regions retained their identity, even when the identity of the people living there changed during the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
The Greek Dark Age or Ages also known as Geometric or Homeric Age are terms which have regularly been used to refer to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean Palatial civilization around 1200 BC, to the first signs of the Greek city-states in the 9th...

 (or at least, was conceived by the Greeks to have changed). Conversely, the division of central Greece between Boeotia, Phocis, Doris and the three parts of Locris, cannot be understood as a logical division by physical boundaries, and instead seems to follow ancient tribal divisions. Nevertheless, these regions also survived the upheaval of the Greek Dark Ages, showing that they had acquired less political connotations. Outside the Peloponnese and central Greece, geographical divisions and identities did change over time suggesting a closer connection with tribal identity. Over time however, all the regions also acquired geo-political meanings, and political bodies uniting the cities of a region (such as the Arcadian League
Arcadian League
The Arcadian League was a federal league of city-states in ancient Greece. It combined the various cities of Arcadia, in the Peloponnese, into a single state. The league was founded in 370 BC, taking advantage of the decreased power of Sparta, which had previously dominated and controlled Arcadia...

) became common in the Classical period
Classical Greece
Classical Greece was a 200 year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC. This classical period had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and greatly influenced the foundation of Western civilizations. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought, such as...

.

These traditional sub-divisions of Greece form the basis for the modern system of prefectures in Greece
Prefectures of Greece
During the first administrative division of independent Greece in 1833–1836 and then again from 1845 until their abolition with the Kallikratis reform in 2010, the prefectures were the country's main administrative unit...

. However, there are important differences, with many of the smaller ancient regions not represented in the current system such as Cyprus. To fully understand the ancient history of Greece therefore requires more detailed description of the ancient regions.

Peloponnese


The Peloponnese
Peloponnese
The Peloponnese, Peloponnesos or Peloponnesus , is a large peninsula , located in a region of southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth...

 or Peloponnesos, is a large peninsula at the southern tip of the Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

, and part of the traditional heartland of Greece. It is joined to the Greek 'mainland' by the Isthmus of Corinth
Isthmus of Corinth
The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. The word "isthmus" comes from the Ancient Greek word for "neck" and refers to the narrowness of the land. The Isthmus was known in the ancient...

. The Peloponnese is conventionally divided into seven regions, which remain in use as prefectures of modern Greece. Most of these regions are directly named in the "catalogue of ships" in the Iliad
Iliad
The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles...

, suggesting that this geographic division of the Peloponnese is very ancient, and stretches back to Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece was a cultural period of Bronze Age Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese of southern Greece. Athens, Pylos, Thebes, and Tiryns are also important Mycenaean sites...

.

Achaea


Geographically, Achaea was (and is) the northernmost region of the Peloponnese, occupying the coastal strip north of Arcardia. To the south, it bordered Arcadia along the ridge of high ground running from Mount Erymanthos
Mount Erymanthos
Mount Erymanthos is a dense mountain range south of Patras in the middle of Achaia prefecture. The mountains is also called Olonos . Historically it was in northwestern Arcadia and was the second tallest in the historic Arcadia, the northern portion belonged to the historic Achaea...

 to Mount Cyllene
Mount Kyllini
Mount Kyllini or Mount Cyllene , is a mountain on the Peloponnesus peninsula in Greece, famous for its association with the god Hermes. It rises to above sea level, making it the second highest point on the peninsula. It is located near the border between the historic regions of Arcadia and...

. To the east, it bordered Corinthia near to the city of Sicyon
Sicyon
Sikyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day prefecture of Corinthia...

, and to the west the Larissos river and western ridge of Erymanthos formed the border with Elis. Apart from the plain around Dyme, to the west, Achaea was generally a mountainous region.

