Qinghai

Qinghai

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{{other uses}} {{Contains Chinese text}} Qinghai ({{Audio|zh-Qinghai.ogg|listen}}) ({{zh-full | {{zh|青海}} | {{zh-pinyin|Qīnghǎi}} | {{zh-wade|Ching Hai}} }}, tɕʰíŋxàɪ̯); [[Oirat language|Oirat Mongolian]]: {{Lang|xal|Көкнуур}} (transcribed into Cyrillic); {{bo|t=མཚོ་སྔོན་}}; [[Salar language|Salar]]:{{citation needed|date=November 2011}}) is a [[provinces of China|province]] of the [[People's Republic of China]], named after [[Qinghai Lake]]. It borders [[Gansu]] on the northeast, the [[Xinjiang|Xinjiang Autonomous Region]] on the northwest, [[Sichuan]] on the southeast, and [[Tibet Autonomous Region]] on the southwest.

History

A large part of Qinghai, until the early 20th century most often referred to by its Mongol name Kokonur in English, lies outside of [[China proper]] and has been an ethnic melting pot for centuries, mixing [[Tibetan people|Tibetan]], [[Mongols|Mongol]], [[Turkic peoples|Turkic]], [[Han Chinese]] influences. Although it preserved cultural and ethnic ties with central Tibet, it was ruled by local authorities during the last several centuries. It was a battleground during the [[Tang Dynasty|Tang]] and subsequent Chinese dynasties when they fought against successive [[History of Tibet|Tibetan tribes]]. In the middle of 3rd century CE, nomadic people related to [[Xianbei]] migrated to pasture lands around [[Koko Nur]] (Qinghai Lake) and established [[Tuyuhun Kingdom]]. Since the 7th century, [[Tuyuhun Kingdom]] was attacked by both [[Tibetan Empire]] and [[Tang Dynasty]] as both of them sought control over trade routes. Military conflicts severely weakened the kingdom and it was incorporated into [[Tibetan Empire]]. After the disintegration of [[Tibetan Empire]], small local factions emerged. They were under titular authority of China and Tibet but maintained their autonomy. During the Mogolian rule, majority of Qinghai belonged to one of the three commandaries of Tibet, [[Amdo]]. Tibetans reclaimed their independence from [[Yuan Dynasty]] in middle 14th century. [[Ming Dynasty]] claimed to have succeeded Mongol's authority over Tibet and remained as nominal ruler of the modern Qinghai region. The Salars, who now live in the eastern outskirt of Qinhai province ([[Xunhua Salar Autonomous County]]), joined the Ming Dynasty around 1370, although the clans remained virtually independent in administration. From the late Ming to 1724, a big part of the area that is now Qinghai was under [[Khoshut]] Mongol control, but in that year it was conquered by the armies of the [[Qing Dynasty]]. It was during 1720s when Xining Prefecture was established, despite its closeness to the rest of the Tibet, and its borders were roughly those of nowaday Qinghai province. [[Xining]], the capital of modern Qinghai province was built in this period as the administrative center. During the rule of [[Qing Dynasty]], the governor was a viceroy of the Qing Emperor, but the local Tibetans and other ethnic groups enjoyed much autonomy. Many chiefs retained retained their traditional authority, participating in local administrations. The [[Dungan revolt (1895–1896)]] broke out in Qinghai in 1895. Following the [[Xinhai Revolution|overthrow of the Qing Dynasty]], the region came under Chinese Muslim warlord [[Ma Qi]] control until the [[Northern Expedition]] by the [[Republic of China]] consolidated central control in 1928. [[File:Chiang Kai-shek on right Ma Buqing on left Ma Bufang second from left.png|thumb|250px|left|Political and military leader of [[History of the Republic of China|Nationalist China]] [[Chiang Kai-shek]](right) meets with the Muslim Generals [[Ma Bufang]] (second from left), and [[Ma Buqing]](first from left) in [[Xining]], Qinghai at August 1942.]] In July- August 1912, General [[Ma Fuxiang]] was "Acting Chief Executive Officer of Kokonur" (de facto Governof of the region that later became Qinghai). In 1928, Qinghai province was created. Previoiusly, it was part of Gansu province, as the "Tibetan frontier district". The Muslim warlord and General [[Ma Qi]] became military governor of Qinghai, followed by his brother [[Ma Lin (warlord)]] and then Ma Qi's son [[Ma Bufang]]. Subsequently it became the primary base for the [[Muslim]] warlord Ma Bufang, before the [[Chinese Civil War]] ended and the [[People's Republic of China]] established with control over Qinghai and most of the rest of [[mainland China]] in 1949. In 1932 [[Qinghai–Tibet War|Tibet invaded Qinghai]], attempting to capture parts of southern Qinghai province, following contention in [[Yushu]], Qinghai over a monastery in 1932. The army of Ma Bufang's defeated the Tibetan armies. Governor of Qinghai, [[Ma Bufang]] was described as a [[Chinese socialism|socialist]] by American journalist [[John Roderick (correspondent)|John Roderick]] and friendly compared to the other Ma Clique warlords. Ma Bufang was reported to be good humoured and jovial in contrast to the brutal reign of [[Ma Hongkui]]. Most of eastern China was ravaged by the [[Second Sino Japanese war]] the Chinese Civil, by contrast, Qinghai was relatively untouched. An American scholar and government advisor, Doak Barnett, praised Ma Bufang's government as "one of the most efficient in China, and one of the most energetic. While most of China is bogged down, almost inevitably, by Civil War, Chinghai is attempting to carry out small-scale, but nevertheless ambitious, development and reconstruction schemes on its own initiative" General Ma started a state run and controlled industralization project, directly creating educational, medical, agricultural, and sanitation projects, run or assisted by the state. The state provided money for food and uniforms in all schools, state run or private. Roads and a theater were constructed. The state controlled all the press, no freedom was allowed for independent journalists. His regime was dictatoral in its political system. Barnett admitted that the regime had "sterm authoritarianism" and "little room for personal freedom".

