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Regina, Saskatchewan

Regina, Saskatchewan

Overview
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 province of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

. The city is the second-largest in the province (after Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

) and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council
Regina City Council
Regina City Council is the governing body of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The council consists of the mayor and ten councillors representing wards...

. Regina is the cathedral city
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

 of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox Dioceses of Regina and the Anglican Diocese of Qu'Appelle. Citizens of Regina are referred to as Reginans. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159
Sherwood No. 159, Saskatchewan
Sherwood Rural Municipality Number 159 is a rural municipality in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. It encircles and is an exurb of the city of Regina, the provincial capital. Also within the borders of Sherwood is the separately governed village of Grand Coulee...

.

Regina was previously the seat of government of the North-West Territories, of which the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

 originally formed part, and of the District of Assiniboia.
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Encyclopedia
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 province of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

. The city is the second-largest in the province (after Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

) and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council
Regina City Council
Regina City Council is the governing body of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The council consists of the mayor and ten councillors representing wards...

. Regina is the cathedral city
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

 of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox Dioceses of Regina and the Anglican Diocese of Qu'Appelle. Citizens of Regina are referred to as Reginans. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159
Sherwood No. 159, Saskatchewan
Sherwood Rural Municipality Number 159 is a rural municipality in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. It encircles and is an exurb of the city of Regina, the provincial capital. Also within the borders of Sherwood is the separately governed village of Grand Coulee...

.

Regina was previously the seat of government of the North-West Territories, of which the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

 originally formed part, and of the District of Assiniboia. It was named in 1882 after Queen Victoria, Victoria Regina, by her daughter Princess Louise
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
The Princess Louise was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and her husband, Albert, Prince Consort.Louise's early life was spent moving between the various royal residences in the...

, wife of the Marquess of Lorne
John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, VD, PC , usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known between 1847 and 1900, was a British nobleman and was the fourth Governor General of Canada from 1878 to 1883...

, then the Governor General of Canada
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

.

Unlike other planned cities in the Canadian West
Western Canada
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and commonly as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces west of the province of Ontario.- Provinces :...

, on its treeless flat plain Regina was a tabula rasa
Tabula rasa
Tabula rasa is the epistemological theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception. Generally proponents of the tabula rasa thesis favour the "nurture" side of the nature versus nurture debate, when it comes to aspects...

, without topographical features other than the small spring run-off Wascana Creek
Wascana Creek
Wascana Creek originates in the fields east of Regina, Saskatchewan near Vibank, Saskatchewan and travels southeast for approximately 45 kilometers before turning back west at Tyvan, Saskatchewan. The creek then travels in a northwestwardly direction through Regina...

. Early planners took advantage of such opportunity by damming the creek to create a decorative lake to the south of the central business district and constructing the elaborate 840 feet (256 m) long Albert Street Bridge across the new lake. Regina's importance was further secured when the new province of Saskatchewan designated the city its capital in 1906. Wascana Centre
Wascana Centre
Wascana Centre is a 9.3 square kilometre park built around Wascana Lake in Regina, Saskatchewan. It brings together lands and buildings owned by the City of Regina, University of Regina, and Province of Saskatchewan, each of which is represented on the board of directors, and contains government,...

, created around the focal point of Wascana Lake, remains Regina's signal attraction and contains the Provincial Legislative Building
Saskatchewan Legislative Building
The Saskatchewan Legislative Building is located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and houses the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan.-History:...

, both campuses of the University of Regina
University of Regina
The University of Regina is a public research university located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Founded in 1911 as a private denominational high school of the Methodist Church of Canada, it began an association with the University of Saskatchewan as a junior college in 1925, and was disaffiliated...

, the provincial museum of natural history
Royal Saskatchewan Museum
The Royal Saskatchewan Museum was established in Regina as the Provincial Museum in 1906 to "secure and preserve natural history specimens and objects of historical and ethnological interest." It was the first museum in Saskatchewan, Canada, and the first provincial museum in the three Prairie...

, the Regina Conservatory (in the original Regina College
University of Regina
The University of Regina is a public research university located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Founded in 1911 as a private denominational high school of the Methodist Church of Canada, it began an association with the University of Saskatchewan as a junior college in 1925, and was disaffiliated...

 buildings), the Saskatchewan Science Centre, the Norman MacKenzie Art Gallery
Norman MacKenzie Art Gallery
The MacKenzie Art Gallery is located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MacKenzie Art Gallery has over of space, with eight galleries totaling . It has modern technical areas including conservation lab, workshop, preparation rooms and vault, a 185-seat theatre, public resource centre, gift shop...

 and the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts.

Residential neighbourhoods
Regina, Saskatchewan neighbourhoods
Reginas residential areas, apart from the remaining residential portion of the original town between the CPR tracks and Wascana Lake to the immediate south of the central business district, are largely typical of western Canadian cities, largely consisting of unremarkable post-World War II single...

 in Regina are largely indistinguishable from those in other western Canadian cities, but several precincts
Regina's historic buildings and precincts
Many historically significant buildings in Regina, Saskatchewan were lost during the period 1945 through approximately 1970 when the urge to "modernize" overtook developers' and city planners' sense of history and heritage...

 beyond the historic city centre are historically or socially noteworthy - namely Lakeview and The Crescents both of which lie directly south of downtown. Immediately to the north of the central business district is the old warehouse district, increasingly the focus of shopping and residential development; as in other western cities of North America, the periphery contains shopping malls and big box stores
Big-box store
A big-box store is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain. The term sometimes also refers, by extension, to the company that operates the store...

.

In 1912, Regina was a focus of international attention when the Regina Cyclone
Regina Cyclone
The Regina Cyclone is the popular name for a tornado that devastated the city of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada on June 30, 1912. At about 4:50 p.m., green funnel clouds formed and touched down south of the city, tearing a swath through the residential area between Wascana Lake and Victoria Avenue...

 destroyed much of the town; in the 1930s, the Regina Riot brought further attention and, in the midst of the 1930s drought and Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, which hit the Canadian Prairies particularly hard with their economic focus on dryland grain farming. The CCF
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction...

 (now the NDP
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party , commonly referred to as the NDP, is a federal social-democratic political party in Canada. The interim leader of the NDP is Nycole Turmel who was appointed to the position due to the illness of Jack Layton, who died on August 22, 2011. The provincial wings of the NDP in...

, a major left-wing political party in Canada), formulated its foundation Regina Manifesto
Regina Manifesto
The Regina Manifesto was the programme of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and was adopted at the first national convention of the CCF held in Regina, Saskatchewan in 1933. The primary goal of the "Regina Manifesto" was to eradicate the system of capitalism and replace it with a planned...

 in Regina. In recent years, Saskatchewan's agricultural and mineral resources have come into new demand, and it is widely expected to enter a new period of strong economic growth.

History


Founding


Regina was established in 1882 when it became clear that Edgar Dewdney
Edgar Dewdney
Edgar Dewdney, PC was a Canadian politician born in Devonshire, England. He served as Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories and the fifth Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.-Early life and career:...

, the lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories (as they then were), eschewed the previously established and considered Battleford, Troy
Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan
Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan, is a small village and formerly in ecclesiastical terms a city, with considerable historic significance located on Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway mainline, some east of the provincial capital of Regina.Qu'Appelle was for a time the terminus of the...

 and Fort Qu'Appelle (the latter two both some 30 miles (48.3 km) to the east), as the territorial seat of government: these were widely considered more amiable locations for what was anticipated would be a far more major metropole for the Canadian plains than actually eventuated, situated as they were in amply watered and treed rolling parklands whereas "Pile-of-Bones," as the site was then called, was in the midst of arid and featureless grassland. When Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
The Princess Louise was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and her husband, Albert, Prince Consort.Louise's early life was spent moving between the various royal residences in the...

, and her husband, the then Governor General of Canada
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

, passed through the still unnamed territorial capital in 1882, she named the new community Regina, after her mother, the Queen.
Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney
Edgar Dewdney
Edgar Dewdney, PC was a Canadian politician born in Devonshire, England. He served as Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories and the fifth Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.-Early life and career:...

 had acquired land adjacent to the route of the future CPR line at Pile-of-Bones, which was distinguished only by collections of bison bones near a small spring run-off creek, some few kilometres downstream from its origin in the midst of what are now wheat fields. There was an "obvious conflict of interest" in Dewdney's promoting the site of Pile-of-Bones as the territorial seat of government and it was a national scandal at the time, but until 1897, when responsible government
Responsible government
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy...

 was accomplished in the Territories, the lieutenant-governor and council governed by fiat and there was little legitimate means of challenging such decisions outside the federal capital of Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

, where the Territories were remote and of little concern. Commercial considerations prevailed, however, and the town's authentic development soon began as a collection of wooden shanties and tent shacks clustered around
the site designated by the CPR
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 for its future station, some two miles (3 km) to the east of where Dewdney had reserved substantial landholdings for himself and where he sited the Territorial (now the Saskatchewan) Government House
Government House (Saskatchewan)
Government House, Regina, Saskatchewan, was constructed as a residence for the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories, whose territorial headquarters were in Regina until the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were created out of the Territories in 1905 and Regina became the capital...