The origin of the name of Achaea is somewhat problematic. Homer
Homer
In the Western classical tradition Homer , is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.When he lived is...

 uses the term Achaeans as a generic term for Greeks throughout the Iliad; conversely, a distinct region of Achaea is not mentioned. The region now known as Achaea is instead referred to as Aegialus. Pausanias
Pausanias (geographer)
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece , a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from firsthand observations, and is a crucial link between classical...

 says that 'Achaean' was the name of those Greeks originally inhabiting the Argolis
Argolis
Argolis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.-Geography:...

 and Laconia
Laconia
Laconia , also known as Lacedaemonia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Its administrative capital is Sparti...

, because they were descended from the sons of the mythical Achaeus, Archander and Architeles. However, this is clearly not the manner in which Homer uses the term. Pausanias also recounts the legend that the Achaeans were forced out of their lands in the Argolid by the Dorians during the legendary Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
The Dorian invasion is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece to explain the replacement of pre-classical dialects and traditions in southern Greece by the ones that prevailed in Classical Greece...

 of the Peloponnese. As a consequence, the Achaeans went to Aegialus and forced the Aegialians (by now, confusingly known as the Ionians
Ionians
The Ionians were one of the four major tribes into which the Classical Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to have been divided...

) out of their land. The Ionians took temporary refuge in Athens, and Aegialus became known as Achaea. It was supposedly for this reason that the region known as Achaea in Classical Greece did not correspond to the Homeric usage. Herodotus recounted more or less the same story (but 600 years earlier), showing that, whatever its veracity, it was deeply embedded in Greek legend.

Achaea was later used as by the Romans as a name for the province covering much of central and southern Greece. The name Achaea was later used in the crusader state of the Principality of Achaea
Principality of Achaea
The Principality of Achaea or of the Morea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. It became a vassal of the Kingdom of Thessalonica, along with the Duchy of Athens, until Thessalonica...

 (1205–1432), which consisted of the whole Peloponnese, thus more closely following Roman usage. There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Achaea
Achaea is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Greece. It is situated in the northwestern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. The capital is Patras. The population exceeds 300,000 since 2001.-Geography:...

 as the ancient region, which is largely based on the ancient region.

Arcadia


Geographically, ancient Arcadia occupied the highlands at the centre of the Peloponnese. To the north, it bordered Achaea along the ridge of high ground running from Mount Erymanthos to Mount Cyllene; most of Mount Aroania
Aroania (mountain)
Aroania, also known as Chelmos, Helmos and Khelmos , is a mountain range that spans about 15 to 20 km from north to south and about 5 to 10 km from west to directly east of Kalavryta to the Achaia-Corinthia prefectural border. The mountain range is in the prefecture of Achaia...

 lay within Arcadia. To the east, it had borders with Argolis and Corinthia along the ridge of high ground running from Mount Cyllene round to Mount Oligyrtus
Oligyrtos
Oligyrtos is a mountain located at the junction of the Arcadia, Corinthia and Argolis prefectures in the northeastern Peloponnese in Greece. The mountain diagonally stretches from southwest to northeast, with about 35 km length and 15 to 20 km breadth. The highest point is Skipiza at...

 and then south Mount Parthenius
Mount Parthenion
Mount Parthenion in Arcadia, in the Peloponnesus of ancient Greece, divides the little plain of Hysiae from that of Tegea. Mount Parthenion is the mountain where the hero Telephus was exposed. Below its slopes lay Tegea....

. To the south, the border Laconia and Messenia ran through the foothills of the Parnon
Parnon
Parnon or Parnonas or Malevo is a mountain range, or massif, on the east of the Laconian plain and the Evrotas valley. It is visible from Athens above the top of the Argive mountains. The western part is in the Laconia prefecture and the northeastern part is in the Arcadia prefecture. The Parnon...

 and Taygetos
Taygetus
Mount Taygetus, Taugetus, or Taigetus is a mountain range in the Peloponnese peninsula in Southern Greece. The name is one of the oldest recorded in Europe, appearing in the Odyssey. In classical mythology, it was associated with the nymph Taygete...