Geography

[[Image:Qinghai Cross Section.jpg|thumb|left|Satellite cross section of Qinghai.]] Qinghai is located on the northeastern part of the [[Tibetan Plateau]]. The [[Yellow River]] (Huang He) originates in southern part of the province, while the [[Yangtze River|Yangtze]] and [[Mekong]] have their sources in the southwestern part. The average elevation of Qinghai is over 3000 meters above sea level. Mountain ranges include the [[Tanggula Mountains]] and [[Kunlun Mountains]]. Its average temperature is approximately {{convert|−5|to|8|°C|°F|0}}, with January temperatures ranging from {{convert|−18|to|−7|°C|°F|0}} and July temperatures ranging from {{convert|15|to|21|°C|°F|0}}. It is also prone to heavy winds as well as [[Dust storm|sandstorms]] from February to April. By area, Qinghai is the largest province in China - excluding [[Autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China|autonomous regions]], which are technically not provinces; but if they were, [[Xinjiang]] would be the largest. [[Qinghai Lake]] (Koko Nor) is the largest salt water lake in China, and the second largest in the world. {{citation needed|date=November 2010}} [[Qaidam|Qaidam basin]] lies in northwestern Qinghai. About a third of this resource rich basin is desert. The basin has an altitude between 3000 to 3500 meters. The [[Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve]] (SNNR), also referred to as the Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve, or the Three Rivers Nature Reserve, is the area of Qinghai province, PRC which contains the headwaters of the Yellow River (Huang He), the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), and the Mekong River (Lancang Jiang). The SNNR was established to protect the headwaters of these three rivers. The reserve consists of 18 subareas, each containing three zones which are managed with differing degrees of strictness.