.

North-West ("Saskatchewan") Rebellion


Regina attained national prominence in 1885 during the North-West Rebellion
North-West Rebellion
The North-West Rebellion of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel against the Dominion of Canada...

 when troops were mostly able to be transported by train on the CPR from eastern Canada as far as Qu'Appelle Station
Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan
Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan, is a small village and formerly in ecclesiastical terms a city, with considerable historic significance located on Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway mainline, some east of the provincial capital of Regina.Qu'Appelle was for a time the terminus of the...

, before marching to the battlefield in the further Northwest — Qu'Appelle having been the major debarkation and distribution centre until 1890 when the completion of the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake, and Saskatchewan Railway linked Regina with Saskatoon and Prince Albert. Subsequently, the rebellion's leader, Louis Riel
Louis Riel
Louis David Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political and spiritual leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first post-Confederation Prime Minister, Sir John A....

, was tried and hanged in Regina — giving the infant community increased and, at the time, not unwelcome national attention in connection with a figure who was generally at the time considered an unalloyed villain in anglophone Canada.

Incorporation


Regina was incorporated as a city on 19 June 1903, and was proclaimed the capital of the province of Saskatchewan on 23 May 1906, by the first provincial government, led by Premier Walter Scott
Thomas Walter Scott
Thomas Walter Scott – known less formally as Walter Scott – was the first Premier of the province of Saskatchewan in Canada .-Background:...

; the monumental Saskatchewan Legislative Building
Saskatchewan Legislative Building
The Saskatchewan Legislative Building is located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and houses the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan.-History:...

 was built between 1908 and 1912. On 30 June 1912, a tornado known as the Regina Cyclone
Regina Cyclone
The Regina Cyclone is the popular name for a tornado that devastated the city of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada on June 30, 1912. At about 4:50 p.m., green funnel clouds formed and touched down south of the city, tearing a swath through the residential area between Wascana Lake and Victoria Avenue...

 hit the community, levelling much of the young city's business district, killing 28 people and injuring hundreds, making it Canada's deadliest tornado.

The Thirties


Regina grew rapidly until the beginning of the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, in 1929. At this time, Saskatchewan was considered the third province of Canada in both population and economic indicators. Thereafter, Saskatchewan never recovered its early promise and Regina's growth slowed and at times reversed. In 1935, Regina gained notoriety for the Regina Riot, an incident of the On-to-Ottawa Trek
On-to-Ottawa Trek
The On-to-Ottawa Trek was a long journey where thousands of people had unemployed men protesting the dismal conditions in federal relief camps scattered in remote areas across Western Canada. The men lived and worked in these camps at a rate of twenty cents per day before walking out on strike in...

. Beginning in the 1930s, Regina became known as a centre of considerable political activism and experiment as its people sought to adjust to new, reduced economic realities.

Post-World War II


As in other Canadian cities, the disappearance of the Simpson's
Simpson's
The Robert Simpson Company, or Simpsons , was a Canadian department store chain, founded by Robert Simpson. The chain was eventually bought by the Hudson's Bay Company.- History :...

 and Eaton's
Eaton's
The T. Eaton Co. Limited was once Canada's largest department store retailer. It was founded in 1869 in Toronto by Timothy Eaton, an Irish immigrant. Eaton's grew to become a retail and social institution in Canada, with stores across the country, buying offices across the globe, and a catalogue...

 retail department stores in the central business district as well as the proliferation of shopping malls beginning in the 1960s and "big box stores" in the '90s on the periphery, together with a corresponding drift of entertainment venues (and all former downtown cinemas) to the city outskirts, have depleted the city centre. The former Hudson's Bay Company
The Bay
The Bay is a chain of 91 department stores that operate across parts of Canada. It is the main brand of Hudson's Bay Company , North America's oldest company. It has its headquarters in the Simpson Tower in Toronto. In French, the chain is known as la Baie, short for "Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson"...

 department store (previously the site of the Regina Theatre) has been converted into offices; Globe Theatre
Globe Theatre, Regina
The Globe Theatre in Regina, Saskatchewan, was founded in 1966 by Ken and Sue Kramer. It was the first professional educational theatre company and the only professional theatre company in Saskatchewan.-Background:...

, located in the old Post Office
Prince Edward Building (Regina)
The Prince Edward Building is the current official name of the historic post office building in Regina, Saskatchewan, located at the corner of Scarth Street and 11th Avenue. The site had been occupied by Knox Presbyterian Church until it was demolished.The post office was designed in the...

 building at 11th Avenue and Scarth Street, Casino Regina
Casino Regina
Casino Regina is a casino located on Saskatchewan Drive in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It operates in the city's former union station, a Tyndall and ashlar stone structure completed in 1912...

 and its show lounge in the old CPR train station, the Cornwall Centre
Cornwall Centre (Regina)
For other uses of the name "Cornwall Centre" see Cornwall CentreThe Cornwall Centre is a shopping mall in downtown Regina, Saskatchewan. It offers a variety of stores on two levels, and is anchored by The Bay and Sears. It also offers a large food court and is connected to two above-ground parkades...

 and downtown restaurants now draw people downtown again.


Many buildings of significance and value were lost during the period from 1945 through approximately 1970: Knox United Church
United Church of Canada
The United Church of Canada is a Protestant Christian denomination in Canada. It is the largest Protestant church and, after the Roman Catholic Church, the second-largest Christian church in Canada...

 was demolished in 1951; the Romanesque Revival
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid 19th century inspired by the 11th and 12th century Romanesque architecture...

 city hall in 1964 (the failed shopping mall which replaced it is now office space for the Government of Canada
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

) and the 1894 Supreme Court of the North-West Territories building at Hamilton Street and Victoria Avenue in 1965. More recently older buildings have been put to new uses, including the old Normal School on the Regina College campus of the University of Regina (now the Canada Saskatchewan Production Studios) and the old Post Office on the Scarth Street Mall. The Warehouse District, immediately adjacent to the central business district to the north of the CPR line, has become a desirable commercial and residential precinct as historic warehouses have been converted to retail and residential use.
The long-imperilled Government House
Government House (Saskatchewan)
Government House, Regina, Saskatchewan, was constructed as a residence for the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories, whose territorial headquarters were in Regina until the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were created out of the Territories in 1905 and Regina became the capital...

 was saved in 1981 after decades of neglect and returned to viceregal use, the former Anglican diocesan property at Broad Street and College Avenue is being redeveloped with strict covenants to maintain the integrity of the diocesan buildings and St Chad's School and the former Sacred Heart Academy building immediately adjacent to the Roman Catholic Cathedral
Holy Rosary Cathedral (Regina)
Holy Rosary Cathedral at 13th Avenue and Garnet Street in Regina, Saskatchewan, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Regina...

 has been converted to tony townhouses.

Events of national political importance which occurred in Regina include
  • the trial of Louis Riel
    Trial of Louis Riel
    The Trial of Louis Riel is arguably the most famous trial in the history of Canada. In 1885, Louis Riel had been a leader of a resistance movement by the Métis and First Nations people of western Canada against the Canadian government in what is now the modern province of Saskatchewan...

     (followed by Riel's execution) in July 1885;
  • the adoption in 1933 by the new CCF
    Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
    The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction...

     (now the NDP
    New Democratic Party
    The New Democratic Party , commonly referred to as the NDP, is a federal social-democratic political party in Canada. The interim leader of the NDP is Nycole Turmel who was appointed to the position due to the illness of Jack Layton, who died on August 22, 2011. The provincial wings of the NDP in...

    ) of the Regina Manifesto
    Regina Manifesto
    The Regina Manifesto was the programme of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and was adopted at the first national convention of the CCF held in Regina, Saskatchewan in 1933. The primary goal of the "Regina Manifesto" was to eradicate the system of capitalism and replace it with a planned...

    , which set out the new party's goals;
  • the Regina Riot on 1 July 1935;
  • the 1944 election of the CCF
    Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
    The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction...

     under T.C. Douglas, the first social democratic government in North America and a pioneer of numerous social programs – notably of course Medicare – which were later adopted in other provinces and nationally; and
  • the Saskatchewan Doctors' Strike in 1962 when medical doctors withheld their services in response to the introduction of Medicare with the enactment of the Medical Care Insurance Act, 1961 (Sask.)

Geography and climate


The city is situated on a broad, flat, treeless and largely waterless plain — at the time of its founding, a matter of national scandal and notoriety as to corrupt dealings at the time, since it is immediately adjacent to amply watered and treed rolling parklands.

There is an abundance of parks and greenspaces: all of its trees — some 300,000 — shrubs and other plants were hand-planted. As in other prairie cities, American elm
American Elm
Ulmus americana, generally known as the American Elm or, less commonly, as the White Elm or Water Elm, is a species native to eastern North America, occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas. The American elm is an extremely hardy tree that can...

s were planted in front yards in residential neighbourhoods and on boulevards along major traffic arteries and are the dominant species in the urban forest.