 mountain ranges, such that Arcadia contained all the headwaters of the Alpheios river, but none of the Eurotas
Eurotas
In Greek mythology, Eurotas was a son of Myles and grandson of Lelex, eponymous ancestor of the Leleges, the pre-Greek people residing, in the myth, in the Eurotas Valley. He had no male heir, but he did have a daughter, Sparta. Eurotas bequeathed the kingdom to her husband, Lacedaemon, the son of...

 river. To the south-west, the border with Messania ran along the tops of Mount Nomia, and Mount Elaeum, and from there the border with Elis ran along the valleys of the Erymanthos and Diagon rivers. Most of the region of Arcardia was mountainous, apart from the plains around Tegea
Tegea
Tegea was a settlement in ancient Greece, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tripoli, of which it is a municipal unit. Its seat was the village Stadio....

 and Megalopolis
Megalopolis, Greece
Megalópoli is a town in the western part of the peripheral unit of Arcadia, southern Greece. It is located in the same site as ancient Megalopolis . "Megalopolis" is a Greek word for Great city. When it was founded, in 371 BC, it was the first urbanization in rustic and primitive Arcadia. In...

, and the valleys of the Alpheios and Ladon rivers.

Due to its remote, mountainous character, Arcadia seems to have been a cultural refuge. When, during the Greek Dark Age, Doric Greek
Doric Greek
Doric or Dorian was a dialect of ancient Greek. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea, some cities on the coasts of Asia Minor, Southern Italy, Sicily, Epirus and Macedon. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the...

 dialects were introduced to the Peloponnese, the older language apparently survived in Arcadia, and formed part of the Arcado-Cypriot group of Greek languages. Herodotus says that the inhabitants of Arcadia were Pelasgians
Pelasgians
The name Pelasgians was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that were either the ancestors of the Greeks or who preceded the Greeks in Greece, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world." In general, "Pelasgian" has come...

, the Greek name for the supposed 'indigenous' inhabitants of Greece, who dwelt there before the arrival of the 'Hellenic' tribes. Whilst Herodotus seems to have found the idea that the Pelasgians were not 'Greek' far-fetched, it is clear that the Arcadians were considered as the original inhabitants of the region.

Arcadia is one of the regions described in the "catalogue of ships" in the Iliad. There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Arcadia
Arcadia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the central and eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. It takes its name from the mythological character Arcas. In Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan...

, which is more extensive than the ancient region.

History


From the 6th century BC, Sparta
Sparta
Sparta or Lacedaemon, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From c...

 dominated the Peloponnese, and compelled its neighbours, including Arcadia, to join its Peloponnesian League
Peloponnesian League
The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC.- Early history:By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state...

 and fight in its wars. The Spartan military dominance that enabled this interference in Arcadian affairs was suddenly ended in 371 BC, when Epaminondas
Epaminondas
Epaminondas , or Epameinondas, was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state of Thebes, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a preeminent position in Greek politics...

 and his Theban
Thebes, Greece
Thebes is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. It played an important role in Greek myth, as the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus and others...

 army decisively defeated a Spartan army at Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
The Battle of Leuctra was a battle fought on July 6, 371 BC, between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict. The battle took place in the neighbourhood of Leuctra, a village in Boeotia in the territory of Thespiae...

. In the aftermath, the Arcadian League
Arcadian League
The Arcadian League was a federal league of city-states in ancient Greece. It combined the various cities of Arcadia, in the Peloponnese, into a single state. The league was founded in 370 BC, taking advantage of the decreased power of Sparta, which had previously dominated and controlled Arcadia...

 was formed, combining various cities of Arcadia
Arcadia
Arcadia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the central and eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. It takes its name from the mythological character Arcas. In Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan...

 into a federal league. After its establishment, the Arcadian League took an active role in the politics of the Peloponnese.

However, by 362 BC, the question of whether to continue as an ally of Thebes had become so pressing as to divide the Arcadian League. The cities of the league therefore ended up fighting on different sides at the Battle of Mantinea
Battle of Mantinea (362 BC)
The Battle of Mantinea was fought on July 4 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans...