Politics

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Secretaries of the [[Communist Party of China|CPC]] Qinghai Committee
OrderNameChinese NameGovernance period
1[[Zhang Zhongliang]]张仲良1949–1954
2[[Zhao Shoushan]]赵寿山1952
3[[Gao Feng]]{{Disambiguation needed|date=June 2011}}高峰1954–1961
4[[Wang Zhao]]王昭1961–1962
5[[Yang Zhilin]]杨植霖1962–1966
6[[Liu Xianquan]]刘贤权1967–1977
7[[Tan Qilong]]谭启龙1977–1979
8[[Liang Buting]]梁步庭1979–1982
9[[Zhao Haifeng]]赵海峰1982–1985
10[[Yin Kesheng]]尹克升1985–1997
11[[Tian Chengping]]田成平1997–1999
12[[Bai Enpei]]白恩培1999–2001
13[[Su Rong]]苏荣2001–2003
14[[Zhao Leji]]赵乐际2003–2007
15[[Qiang Wei]]强卫2007-incumbent
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Governors of Qinghai
OrderNameChinese NameGovernance period
1[[Zhao Shoushan]]赵寿山1950–1952
2[[Zhang Zhongliang]]张仲良1952–1954
3[[Sun Zuobin]]孙作宾1954–1958
4[[Sun Junyi]]孙君一1958
5[[Yuan Renyuan]]袁任远1958–1962
6[[Wang Zhao]]王昭1962–1967
7[[Liu Xianquan]]刘贤权1967–1977
8[[Tan Qilong]]谭启龙1977–1979
9[[Zhang Guosheng]]张国声1979–1982
10[[Huang Jingbo]]黄静波1982–1985
11[[Song Ruixiang]]宋瑞祥1985–1989
12[[Jin Jipeng]]金基鹏1989–1992
13[[Tian Chengping]]田成平1992–1997
14[[Bai Enpei]]白恩培1997–1999
15[[Zhao Leji]]赵乐际1999–2003
16[[Yang Chuantang]]杨传堂2003–2004
17[[Song Xiuyan]]宋秀岩2004–2010
18[[Luo Huining]]骆惠宁2010
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Administrative divisions

{{main|List of administrative divisions of Qinghai}} Qinghai is administratively divided into one [[prefecture-level city]], one [[prefecture of China|prefecture]], and six [[autonomous prefecture]]s: NEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINE
Map # Name [[Hanzi]] [[Hanyu Pinyin]] Administrative Seat Population ([[Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China|2010]])
[[File:Qinghai prfc map.png|400px]]
— [[Prefecture-level city]] —
3[[Xining]]西宁市Xīníng Shì[[Chengzhong District, Xining|Chengzhong District]]2,208,708
— [[Prefecture (China)|Prefecture]] —
4[[Haidong Prefecture|Haidong]]海东地区Hǎidōng Dìqū[[Ping'an County]]1,396,846
— [[Autonomous prefectures of China|Autonomous prefecture]] —
1[[Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Haixi (Mongol & Tibetan)]]海西蒙古族藏族自治州Hǎixī Měnggǔzú Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu[[Delingha]]489,338
2[[Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Haibei (Tibetan)]]海北藏族自治州Hǎiběi Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu[[Haiyan County, Qinghai|Haiyan County]]273,304
5[[Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Hainan (Tibetan)]]海南藏族自治州Hǎinán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu[[Gonghe County]]441,689
6[[Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Huangnan (Tibetan)]]黄南藏族自治州Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu[[Tongren County]]256,716
7[[Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Yushu (Tibetan)]]玉树藏族自治州Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu[[Yushu County]]378,439
8[[Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Golog (Tibetan)]]果洛藏族自治州Guǒluò Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu[[Maqên County]]181,682
NEWLINENEWLINE All of these are in turn divided into four [[district of China|districts]], two [[county-level city|county-level cities]], thirty [[County (People's Republic of China)|counties]], and seven [[autonomous county|autonomous counties]].