In recent years the pattern of primary and high school grounds being acreages of barren prairie sports grounds has been re-thought and such grounds have been landscaped with artificial hills and parks. Newer residential subdivisions in the northwest and southeast have, instead of spring runoff storm sewers, decorative landscaped lagoons.

The streetscape is now endangered by Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease is a disease caused by a member of the sac fungi category, affecting elm trees which is spread by the elm bark beetle. Although believed to be originally native to Asia, the disease has been accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native...

, which has spread through North America from the eastern seaboard and has now reached the Canadian prairies; for the time being it is controlled by intense pest management programs and species not susceptible to the disease are being planted; the disease has the potential to wipe out Regina's entire elm population.

Climate


Regina experiences a dry humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Koppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb) with warm summers and cold, dry winters, prone to extremes at all times of the year. Average annual precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 is 388 mm (15.3 inches) and is heaviest from June through August, with June being the wettest month with an average of 75 millimetres of precipitation. The average daily temperature for the year is 2.8°C
Celsius
Celsius is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius , who developed a similar temperature scale two years before his death...

 (37.04°F
Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit is the temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit . Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees...

). The lowest temperature ever recorded was −50.0 °C (-58 °F) on 1 January 2005, while the highest recorded temperature was 43.3 °C (110 °F) on 5 July 1937.

Population and ethnicity

Census Population
1901 2,249
1911 30,213
1921 34,432
1931 53,209
1941 57,389
1951 71,319
1961 112,141
1971 139,469
1981 162,613
1991 179,178
2001 178,225
2006 179,246

The Canada 2006 Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

 indicates Regina's ethnic configuration to be, in order of size: (1) German, (2) English
English Canadian
An English Canadian is a Canadian of English ancestry; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadian. Canada is an officially bilingual state, with English and French official language communities. Immigrant cultural groups ostensibly integrate into one or both of these communities, but...

, (3) Scottish, (4) Irish, (5) Ukrainian, (6) French, (7) Aboriginal, (8) Polish and (9) Norwegian, although actually the third largest constituency was, by numbers of respondents, undifferentiated "Canadian," indicating perhaps mixed ethnic background (though other explanations of this identification present themselves) and confirming the perception that Reginans in large number, like other western Canadians, do not particularly distinguish among themselves as to ethnicity.

There are considerable difficulties with the ethnic configuration of Regina suggested by the Census. German is, apparently, by far the largest ethnic constituency but that contemplates separating persons of British Isles antecedents into English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Manx and other British Isles ancestries. The identification of undifferentiated "Canadian" is unexplained and "American" is anomalously offered as an ethnicity. The anachronistic designation "East Indian" refers to persons of Indian extraction rather than properly so-called East Indians and excludes Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans and other South Asians.

In absolute numbers of Aboriginal population, Regina ranks seventh among Census Metropolitan Areas in Canada with an "Aboriginal-identity population of 15,685 (8.3% of the total city population), of which 9,200 were First Nations, 5,990 Métis, and 495 other Aboriginal."

Religion



The 2006 Census reported Protestantism being professed by 41.5% of the total population; Roman Catholic, 32.3%; Eastern Orthodox, 1.8%; other Christian (including Oriental Orthodox Jehovah's Witness, and possibly, Mormon), and 2.9% other religion (including Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and Jewish). 19% of the population professed no specific religious affiliation. Considerable ecumenical engagement among assorted Christian denominations pertained in the latter part of the 20th century; as religious commitment has waned in the general population some churches and clergy have withdrawn from such mutual engagement.

Neighbourhoods



Residential areas, apart from the remaining residential portion of the original town between the CPR
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 tracks and Wascana Lake to the immediate south of the central business district, are largely typical of western Canadian cities, largely consisting of unremarkable post-World War II single family dwellings on substantial lots. Some seven neighbourhoods are perhaps of note: The downtown business district (latterly and — to those acquainted with Regina history — confusingly deemed "Market Square"; the West End (latterly deemed the "Cathedral Area"); the historic and affluent Crescents area, immediately to the north of Wascana Creek west of the Albert Street bridge and dam which creates Wascana Lake); Germantown, originally an impoverished and ill-serviced ghetto of continental Europeans; Lakeview, adjacent to the provincial Legislative Building and office buildings, a neighbourhood of imposing mansions dating from the before the First World War through the post-War '20s boom; the Warehouse District, formerly — obviously, as its name suggests — the reception zone for freight arriving from eastern Canada and the USA for sale by Regina wholesalers, and latterly, with the eclipse of rail shipping, being redeveloped as desirable residential accommodation, upscale restaurants and fashionable shopping precincts; and the latterly notorious North-Central district, an area of low-rent housing nowadays characterised by serious problems of crime, drug use and prostitution.

Law and order


The Regina Police Service is the primary police service for the city of Regina and holds both Municipal and Provincial Jurisdiction. The following services also hold jurisdiction in the city and are in partnership: Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

, Canadian National Railway Police Service and the Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
The Canadian Pacific Police Service is a private police force enforcing safety and policing along Canadian Pacific Railway properties and rail lines in Canada and the United States, including limited sections of the Milton line of GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area.The current head of the CP...

.

Crime


Though somewhat high, by Canadian standards, crime rate in Regina for 2008 was the lowest in ten years according to statistics released by the Regina Police Service. Criminal Code
Criminal Code of Canada
The Criminal Code or Code criminel is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada. Its official long title is "An Act respecting the criminal law"...

 offences in Regina totaled 21,942 in 2008. In 1999, there were approximately 16,000 crimes for every 100,000 people, compared to 15,400 in 2003 and 11,500 in 2008. While the rates are still high compared to national averages, crime numbers decreased in areas including motor vehicle thefts, break and enters to residences, thefts, robberies, assaults and sexual assaults, but were up for mischief and break and enters to nonresidence structures like sheds and unattached garages.

Economy



Oil and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, potash
Potash
Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. In some rare cases, potash can be formed with traces of organic materials such as plant remains, and this was the major historical source for it before the industrial era...

, kaolin, sodium sulphite and bentonite
Bentonite
Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. There are different types of bentonite, each named after the respective dominant element, such as potassium , sodium , calcium , and aluminum . Experts debate a number of nomenclatorial...

 contribute a great part of Regina and area's economy. The completion of the train
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 link between eastern Canada and the then-District of Assiniboia in 1885, the development of the high-yielding and early-maturing Marquis strain of wheat and the opening of new grain markets in the United Kingdom established the first impetus for economic development and substantial population settlement. The farm and agricultural component is still a significant part of the economy — the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool
Saskatchewan Wheat Pool
The Saskatchewan Wheat Pool was a grain handling, agri-food processing and marketing company based in Regina, Saskatchewan. The Pool created a network of marketing alliances in North America and internationally which made it the largest agricultural grain handling operation in the province of...

 (now Viterra Inc.,), "the world's largest grain-handling co-operative" has its headquarters in Regina — but it is no longer the major driver; provincially it has slipped to eighth overall, well behind the natural resources sectors.

Modern transport has obviated the development of a significant manufacturing sector and indeed, until recently re-vivified, local petroleum refining facilities: the General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 assembly plant north on Winnipeg Street, built in 1927 — when Saskatchewan's agricultural economy was booming and briefly made it the third province of Canada after Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 and Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 in both population (at just under one million people, roughly the same population as today) and GDP — ceased production during the depression
Great Depression in Canada
Canada was hit hard by the Great Depression. Between 1929 and 1939, the gross national product dropped 40% . Unemployment reached 27% at the depth of the Depression in 1933...

 of the 1930s. It was resumed by the federal crown during World War II and housed Regina Wartime Industries Ltd., where 1,000 people were engaged in armaments manufacture. It was not returned to private automotive manufacture after the war and became derelict. Imperial Oil long maintained a large refinery on the northern outskirts of Regina and IPSCO Inc., a leading world producer of steel plate and pipe and as of July 2007 a wholly owned subsidiary of the Swedish steel company SSAB, began in Regina in 1956 as Prairie Pipe Manufacturing Company Ltd; while the bulk of its assets and customers are now in USA and it has its operational headquarters in Chicago, Illinois, it retains its registered office and substantial manufacturing facilities in Regina. Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil Limited is Canada's largest petroleum company. The company is engaged in the exploration, production and sale of crude oil and natural gas. It is controlled by US based ExxonMobil, which owns 69.6% of its stock...

 (the Canadian subsidiary of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Standard Oil was a predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world and operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational...

, now ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation. It is a direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil company, and was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. Its headquarters are in Irving, Texas...

), for many years maintained a refinery in Regina; today with high world petroleum prices making the exploitation of Saskatchewan oil resources an unprecedentedly lively proposition, Federated Co-op maintains an 103000 oilbbl/d refinery and, together with the Province, an upgrading operation for heavy oil.