. After the battle, and the end of the Theban hegemony
Theban hegemony
The Theban Hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.Externally, the way...

, the influence of the Arcadian League diminished. Although it never regained the prominence it had held during the 360s, an Arcadian league in some form—whether a continuation or a recreation of the original league is unclear—continued to exist in the years after the Battle of Mantinea. Various references indicate that the league endured at least into the 3rd century BC. The date of its final disappearance is uncertain, but at the latest it had vanished by the 230s BC, when the Arcadian cities joined the Achaean League
Achaean League
The Achaean League was a Hellenistic era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese, which existed between 280 BC and 146 BC...

.

Argolis


Ancient Argolis (sometimes called 'the Argolid') occupied the eastern part of the Peloponnesus, primarily the Argolid peninsula, together with the coastal region to the east of Arcadia, and north of Laconia. To the north, the boundary with the territory of Corinth was rather more fluid, and these territories have sometimes been considered together. For instance, Pausanias discussed Argolis and Corinthia together in one book of his Description of Greece; similarly, in modern Greece, a prefecture of "Argolidocorinthia" has existed at various times. Argolis took its name from the principal city of the region during the Archaic and Classical periods, Argos
Argos
Argos is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour...

.

Argolis is discussed in the "catalogue of ships" of the Iliad, without being given that explicit name, but the major cities of the region are listed together under the leadership of Diomedes
Diomedes
Diomedes or Diomed is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War.He was born to Tydeus and Deipyle and later became King of Argos, succeeding his maternal grandfather, Adrastus. In Homer's Iliad Diomedes is regarded alongside Ajax as one of the best warriors of all...

. There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Argolis
Argolis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.-Geography:...

, occupying a smaller area than the ancient region.

Corinthia


The territory associated with the city of Corinth
Corinth
Corinth is a city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Corinth, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit...

 in ancient Greece lay on either side of the isthmus of Corinth. On the northern side of the Isthmus, it was bounded by Mount Geraneia, which separated it from Megaris. On the Peloponnesian side of the Isthmus, Corinthia was bounded by Achaea to the west, and to the south by the territory of Argolis. As discussed above, the boundary between Argolis and Corinthia was rather fluid, and in both ancient and modern times, the regions have been considered together.

Corinthia is discussed in the "catalogue of ships" of the Iliad, without being given that explicit name, but the major cities of the region are listed together under the leadership of Agamemnon
Agamemnon
In Greek mythology, Agamemnon was the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra, and the father of Electra and Orestes. Mythical legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area...

. There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Corinthia
Corinthia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated around the city of Corinth, in the north-eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.-Geography:...

.

Elis


Elis occupied the western, and flattest part of the Peloponnese. To the north-east, it bordered Achaea along the Larissos river and western spur of Erymanthos, and the east the border with Arcadia ran along the Erymanthos and Diagon rivers to Mount Elaeum. From the Elaeum, its border with Messenia ran along the Neda (river) river to the sea.

Elis is discussed in the "catalogue of ships" of the Iliad, without being given that explicit name (Elis is only used for the name of the city), but the major cities of the region are listed together. There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Corinthia
Corinthia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated around the city of Corinth, in the north-eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.-Geography:...

. There is a modern prefecture of Greece based on Elis, the name of which is the modern Greek equivalent, Ilia.

Laconia


Laconia, (also called Lacedaemonia), occupied the south-eastern part of the Peloponnese. Its principle boundaries were formed by the Parnon and Taygetos mountain ranges. Its western boundary, adjoining Messenia, ran along the Koskaraka river from just south of the city of Abia
Avia, Messenia
Avia is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality West Mani, of which it is a municipal unit. Its 2001 population was 236 for the village, 605 for the community and 3,089 for the municipal unit. The...

