Quantum information science

Quantum information science

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Quantum information science is an area of study based on the idea that information science depends on quantum effects in physics. It includes theoretical issues in computational models as well as more experimental topics in quantum physics including what can and cannot be done with quantum information
Quantum information
In quantum mechanics, quantum information is physical information that is held in the "state" of a quantum system. The most popular unit of quantum information is the qubit, a two-level quantum system...

. The term quantum information theory is sometimes used, but it fails to encompass experimental research in the area.

Subfields include:
  • Quantum computing
    Quantum computer
    A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from traditional computers based on transistors...

    , which deals on the one hand with the question how and whether one can build a quantum computer
    Quantum computer
    A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from traditional computers based on transistors...

     and on the other hand, algorithms that harness its power (see quantum algorithm
    Quantum algorithm
    In quantum computing, a quantum algorithm is an algorithm which runs on a realistic model of quantum computation, the most commonly used model being the quantum circuit model of computation. A classical algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, or a step-by-step procedure for solving a...

    )
  • Quantum complexity theory
    Quantum complexity theory
    Quantum complexity theory is a part of computational complexity theory in theoretical computer science. It studies complexity classes defined using quantum computers and quantum information which are computational models based on quantum mechanics...

  • Quantum cryptography
    Quantum cryptography
    Quantum key distribution uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages...

     and its generalization, quantum communication
  • Quantum error correction
    Quantum error correction
    Quantum error correction is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise. Quantum error correction is essential if one is to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that can deal not only with noise on stored quantum...

  • Quantum communication complexity
  • Quantum entanglement
    Quantum entanglement
    Quantum entanglement occurs when electrons, molecules even as large as "buckyballs", photons, etc., interact physically and then become separated; the type of interaction is such that each resulting member of a pair is properly described by the same quantum mechanical description , which is...

    , as seen from an information-theoretic point of view
  • Quantum dense coding
  • Quantum teleportation
    Quantum teleportation
    Quantum teleportation, or entanglement-assisted teleportation, is a process by which a qubit can be transmitted exactly from one location to another, without the qubit being transmitted through the intervening space...

     is one well-known quantum information processing operation which reliably transfers an unknown quantum state from one point to another distant point, destroying the original state in the process.

See also

  • No communication theorem
  • Quantum decision tree complexity

External links

  • Quantiki – quantum information science portal and wiki.
  • ERA-Pilot QIST WP1 European roadmap on Quantum Information Processing and Communication
  • QIIC – Quantum Information, Imperial College London.
  • QIP – Quantum Information Group, University of Leeds. The quantum information group at the University of Leeds is engaged in researching a wide spectrum of aspects of quantum information. This ranges from algorithms, quantum computation, to physical implementations of information processing and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. Also contains some basic tutorials for the lay audience.
  • CQIST Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology at the University of Southern California
  • CQuIC Center for Quantum Information and Control, including theoretical and experimental groups from University of New Mexico, University of Arizona.