Crown Life, a significant Canadian and international insurance company, transferred its national head office from Toronto to Regina in 1996 but was acquired by Canada Life in 1998 and the corporate head office returned to Toronto, though with assurances that the company would retain a strong presence in Regina.

On 19 May 2009 it was announced that Viterra
Viterra
Viterra Inc. is a leading global agri-business with extensive operations in Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand. With a growing international presence that includes trading and marketing offices on four continents, Viterra delivers high quality nutritious food ingredients to more...

 (formerly Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, becoming Viterra after acquisition of Agricore United
Agricore United
Agricore United was a farmer-directed agri-business in Canada. It supplied crop nutrition and crop protection products, and offered grain handling and marketing services. It was created on November 1, 2001 by the merger of Agricore and United Grain Growers. It was headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba...

), the largest grain handler in Canada, will acquire ABB Grain of Adelaide, South Australia in September 2009. The Head Office will be relocated to Regina, with the worldwide malting headquarters remaining in Adelaide. The two companies together are responsible for 37 percent of the world's exports of wheat, canola and barley.

The provincial government continues to be a major driver in the civic economy, though its relative importance is declining. The Regina Research Park
Innovation Place Research Park
Innovation Place is the registered business name of the Saskatchewan Opportunities Corporation , a crown corporation in Saskatchewan. SOCO operates a network of three research parks: one located near the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, the second near the University of Regina...

 immediately adjacent to the University campus hosts several science and technology companies which conduct research activities in conjunction with University departments.

Culture




Regina has a substantial cultural life in music, theatre and dance, supported by the fine arts constituency at the University of Regina, which has faculties of music, theatre and plastic arts. At various times this has attracted notable artistic talent: the Regina Five
Regina Five
Regina Five is the name given to five abstract painters, Kenneth Lochhead, Arthur McKay, Douglas Morton, Ted Godwin, and Ronald Bloore, who displayed their works in the 1961 National Gallery of Canada's exhibition "Five Painters from Regina".-External links:...

 were artists at Regina College (the University's predecessor) who gained national fame in the 1950s; Donald M. Kendrick
Donald M. Kendrick
Donald M. Kendrick is the Calgary, Alberta-born director of choral activities at California State University, Sacramento and the director of music at Sacred Heart Church where he conducts Schola Cantorum and Vox Nova Donald M. Kendrick (born 1947) is the Calgary, Alberta-born director of choral...

, Bob Boyer
Robert Boyer (artist)
Robert "Bob" Boyer was a Canadian visual artist and university professor of aboriginal heritage. He was a Métis Cree artist known for his politically charged abstract paintings.-Life and work:...

 and Joe Fafard
Joe Fafard
Joseph Fafard, OC, SOM is a Canadian sculptor.-Biography:Born in Sainte-Marthe, Saskatchewan in 1942 to Leopold Fafard and Julienne Cantin whose families both date back centuries in Canada. Joe is a descendant of Jacques Goulet. He received a B.S.A from the University of Manitoba in 1966 and a...

, now with significant international reputations, have been other artists from Regina. The Regina Conservatory of Music operates in the former girls' residence wing of the Regina College building. Annual festivals in and near Regina through the year include the Cathedral Village Arts Festival; the Craven Country Jamboree; the Regina Folk Festival; the Regina Dragon Boat Festival; and Mosaic, mounted by the Regina Multicultural Council, which earned Heritage Canada’s designation of 2004 "Cultural Capital of Canada" (in the over 125,000 population category). As in other cities and towns across Canada the annual Kiwanis
Kiwanis
Kiwanis International is an international, coeducational service club founded in 1915. It is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana. Current membership is 240,000 members in 7,700 clubs in 80 nations...

 Music Festival affords rising musical talents the opportunity to achieve nation-wide recognition. The city's summer agricultural exhibition was originally established in 1884 as the Assiniboia Agricultural Association and since the mid-1960s has been styled "Buffalo Days".


Regina lacked a large concert and live theatre venue for many years after the loss to fire of the Regina Theatre in 1938 and the demolition of the 1906 City Hall in 1964 at a time when preservation of heritage architecture was not yet a fashionable issue. But until the demolition of downtown cinemas which doubled as live theatres the lack was not urgent, and Darke Hall on the Regina College campus of the university provided a small concert and stage venue. (See Regina's historic buildings and precincts
Regina's historic buildings and precincts
Many historically significant buildings in Regina, Saskatchewan were lost during the period 1945 through approximately 1970 when the urge to "modernize" overtook developers' and city planners' sense of history and heritage...

.)

The default was remedied in 1970 with the construction of the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts
Conexus Arts Centre
The Conexus Arts Centre, known from 1970 till 2006 as the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts, is a theatre complex located within Wascana Centre in Regina, Saskatchewan...

 (now the Conexus Arts Centre) as a Canadian Centennial
Canadian Centennial
The Canadian Centennial was a year long celebration held in 1967 when Canada celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. Celebrations occurred throughout the year but culminated on Dominion Day, July 1. 1967 coins were different from previous years' issues, with animals on each...

 project, a theatre and concert hall complex overlooking Wascana Lake which is one of the most acoustically perfect concert venues in North America; it is home to the Regina Symphony Orchestra (Canada's oldest continuously performing orchestra), Opera Saskatchewan and New Dance Horizons, a contemporary dance company. The Royal Saskatchewan Museum
Royal Saskatchewan Museum
The Royal Saskatchewan Museum was established in Regina as the Provincial Museum in 1906 to "secure and preserve natural history specimens and objects of historical and ethnological interest." It was the first museum in Saskatchewan, Canada, and the first provincial museum in the three Prairie...

 (the present 1955 structure a Saskatchewan Golden Jubilee project) dates from 1906. The old Post Office
Prince Edward Building (Regina)
The Prince Edward Building is the current official name of the historic post office building in Regina, Saskatchewan, located at the corner of Scarth Street and 11th Avenue. The site had been occupied by Knox Presbyterian Church until it was demolished.The post office was designed in the...

 at Scarth Street and 11th Avenue, temporarily used as a city hall after the demolition of the 1906 City Hall, is now home to the Globe Theatre
Globe Theatre, Regina
The Globe Theatre in Regina, Saskatchewan, was founded in 1966 by Ken and Sue Kramer. It was the first professional educational theatre company and the only professional theatre company in Saskatchewan.-Background:...

, founded in 1966 as "Saskatchewan's first professional theatre since 1927." Holy Rosary Roman Catholic Cathedral
Holy Rosary Cathedral (Regina)
Holy Rosary Cathedral at 13th Avenue and Garnet Street in Regina, Saskatchewan, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Regina...

 and Knox-Metropolitan United Church have particularly impressive Casavant Frères
Casavant Frères
Casavant Frères is a prominent Canadian company in Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, which has been building fine pipe organs since 1879. As of 2008, they have produced over 3800 organs.- Company history :...

 pipe organs, maintain substantial musical establishments and are frequently the venues for choral concerts and organ recitals.

The Regina Public Library
Regina Public Library
Regina Public Library is a city-wide library system spread throughout nine locations that serves the citizens of Regina, Saskatchewan by providing an open and accessible environment where anyone can access information for work, study, and recreation...

 is a city-wide library system with nine branches. Its facilities include the RPL Film theatre which plays non-mainstream cinema, the Dunlop Art Gallery, special literacy services and a prairie history collection. The Norman MacKenzie Art Gallery
Norman MacKenzie Art Gallery
The MacKenzie Art Gallery is located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The MacKenzie Art Gallery has over of space, with eight galleries totaling . It has modern technical areas including conservation lab, workshop, preparation rooms and vault, a 185-seat theatre, public resource centre, gift shop...

 in Wascana Centre and the Dunlop Art Gallery have permanent collections and sponsor travelling exhibitions.

Parks and outdoor attractions


Regina has a substantial proportion of its overall area dedicated as parks and greenspaces, with biking paths, cross-country ski-ing venues and other recreational facilities throughout the city; Wascana Lake, the venue for summer boating activities, is regularly cleared of snow in winter for skating and there are toboggan runs both in Wascana Centre and downstream on the banks of Wascana Creek. Victoria Park
Victoria Park, Regina
Victoria Park is a public park in the centre of downtown Regina. The city's founders set aside a plot of land right in the centre of town and named it Victoria Square. It was supposed to serve as a green space, part of an effort to make Regina a more attractive destination for settlers...

 is in the central business district and numerous greenspaces throughout the residential subdivisions and newer subdivisions in the north and west of the city contain large ornamental ponds to add interest to residential precincts such as Rochdale, Lakewood, Lakeridge, Spruce Meadows and Windsor Park; older school playing fields throughout the city have also been converted into landscaped parks.