, up into the Taygetos range, and then north along the Taygetos ridge. The northern border with Arcadia ran amongst the foothills of Taygetos and Parnon, such that up Laconia included all the headwaters of the Eurotas
Eurotas
In Greek mythology, Eurotas was a son of Myles and grandson of Lelex, eponymous ancestor of the Leleges, the pre-Greek people residing, in the myth, in the Eurotas Valley. He had no male heir, but he did have a daughter, Sparta. Eurotas bequeathed the kingdom to her husband, Lacedaemon, the son of...

 river. To the north-east of the Parnon range was the coastal area of Cynuria; this was originally part of the Argolid, but by the Classical period had become part of Laconia. The land between the Taygetos and Parnon ranges formed the heart of Laconia; the coastal region east of Parnon, and south of Cynuria was also part of Laconia.

Lacedaemonia is one of the regions described in the "catalogue of ships" in the Iliad. In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Laconians were members of the Delphi
Delphi
Delphi is both an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in the valley of Phocis.In Greek mythology, Delphi was the site of the Delphic oracle, the most important oracle in the classical Greek world, and a major site for the worship of the god...

an Amphictyonic League
Amphictyonic League
In the Archaic period of ancient Greece, an amphictyony , a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis...

, and shared two the two Dorian votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Dorians from Doris. There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Laconia
Laconia , also known as Lacedaemonia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Its administrative capital is Sparti...

.

History


During the Archaic and Classical
Classical Greece
Classical Greece was a 200 year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC. This classical period had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and greatly influenced the foundation of Western civilizations. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought, such as...

 periods, Laconia was dominated by the city of Sparta. There were other settlements in the region, and most inhabitants were not full Spartan citizens (Spartiates), but Lacedaemonians or Perioeci ("about-dwellers"). However, all these citizens and towns were part of the Spartan state. Only after the final eclipse of Spartan power after the War against Nabis
War against Nabis
The War against Nabis or Laconian War of 195 BC was fought between the Greek city-state of Sparta and a coalition composed of Rome, the Achean League, Pergamum, Rhodes, and Macedon....

 did the rest of Laconia become free from Spartan domination. However, Laconia instead fell under the domination of the Achaean League
Achaean League
The Achaean League was a Hellenistic era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese, which existed between 280 BC and 146 BC...

 until the whole of the Peloponnese was conquered by the Romans in 146 BC.

Messenia


Messenia occupied the south-western part of the Peloponnese. To the north it had a border with Elis along the Neda river, from whence the border with Arcadia ran along the tops of Mount Elaeum and Mount Nomia. The northern border with Arcadia then ran amongst the foothills of Taygetos, but all the headwater of the Alpheios river lay outside Messenia. The eastern border with Laconia ran along the Taygetos ridge up to the Koskaraka river, and then along that river to the sea, near the city of Abia.

There is a modern prefecture of Greece of the same name
Messenia
Messenia is a regional unit in the southwestern part of the Peloponnese region, one of 13 regions into which Greece has been divided by the Kallikratis plan, implemented 1 January 2011...

.

Central Greece



Aeniania


Aeniania was a small district to the south of Thessaly
Ancient Thessaly
Ancient Thessaly or Thessalia was one of the traditional regions of Ancient Greece. During the Mycenaean period, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, a name which continued to be used for one of the major tribes of Greece, the Aeolians, and their dialect of Greek, .-History:Thessaly was home to an...

 (which it was sometimes considered part of). The regions of Aeniania and Oetaea were closely linked, both occupying the valley of the Spercheios river, with Aeniania occupying the lower ground to the north, and Oetaea the higher ground south of the river. The boundaries of these two regions were formed by the arc of high ground running west from Mount Oeta
Mount Oeta
Mount Oeta is a mountain to the south of Central Greece, in Greece, forming a boundary between the valleys of the Spercheius and the Boeotian Cephissus. It is an offshoot of the Pindus range, high. In its eastern portion, called Callidromus, it comes close to the sea, leaving only a narrow...

 round to Mount Tymphristos
Tymfristos
Tymfristos is a village and a former community in Phthiotis, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Makrakomi, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 566 ....

, then north round to the headwaters of Spercheios, and then east to the western spur of Mount Othrys
Mount Othrys
Mount Othrys is a mountain in Central Greece in the northeastern part of Fthiotis and southern part of Magnesia. The mountaintop is at the prefectural and the regional border at 1,728 m. Much of the area is unpopulated in the northern part and the southwestern part...

. The lowland border in the Spercheios valley with Malis ran approximately north-south along from Oeta to the western spur of Othrys.

The inhabitants of Aeniania were called 'Aenianes'. During the Archaic and Classical periods, the Aenianes were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Oetaeans.

Attica



The name of Attica was said to be derived from Atthis, daughter of Cranaus
Cranaus
In Greek mythology, Cranaus was the second King of Athens, son of river god Nile and Alkippe, succeeding Cecrops I. He is supposed to have reigned for either nine or ten years....

, who was said to have been the second king of Athens. Attica is bounded on the east by the Aegean sea, on the west by Megaris
Megaris
This is also the ancient Greek name of a small island off Naples, site of the Castel dell'Ovo.Megaris or the Megarid was a small but populous state of ancient Greece, west of Attica and north of Corinthia, whose inhabitants were adventurous seafarers, credited with deceitful propensities...

 and the Saronic gulf and on the north by Boeotia
Boeotia
Boeotia, also spelled Beotia and Bœotia , is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. It was also a region of ancient Greece. Its capital is Livadeia, the second largest city being Thebes.-Geography:...

. It is separated from Boeotia by a range of mountains. In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Atticans were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two the two Ionian
Ionians
The Ionians were one of the four major tribes into which the Classical Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to have been divided...

 votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Euboeans.

Boeotia


The region of Boeotia, along with many of the cities that existed there in the Classical period, is described in the "catalogue of ships", in the Iliad. In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Boeotians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council.

Doris


In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Dorians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two the two Dorian votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Laconian Dorians.

Euboea


In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Euboeans were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two the two Ionian
Ionians
The Ionians were one of the four major tribes into which the Classical Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to have been divided...

 votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Athenians.

Locris


The region of Locris, primarily the eastern part ("that dwell over against sacred Euboea"), is described in the Iliad. In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Locrians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council.

Malis


In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Malians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council.

Oetaea


Oetaea was a small upland district located south of Thessaly (of which it was sometimes considered part). It was closely linked with the district of Aeniania, sharing a location in the valley of the Spercheios (see above).

The Oetaeans were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Aenianes.

Phocis


The region of Phocis, along with some of the cities that existed there in the Classical period, is described in the Iliad. In the Archaic and Classical periods, the Phocians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council, until they were stripped of them after the Third Sacred War
Third Sacred War
The Third Sacred War was fought between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians...

.

Western Greece



Dolopia


The Dolopians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Perrhaeboi.

Thessaly


The Thessalians were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council.

Achaea Phthiotis


The Phtiotic Achaeans were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council.

Magnesia


The Magnetes were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and had two votes on the Amphictyonic council.

Perrhaebia


The Perrhaeboi were members of the Delphian Amphictyonic League, and shared two votes on the Amphictyonic council with the Dolopians.

Epirus



Macedon



Macedonia or Macedon (from , ) was an ancient kingdom
Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus
Epirus (ancient state)
Epirus was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus, in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessalia and Macedonia to the east and Illyrian tribes to the north...

 to the west, Paionia
Paionia
In ancient geography, Paeonia or Paionia was the land of the Paeonians . The exact original boundaries of Paeonia, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure, but it is believed that they lay in the region of Thrace...

 to the north, the region of Thrace
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

 to the east and Thessaly
Thessaly
Thessaly is a traditional geographical region and an administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, and appears thus in Homer's Odyssey....

to the south.

Greek colonies