The City operates five municipal golf courses, including two in King's Park northeast of the city. Kings Park Recreation facility is also home to ball diamonds, picnic grounds, and stock car racing. Within half an hour's drive are the summer cottage and camping country and winter ski resorts in the Qu'Appelle Valley with Last Mountain and Buffalo Pound Lakes and the four Fishing Lakes
Fishing Lakes
The Fishing Lakes are a chain of four lakes in the Qu'Appelle Valley cottage country some 40 miles to the northeast of Regina, Saskatchewan....

 of Pasqua, Echo, Mission and Katepwa; slightly farther east are Round and Crooked Lakes, also in the Qu'Appelle Valley, and to the southeast the Kenosee Lake
Kenosee Lake
Kenosee Lake is a lake in south east Saskatchewan, Canada. The lake lies in Moose Mountain Provincial Park. The lake is a resort for many people from south east Saskatchewan including Regina. The Village of Kenosee Lake consists mainly of cabins and businesses...

 cottage country.

Wascana Centre
Wascana Centre
Wascana Centre is a 9.3 square kilometre park built around Wascana Lake in Regina, Saskatchewan. It brings together lands and buildings owned by the City of Regina, University of Regina, and Province of Saskatchewan, each of which is represented on the board of directors, and contains government,...

 is a 9.3 square kilometre (2,300 acre
Acre
The acre is a unit of area in a number of different systems, including the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land.The acre is related...

) park built around Wascana Lake and designed in 1961 by Minoru Yamasaki
Minoru Yamasaki
was a Japanese-American architect, best known for his design of the twin towers of the World Trade Center, buildings 1 and 2. Yamasaki was one of the most prominent architects of the 20th century...

 — the Seattle-born architect best known as the designer of the original World Trade Center
World Trade Center
The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new...

 in New York — in tandem with his starkly modernist design for the new Regina Campus of the University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

. Wascana Lake was created as a "stock watering hole" — for the CPR
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

's rolling stock
Rolling stock
Rolling stock comprises all the vehicles that move on a railway. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives, railroad cars, coaches and wagons...

, that is — in 1883 when a dam and bridge were constructed 1½ blocks to the west of the present Albert Street Bridge
Albert Memorial Bridge (Regina)
The Albert Memorial Bridge is a beam bridge that spans across the north and south banks of Wascana Creek Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is 256 metres long and 22 metres wide.-History:...

. A new dam and bridge were built in 1908, and Wascana Lake was used as a domestic water source, to cool the city’s power plant and, in due course, for the new provincial legislative building.

By the 1920s, with Boggy Creek as a source of domestic water, Wascana Lake had ceased to have a utilitarian purpose and had become primarily a recreational facility, with bathing and boating its principal uses. It was drained in the 1930s as part of a government relief project; 2,100 men widened and dredged the lake bed and created two islands using only hand tools and horse-drawn wagons.

During the fall and winter of 2003–2004, Wascana Lake was again drained and dredged
Big Dig (Regina, Saskatchewan)
The Wascana Lake Urban Revitalization Project—known locally as the Big Dig—was an $18 million project to deepen Wascana Lake in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada...

 to deepen it while adding a new island, a promenade area beside Albert Street Bridge, water fountains, and a waterfall to help aerate the lake.

Downstream from Wascana Lake Wascana Creek continues to provide a lush parkland on its increasingly intensively developed perimeter; in the northwest quadrant of the city Wascana Creek has a second weir with a smaller reservoir in A.E. Wilson Park.

Bedroom communities


From its first founding, particularly once motorcars were common, Reginans have repaired to the nearby Qu'Appelle Valley on weekends, for summer and winter holidays and indeed as a place to live permanently and commute from. Since the 1940s, many of the towns near Regina have steadily lost population as western Canada's agrarian economy re-organised itself from small family farm landholdings of a quarter-section (160 acres, the original standard land grant to homesteaders) to the multi-section (a "section" being 640 acres (2.6 km²), one square mile) landholdings that are increasingly necessary for economic viability.
Some of these towns have enjoyed somewhat of a renaissance as a result of the excellent roads that for many decades seemed likely to doom them; they — and to some extent the nearby city of Moose Jaw — are now undergoing a mild resurgence as commuter satellites for Regina. Qu'Appelle
Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan
Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan, is a small village and formerly in ecclesiastical terms a city, with considerable historic significance located on Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway mainline, some east of the provincial capital of Regina.Qu'Appelle was for a time the terminus of the...

, at one time intended to be the metropole for the original District of Assiniboia in the North-West Territories (as they then were), enjoyed a temporary reprieve from its inexorable decline during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s when Regina cottagers passed through en route to the Qu'Appelle Valley; Highway 10, which bypassed Qu'Appelle, running directly from Balgonie to Fort Qu'Appelle off Highway Number 1, quickly ended this brief holiday; Fort Qu'Appelle and its neighbouring resort villages on the Fishing Lakes
Fishing Lakes
The Fishing Lakes are a chain of four lakes in the Qu'Appelle Valley cottage country some 40 miles to the northeast of Regina, Saskatchewan....

 remain a summer vacation venue of choice; Indian Head
Indian Head, Saskatchewan
Indian Head is a town in southeast Saskatchewan, Canada, east of Regina. The town is directly north of the Trans-Canada Highway. The town is known for its federally-operated Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration experimental farm and tree nursery that produces seedlings for shelter...

 is far enough from Regina to have an autonomous identity but close enough that its charm and vitality attract commuters — it "has a range of professional services and tradespeople, financial institutions, and a large number of retail establishments." It is the scene of outdoor filming sequences in the CBC
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster...

 television series "Little Mosque on the Prairie."
White City
White City, Saskatchewan
White City is a commuter town in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. White City is 10 kilometres east of Regina on the Trans-Canada Highway. The town is primarily populated by urban professionals and young families who work in Regina. The town's motto is "Country Living."-History:White City...

 and Emerald Park
Emerald Park, Saskatchewan
Emerald Park, Saskatchewan is situated in the rural municipality of Edenwold. Located 9 km east of Regina and is adjacent to the boundaries of White City. Emerald Park is located in the Regina Wascana Plains provincial electoral riding.-Recreation:...

 are quasi-suburbs of Regina, as have become Balgonie
Balgonie, Saskatchewan
-Sports:Home of Team Selzer, World Women's Curling Silver Medalists, and consistently competitive high school volleyball and soccer programs.-References:...

, Pense, Grand Coulee, Pilot Butte
Pilot Butte, Saskatchewan
Pilot Butte is a town outside of Regina, Saskatchewan. It is located 8 miles east of Regina and has a population of approximately 2000. It has an elementary school, public library, insurance office, two convenience stores, two restaurants, three manufacturing plants, a riding club, hockey arena,...

 and Lumsden
Lumsden, Saskatchewan
-History:Settlers first arrived in 1881 and the area came to be commonly known as Happy Hollow. When the Qu'Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway came through the community in 1889, the name was changed to Lumsden after Hugh Lumsden, a senior engineer with the railroad.The town has been...

 in the Qu'Appelle Valley, some ten miles (16 km) to the north of Regina. Regina Beach
Regina Beach, Saskatchewan
-External links:***...

 — situated on Last Mountain Lake
Last Mountain Lake
Last Mountain Lake, also known as Long Lake, is a prairie lake formed from glaciation 11,000 years ago. It is located in south central Saskatchewan, Canada, about 40 km northwest of the city of Regina adjacent to the Qu'Appelle Valley, which it flows south into through Last Mountain Creek...

 (known locally as Long Lake) and a 30-minute drive from Regina — has been a summer favourite of Reginans from its first establishment and since the 1970s has also become a commuter satellite; Rouleau
Rouleau, Saskatchewan
-Location:-External links:*** Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan...

 (also known as the town of Dog River in the CTV television sitcom Corner Gas
Corner Gas
Corner Gas is a Canadian television sitcom created by Brent Butt. The series ran for six seasons from 2004 to 2009. Re-runs still air on CTV and The Comedy Network in Canada; it formerly aired on WGN America in the United States....

) is 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Regina and in the summer months "bustles with film crews."

Sports



The Saskatchewan Roughriders
Saskatchewan Roughriders
The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a Canadian Football League team based in Regina, Saskatchewan. They were founded in 1910. They play their home games at 2940 10th Avenue in Regina, which has been the team's home base for its entire history, even prior to the construction of Mosaic Stadium at Taylor...

 of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

, the only professional sports team in Saskatchewan, play their home games at Mosaic Stadium
Mosaic Stadium at Taylor Field
Mosaic Stadium at Taylor Field is a sports stadium located in Regina, Saskatchewan which is used primarily to play Canadian football. It has been the home of the Canadian Football League's Saskatchewan Roughriders in rudimentary form since 1910 and as a complete stadium since 1936...

 in Regina. Formed in 1910 as the Regina Rugby Club and renamed the Regina Roughriders in 1924 and the Saskatchewan Roughriders in 1950, the "Riders" are a community-owned team with a loyal fan support base; every game in the 2008 season was sold out; out-of-town season ticket
Season ticket
A season ticket is a ticket that grants privileges over a defined period of time.-Sport:In sport, a season ticket grants the holder access to all regular-season home games for one season without additional charges. The ticket usually offers a discounted price over purchasing a ticket for each of...

 holders often travel 300-400 kilometres (200–250 mi) or more to attend home games. The team has won the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
The Grey Cup is both the name of the championship of the Canadian Football League and the name of the trophy awarded to the victorious team. It is Canada's largest annual sports and television event, regularly drawing a Canadian viewing audience of about 3 to 4 million individuals...

 on three occasions, in 1966, 1989, and 2007.

Other sports teams in Regina include the Regina Pats
Regina Pats
The Regina Pats are a junior ice hockey team that plays in the Western Hockey League. The Pats are based out of Regina, Saskatchewan and the Brandt Centre is their home arena.-History:...

 of the Western Hockey League
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada...

, the Regina Thunder
Regina Thunder
The Regina Thunder, originally known as the Prairie Thunder, are a junior football club, based out of Regina, Saskatchewan. The Thunder are a part of the Prairie Football Conference , which is a six member conference with teams from all three prairie provinces...

 of the Canadian Junior Football League
Canadian Junior Football League
The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 19 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. The teams compete annually for the Canadian Bowl...

, the Prairie Fire
Saskatchewan Prairie Fire
The Prairie Fire are a Canadian Rugby Union team based in Regina, Saskatchewan. The team plays in the Rugby Canada National Junior Championship and draws very few of its players from the Saskatchewan Rugby Union, one of fourteen Rugby Unions that have rep teams in the RCSL.The Prairie Fire play...

 of the Rugby Canada Super League, the Regina Red Sox of the Western Major Baseball League
Western Major Baseball League
The Western Major Baseball League or WMBL is a collegiate summer baseball league. The league can trace its roots back to 1948, as it has gone by many names over the years, including the Alberta-Saskatchewan Baseball league, Western Canadian Baseball League and Saskatchewan Baseball League before...

, and the University of Regina's Regina Cougars
Regina Cougars
The Regina Cougars are the athletic teams that represent the University of Regina in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The Cougars compete in all sports except football; the university's football team is known as the Regina Rams....

/Regina Rams
Regina Rams
The Regina Rams are the CIS football team that represents the University of Regina in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The Rams nickname is used by the university's football team only; all other teams at the school are named Regina Cougars...

 of the CIS
Canadian Interuniversity Sport
Canadian Interuniversity Sport is the national governing body of university sport in Canada, comprising the majority of degree granting universities in the country. Its equivalent body for organized sports at colleges in Canada is The Canadian Colleges Athletic Association...

.

Regina's curling teams have distinguished the city for many decades. Richardson Crescent commemorates the Richardson curling
Ernie Richardson
Ernest M. Richardson, CM is a Canadian and world curling champion.Ernie Richardson was the skip of the Regina-based team made up of his brother Garnet and cousins Arnold, Wes Richardson, and Mel Perry who replaced Wes in 1963 due to back issues...

 team of the 1950s. In recent years Olympic Gold medal winner Sandra Schmirler
Sandra Schmirler
Sandra Marie Schmirler, SOM , was a Canadian curler, who captured three Canadian Curling Championships and three World Curling Championships. Schmirler skipped her Canadian team to a gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics, the first year curling was a medal sport...

 and her rink occasioned vast civic pride; the Sandra Schmirler Leisure Centre in east Regina commemorates her.

North-east of the city lies Kings Park Speedway
Kings Park Speedway
Kings Park Speedway is an auto racing facility located north-east of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, operated by the Regina Auto Racing Club. The facility features a 1/3 mile high-banked paved oval with longer straights and tight turns, paper clip style track. It is primarily used for stock car...

, a ⅓-mile paved oval used for stock car racing since the late 1960s. Regina hosted the Western Canada Summer Games
Western Canada Summer Games
The Western Canada Summer Games were established in 1975 as a multi-sport event to provide development opportunities for amateur athletes and to help them advance their skills in a competitive, but friendly environment. The games also serve to broaden the exposure of talented athletes and provide a...

 in 1975, and again in 1987, as well as being the host city for the 2005 Canada Summer Games
Canada Games
The Canada Games is a high-level multi-sport event with a National Artists Program held every two years in Canada, alternating between the Canada Winter Games and the Canada Summer Games. Athletes are strictly amateur only, and represent their province or territory.The Games were first held in 1967...

.

Visitor attractions



Regina is a travel destination for residents of southeastern Saskatchewan and the immediately adjacent regions of the neighbouring US States of North Dakota and Montana, and an intermediate stopping point for travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway. Attractions for visitors in Regina include:

  • the Royal Saskatchewan Museum
    Royal Saskatchewan Museum
    The Royal Saskatchewan Museum was established in Regina as the Provincial Museum in 1906 to "secure and preserve natural history specimens and objects of historical and ethnological interest." It was the first museum in Saskatchewan, Canada, and the first provincial museum in the three Prairie...

     (a museum of natural history);
  • the Saskatchewan Science Centre
    Saskatchewan Science Centre
    Discovery Centre is an interactive science museum located in Regina, Saskatchewan. It is owned and operated as a not-for-profit charitable organization. Located in a former power plant in the Wascana Centre, the Saskatchewan Science Centre was officially opened in April of 1989 as the Powerhouse of...

    , housed in the 1914 Powerhouse on east Wascana Lake;
  • the Norman Mackenzie Art Gallery and numerous smaller galleries and museums;
  • the Roman Catholic cathedral
    Holy Rosary Cathedral (Regina)
    Holy Rosary Cathedral at 13th Avenue and Garnet Street in Regina, Saskatchewan, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Regina...

     on 13th Avenue in the West End, but also perhaps to a somewhat lesser extent the Anglican cathedral
    St. Paul's Cathedral (Regina)
    St Paul's Anglican Cathedral is an historic church building located on the outskirts of Regina's central business district. Built as a parish church in 1894-1895, it became the pro-cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Qu'Appelle, in southern Saskatchewan, Canada in 1944 when pro-cathedral status...

     in downtown Regina and the Romanian Orthodox cathedral on Victoria Avenue in the East End;
  • Knox-Metropolitan United Church
    United Church of Canada
    The United Church of Canada is a Protestant Christian denomination in Canada. It is the largest Protestant church and, after the Roman Catholic Church, the second-largest Christian church in Canada...

     on Victoria Park in downtown Regina: the surviving downtown congregation of the United Church (Metropolitan Methodist and the now demolished or closed Knox, Carmichael and St Andrew's United Churches, previously Presbyterian, were its antecedents or now-defunct daughter congregations) with the largest pipe organ in Regina;
  • the Mormon Temple
    Regina Saskatchewan Temple
    The Regina Saskatchewan Temple is the 65th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is located in East Regina on Wascana Creek close to the University of Regina but well away from the downtown business district....

    , a Mormon conventicle with a beautiful building and lovely grounds;
  • the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

     (RCMP) national training centre
    RCMP Academy, Depot Division
    RCMP Academy, Depot Division has been providing police training to Royal Canadian Mounted Police "cadets" since its establishment in 1885. The facility is located in the west part of Regina, Saskatchewan, near the airport, and consists of several buildings.In the RCMP's early days, Depot had a...

     and the museum
    RCMP Heritage Centre
    The RCMP Heritage Centre was officially opened May 23, 2007 in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is owned and operated by an independent nonprofit organization called the Mounted Police Heritage Centre and receives no funding from any level of government...

    ;
  • Government House
    Government House (Saskatchewan)
    Government House, Regina, Saskatchewan, was constructed as a residence for the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories, whose territorial headquarters were in Regina until the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were created out of the Territories in 1905 and Regina became the capital...

    , where regular tours are available, conducted by guides in "period" costume and the Lieutenant-Governor holds an annual levée
    Levee
    A levee, levée, dike , embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels...

     on New Year's Day;
  • Casino Regina
    Casino Regina
    Casino Regina is a casino located on Saskatchewan Drive in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It operates in the city's former union station, a Tyndall and ashlar stone structure completed in 1912...

    , in the old Union Station;
  • the Globe Theatre
    Globe Theatre, Regina
    The Globe Theatre in Regina, Saskatchewan, was founded in 1966 by Ken and Sue Kramer. It was the first professional educational theatre company and the only professional theatre company in Saskatchewan.-Background:...

     in the Old Post Office
    Prince Edward Building (Regina)
    The Prince Edward Building is the current official name of the historic post office building in Regina, Saskatchewan, located at the corner of Scarth Street and 11th Avenue. The site had been occupied by Knox Presbyterian Church until it was demolished.The post office was designed in the...

     building on the Scarth Street Mall;
  • events held at Mosaic Stadium
    Mosaic Stadium at Taylor Field
    Mosaic Stadium at Taylor Field is a sports stadium located in Regina, Saskatchewan which is used primarily to play Canadian football. It has been the home of the Canadian Football League's Saskatchewan Roughriders in rudimentary form since 1910 and as a complete stadium since 1936...

     sports stadium and the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts
    Conexus Arts Centre
    The Conexus Arts Centre, known from 1970 till 2006 as the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts, is a theatre complex located within Wascana Centre in Regina, Saskatchewan...

    ;
  • Evraz
    Evraz Group
    Evraz Group is one of the world's biggest vertically integrated steel production and mining businesses, with operations mainly in Russia. In 2008, Evraz Group produced 17.7 million tonnes of crude steel.-Overview:...

     Place (formerly Ipsco Place, previously Regina Exhibition Park), the venue for the annual Buffalo Days Exhibition summer agricultural fair every August; and
  • the Canadian Western Agribition
    Canadian Western Agribition
    The Canadian Western Agribition is a large agricultural marketplace, trade show and rodeo held annually in Regina, Saskatchewan. Agribition takes place in late November at Evraz Place .-External links:*...

    , a winter agricultural show and marketplace.


The former large-scale Children's Day Parade and Travellers' Day Parade during Fair Week in the summer, which were substantially supported by the Masons
Freemasonry
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge...

 and Shriners
Shriners
The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, also commonly known as Shriners and abbreviated A.A.O.N.M.S., established in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry, based in the United States...

, have been abandoned as (a) other summer civic events have been given a higher profile, (b) the central business district has waned and (c) such service clubs have lost vitality: the Regina Exhibition's travelling midway divides its time among other western Canadian and US cities and is perhaps no longer the attraction it once was in a more parochial community. However, a large Santa Claus
Santa Claus
Santa Claus is a folklore figure in various cultures who distributes gifts to children, normally on Christmas Eve. Each name is a variation of Saint Nicholas, but refers to Santa Claus...

 parade is now mounted during the lead-up to Christmas.

Local media



The daily newspaper for the city, now owned by Canwest Publishing Inc. is The Leader-Post. The Regina Sun is published by The Leader-Post and distributed free of charge. Prairie Dog is a free alternative newspaper produced by a Saskatchewan worker co-operative. L'eau vive is a weekly newspaper publishing in French and serving all of Saskatchewan's francophone community.

The thirteen radio stations broadcating from the city include;
CJME News/Talk 980, FM 90.3 CJLR-FM-4 MBC Radio First Nations community radio Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation, FM 91.3 CJTR-FM
CJTR-FM
CJTR-FM is a Canadian radio station, airing at 91.3 FM in Regina, Saskatchewan. The station airs a community radio format, featuring a variety of musical styles and talk shows...

 91.3 CJTR community radio, FM 97.7 CBKF-FM
CBKF-FM
CBKF-FM is a Canadian radio station, which broadcasts the programming of Radio-Canada's Première Chaîne network at 97.7 FM in Regina, Saskatchewan.-History:The station was launched on April 24, 1975...

 Première Chaîne news/talk (CBC, French), and FM 102.5 CBKR-FM CBC Radio One news/talk (CBC).

There are four private and public television channels broadcasting from Regina: CKCK-TV
CKCK-TV
CKCK-DT, VHF channel 8 , is a CTV owned and operated television station based in Regina, Saskatchewan. Originally signing on in 1954, CKCK was the first privately owned television station in Western Canada.-History:...

 (CTV
CTV television network
CTV Television Network is a Canadian English language television network and is owned by Bell Media. It is Canada's largest privately-owned network, and has consistently placed as Canada's top-rated network in total viewers and in key demographics since 2002, after several years trailing the rival...

), CBKT
CBKT
CBKT-DT is the CBC's television station in Regina, Saskatchewan. It is located in the CBC Regina Broadcast Centre at 2440 Broad Street in downtown Regina, alongside CBK-AM-FM....

 (CBC
CBC Television
CBC Television is a Canadian television network owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the national public broadcaster.Although the CBC is supported by public funding, the television network supplements this funding with commercial advertising revenue, in contrast to CBC Radio which are...

), CFRE-TV
CFRE-TV
CFRE-DT is a television station which broadcasts from Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is part of the Global Television Network.-History:The station was launched on September 6, 1987 by Canwest...

 (Global
Global Television Network
Global Television Network is an English language privately owned television network in Canada, owned by Calgary-based Shaw Communications, as part of its Shaw Media division...

), and CBKFT
CBKFT
CBKFT-DT is a Canadian French language television station in the province of Saskatchewan. It is owned and operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and is an affiliate of Radio-Canada...

 (SRC
Télévision de Radio-Canada
Télévision de Radio-Canada is a Canadian French language television network. It is owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, known in French as Société Radio-Canada. Headquarters are at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal, which is also home to the network's flagship station, CBFT-DT...

). The Saskatchewan Communications Network and a community channel programmed by Regina's cable provider Access Communications are also available on cable.

A website for Regina events called "Regina After Dark" was set up in early 2009. Prairie Dog has an internet blog.

University of Regina




In the years prior to the establishment of the University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

, there was continued debate as to which Saskatchewan city would be awarded the provincial university: ultimately Saskatoon won out over Regina and in immediate reaction the Methodist Church of Canada
Methodist Church of Canada
The Methodist Church of Canada was a united church formed in 1884 and comprising most former Methodist denominations in Canada including some that had been active along Canada's eastern coast and north of the St...

 established Regina College in 1911. Regina College was initially a denominational high school and junior college affiliated with the University of Saskatchewan — the later-established Campion
Campion College, Regina
Campion College, Regina, Saskatchewan, is a federated, Roman Catholic college of the University of Regina. It is an undergraduate liberal arts college offering courses leading to a bachelor's degree in the arts, sciences and fine arts...

 and Luther Colleges, operated by the Roman Catholic Jesuit Order and Lutheran Church
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada is Canada's largest Lutheran denomination, with 152,788 baptized members in 624 congregations, with the second largest, the Lutheran Church–Canada, having 72,116 baptized members...

 respectively, operated on the same basis. The Church of England
Anglican Church of Canada
The Anglican Church of Canada is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French name is l'Église Anglicane du Canada. The ACC is the third largest church in Canada after the Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada, consisting of 800,000 registered members...

 concurrently established St Chad's College, an Anglican theological training facility, and the Qu'Appelle Diocesan School on the Anglican diocesan property immediately to the east of Regina College on College Avenue. All were quasi-tertiary institutions.


Ultimately, the financially hard-pressed United Church of Canada
United Church of Canada
The United Church of Canada is a Protestant Christian denomination in Canada. It is the largest Protestant church and, after the Roman Catholic Church, the second-largest Christian church in Canada...

 (the successor to the Methodist Church), which in any case had ideological difficulties with the concept of fee-paying private schooling given its longstanding espousal of universal free education from the time of its early father Egerton Ryerson
Egerton Ryerson
Adolphus Egerton Ryerson was a Methodist minister, educator, politician, and public education advocate in early Ontario, Canada...

, could no longer maintain Regina College during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 of the 1930s, and Regina College was disaffiliated from the Church and surrendered to the University of Saskatchewan; it became the Regina Campus of the University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded in 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the...

 in 1961. After a protracted contretemps over the siting of several faculties in Saskatoon which had been promised to the Regina campus, Regina Campus sought and obtained a separate charter as the University of Regina
University of Regina
The University of Regina is a public research university located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Founded in 1911 as a private denominational high school of the Methodist Church of Canada, it began an association with the University of Saskatchewan as a junior college in 1925, and was disaffiliated...

 in 1974.

Campion College
Campion College, Regina
Campion College, Regina, Saskatchewan, is a federated, Roman Catholic college of the University of Regina. It is an undergraduate liberal arts college offering courses leading to a bachelor's degree in the arts, sciences and fine arts...

 and Luther College
Luther College (Saskatchewan)
Luther College is a college and high school located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The university portion of Luther College is located on the campus of the University of Regina and is a federated college. The high school is located at a separate site in the McNab neighbourhood of Northwest Regina...

 now have federated college status in the University of Regina, as does the First Nations University of Canada
First Nations University of Canada
The First Nations University of Canada is a university in Saskatchewan, Canada with campuses in Regina, Saskatoon, and Prince Albert...

; The Anglican St Chad's ultimately consolidated with Emmanuel College on the then-Saskatoon campus of the University of Saskatchewan, the United Church's Regina College having entirely consolidated with the University of Saskatchewan and identified with St Andrew's College there: despite the considerable historical involvement by the Methodist, Presbyterian and Anglican churches in antecedent institutions of the University of Regina, there is perhaps perversely no continuing official United Church or Anglican presence at the University of Regina. The Regina Research Park is located immediately adjacent to the main campus and many of its initiatives in information technology, petroleum and environmental sciences are conducted in conjunction with university departments. A member in the research park is Canada's Petroleum Technology Research facility, a world leader in oil recovery and geological storage of CO2.

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology



The Wascana campus of this province-wide polytechnical institute is adjacent to the University of Regina. It occupies the former Plains Health Centre, previously a third hospital in Regina which in the course of rationalizing health services in Saskatchewan was in due course closed. It offers diplomas in some 175 trade and semi-professional fields ranging from accountancy and auto-mechanical technician through corrections worker, dental hygiene
Dental hygienist
thumb|right|300px|Dental hygienist holding a scalerA dental hygienist is a licensed dental professional who specializes in preventive oral health, typically focusing on techniques in oral hygiene. Local dental regulations determine the scope of practice of dental hygienists...

, driving instructor, nursing and school secretarial qualifications.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Academy, Depot Division



The Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

 Academy
RCMP Academy, Depot Division
RCMP Academy, Depot Division has been providing police training to Royal Canadian Mounted Police "cadets" since its establishment in 1885. The facility is located in the west part of Regina, Saskatchewan, near the airport, and consists of several buildings.In the RCMP's early days, Depot had a...

, "Depot" Division, is on the western perimeter of the city. As capital of the North-West Territories, Regina was the headquarters of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (the RCMP's predecessor) before "the Force" became a national body with its headquarters in Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

 in 1920. The city takes great pride in this national institution which is a major visitor attraction and a continuing link with Regina's past as the headquarters of the Force. The "Depot" Division chapel (the oldest building still standing in the city) is a major visitor attraction in Regina. The first phase of a RCMP Heritage Centre
RCMP Heritage Centre
The RCMP Heritage Centre was officially opened May 23, 2007 in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is owned and operated by an independent nonprofit organization called the Mounted Police Heritage Centre and receives no funding from any level of government...

 opened in May 2007.

Public, separate and private schools



The Regina Public School Board currently operates 45 elementary schools and 9 high schools with approximately 21,000 students enrolled throughout the city. The publicly funded Roman Catholic Separate School
Separate school
In Canada, separate school refers to a particular type of school that has constitutional status in three provinces and statutory status in three territories...

 Board operates 25 elementary schools and 4 high schools, and has a current enrollment of approximately 10,000 students. Public and separate schools are amply equipped with state-of-the-art science labs, gymnasia and drama and arts facilities: already by the 1960s, Regina high schools had television studios, swimming pools, ice rinks and drama facilities. Such schools are regularly built and decommissioned and sold as populations in various residential subdivisions wax and wane.

A small number of parents choose to opt out of the public and separate school systems for home-schooling under the guidance of the Regina Public School Board. Private schools in Regina include Luther College High School, operated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada is Canada's largest Lutheran denomination, with 152,788 baptized members in 624 congregations, with the second largest, the Lutheran Church–Canada, having 72,116 baptized members...

; the Regina Huda School for Islamic education; Harvest City Christian Academy (occupying the former Sister McGuigan High School site); the Western Christian College High School operated by the Churches of Christ (using premises vacated by the former Canadian Bible College); and the Regina Christian School (in the former Campion College premises).

Public transportation



Regina formerly had an extensive streetcar (tramway) network but now has no streetcars, trains or subways. The city's public transit agency, Regina Transit
Regina Transit
Regina Transit is the public transportation agency operated by the city of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is the oldest public transit system in Saskatchewan and has been city-owned since its inception.-History:...

, operates a fleet of 110 buses, on 16 routes, 7 days a week with access to the city centre from most areas of the city. A massive fire at the streetcar barns, on 23 January 1949, destroyed much of the rolling stock of streetcars and trolley buses and helped to propel Regina's diesel bus revolution in 1951, although until well into the 1970s the streetcar rails remained in the centre of many major streets, ready to be returned to use should city transit policy change. Because of the 1949 fire, original Regina streetcar rolling stock was rare, though through later years a few disused streetcars remained in evidence — a streetcar with takeaway food, for example, on the site of the Regina Theatre at 12th Avenue and Hamilton Street, until the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company , abbreviated HBC, or "The Bay" is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and one of the oldest in the world. A fur trading business for much of its existence, today Hudson's Bay Company owns and operates retail stores throughout Canada...

 acquired the site and built its 60s-through-90s department store there.

The CPR
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 no longer operates regular passenger services, though in the past railway passenger trains constituted the principal mode of inter-urban transit among Western Canadian cities. Its former station in downtown Regina — once the urban hub — has become a casino
Casino Regina
Casino Regina is a casino located on Saskatchewan Drive in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It operates in the city's former union station, a Tyndall and ashlar stone structure completed in 1912...

. Nowadays Regina can be reached by several highways including the Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins the ten provinces of Canada. It is, along with the Trans-Siberian Highway and Australia's Highway 1, one of the world's longest national highways, with the main route spanning 8,030 km...

 from the west and east sides and four provincial highways from other directions. The city is served by Ring Road
Ring Road (Regina)
Ring Road is a 4 lane controlled access highway in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is an extension of the Trans-Canada Highway that bypasses the city on the north-east side...

, a high speed connection between Regina's east and northwest that loops around the city's east side (the west side of the loop is formed by Lewvan Drive) with plans calling for another perimeter highway to encircle the city farther out.

Regina International Airport
Regina International Airport
Regina International Airport is an international airport located in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, located south-west and west south-west of the city centre. It is run by the Regina Airport Authority. It is, as of 2010, the second busiest airport in Saskatchewan Regina International Airport is...

 is situated on the west side of the city and is the oldest established commercial airport in Canada. The current, continuingly expanded, 1960 terminal replaces the original 1940 Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 terminal; it has recently undergone further major upgrades and expansions to allow it to handle increases in traffic for the next several years.

Infrastructure



Domestic water, originally obtained from Wascana Lake and later the Boggy Creek reservoir north of the city and supplemented by wells, is supplied from Buffalo Pound Lake in the Qu'Appelle Valley
Qu'Appelle River
The Qu'Appelle River is a Canadian river that flows 430 km east from Lake Diefenbaker in southwestern Saskatchewan to join the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, just south of Lake of the Prairies, near the village of St. Lazare....

, an artificial reservoir on the Qu'Appelle River
Qu'Appelle River
The Qu'Appelle River is a Canadian river that flows 430 km east from Lake Diefenbaker in southwestern Saskatchewan to join the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, just south of Lake of the Prairies, near the village of St. Lazare....

, since 1967 with water diverted into it from Lake Diefenbaker
Lake Diefenbaker
Lake Diefenbaker is a reservoir in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed by the construction of Gardiner Dam and the Qu'Appelle River Dam across the South Saskatchewan and Qu'Appelle Rivers respectively. Construction began in 1959 and the lake was filled in 1967. The lake is long with...

 behind the Gardiner Dam
Gardiner Dam
The Gardiner Dam on the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan is the largest embankment dam in Canada and one of the largest embankment dams in the world...

 on the South Saskatchewan River
South Saskatchewan River
The South Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada that flows through the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan....

. Electricity is provided by SaskPower
SaskPower
Since 1929, SaskPower has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, Canada. Today, it serves more than 473,000 customers and manages $5.3 billion in assets...

, a provincial Crown corporation which maintains a province-wide grid with power generated from coal-fired base load, natural gas-fired, hydroelectric and wind power facilities.

Medical services are provided through two city hospitals, Regina General and Pasqua (formerly Grey Nuns) and by private medical practitioners, who, like hospitals, remit their bills to the public universal medical insurer, the Saskatchewan Medicare system.

Sister cities

Jinan
Jinan
Jinan is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilisation and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub...

, China (the only Official sister City) Fujioka
Fujioka, Gunma
is a city in Gunma, Japan. The city's name means, "Wisteria Hill" in English, and is composed of the two kanji characters for "wisteria" and "Hill" ....

, Japan Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

, South Korea Ndola
Ndola
Ndola is the third largest city in Zambia, with a population of 495,000 . It is the industrial, commercial, on the Copperbelt, Zambia's copper-mining region, and capital of Copperbelt Province. It is also the commercial capital city of Zambia and has one of the three international airports, others...

, Zambia

See also


  • Bethune weather radar
    Canadian weather radar network
    The Canadian weather radar network consists of 31 weather radars spanning Canada's most populated regions. Their primary purpose is the early detection of precipitation, its motion and the threat it poses to life and property...

  • List of cities in Canada
  • HMCS Regina (FFH 334)
    HMCS Regina (FFH 334)
    HMCS Regina is a that has served in the Canadian Forces since 1993. Regina is the fifth vessel in her class which is the name for the Canadian Patrol Frigate Project. She is the second vessel to carry the designation ....

  • HMCS Regina (K234)
    HMCS Regina (K234)
    HMCS Regina was a Royal Canadian Navy Flower-class corvette which took part in convoy escort duties during World War II.She was laid down at Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel on 22 March 1941 and launched on 14 October of that year. She was commissioned into the RCN on 22 January 1942...

  • List of people from Regina, Saskatchewan
  • List of visual artists from Regina, Saskatchewan
  • List of mayors of Regina, Saskatchewan
  • List of tallest buildings in Regina
  • Regina's historic buildings and precincts
    Regina's historic buildings and precincts
    Many historically significant buildings in Regina, Saskatchewan were lost during the period 1945 through approximately 1970 when the urge to "modernize" overtook developers' and city planners' sense of history and heritage...



External links