Economy

[[File:Oil well in Tsaidam.jpg|thumb|left|Oil well in [[Tsaidam]] (Qaidam), Qinghai]] Qinghai's economy is amongst the smallest in all of China. Its nominal GDP for 2009 was just 108.1 billion RMB (US$15.8 billion) and contributes to about 0.3% of the entire country's economy. Per capita GDP was 19,407 RMB (US$2,841), the second lowest in China. Its heavy industry includes iron and steel production, located near its capital city of Xining. Oil and natural gas from the [[Chaidamu Basin]] have also been an important contributor to the economy. Outside of the provincial capital, Xining, most of Qinghai remains underdeveloped. Qinghai ranks second lowest in China in terms of highway length, and will require a significant expansion of its infrastructure to capitalize on the economic potential of its rich natural resources.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

* [[Xining]] Economic & Technological Development Zone Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone (XETDZ) was approved as state-level development zone in July 2000. It has a planned area of 4.4 square kilometers. XETDZ lies in the east of Xining, the capital city of Qinghai Province, 5 kilometers away from downtown. Located in the east of the province, Xining stands at the upper reaches of the Huangshui River-one of the Yellow River's branches. The city is surrounded by the mountains with an average elevation of 2261 meters and the highest at 4393 meters. Xining Economic and Technological Development Zone (XETDZ) is the first of its kind at the national level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is established to fulfill the nation's strategy of developing the west. XETDZ enjoys a convenient transportation system, connected by the Xining-Lanzhou expressway and run through by two main roads, the broadest roads of the city. It is 4 kilometers away from the railway station, 15 kilometers from Xi'ning Airport, a grade 4D airport with 14 airlines to other cities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu and Xi'an. Xining is Qinghai province's passage to the outside world, a transportation center with more than ten highways, over one hundred roads and two railways, Lanzhou-Qinghai and Qinghai-Tibet Railways in and out of the city. It focuses on the development of following industries: chemicals based on salt lake resources, nonferrous metals, and petroleum and natural gas processing; special medicine, foods and bio-chemicals using local plateau animals and plants; new products involving ecological and environmental protection, high technology, new materials as well as information technology; and services such as logistics, banking, real estate, tourism, hotel, catering, agency and international trade.

Demographics

[[File:Dongguan mosque.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The [[Dongguan Mosque]] in Qinghai]] The population of Qinghai is approximately 5.2 million, among which the [[Han Chinese|Han]] account for 54.5%. Other groups include the [[Tibetan people|Tibetans]] 20.87%, [[Hui people|Hui]] 16%, [[Monguor|Tu]] (Monguor) 4%, [[Salar people|Salar]], and [[Mongol]]s.

Culture

Qinghai's culture is heavily influenced by China proper and Tibet, given the close proximities as well as a shared history.

Transportation

{{See also|Transport in the People's Republic of China}} The [[Lanqing Railway]], running between [[Lanzhou]], [[Gansu]] and [[Xining]], the province's capital, was completed in 1959 and is the major transportation route in and out of the province. A continuation of the line, the [[Qinghai-Tibet Railway]] via [[Golmud]] and western Qinghai, has become one of the most ambitious projects in PRC history. It was completed in October 2005 and now links Tibet with the rest of China through Qinghai. Six [[China National Highways|National Highways]] run through the province. [[Xining Caojiabu Airport]] provides service to [[Beijing]], [[Lanzhou]], [[Golmud]] and [[Delingha]]. Smaller regional airports, such as [[Golmud Airport]] and [[Yushu Batang Airport]], serve some of the local centers of the far-flung province; plans exist for the construction of three more by 2020.

Telecommunications

{{see also|Telecommunications industry in China}} Since the [[Ministry of Information Industry]] began its "Access to Telephones Project", Qinghai has invested 640 million yuan to provide [[telephone]] access to 3860 out its 4133 administrative villages. At the end of 2006, 299 towns had received [[Internet access]]. However, 6.6 percent of villages in the region still have no access to the telephone. These villages are mainly scattered in [[Qingnan]] Area, with 90 percent of them located in [[Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Yushu]] and [[Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture|Guoluo]]. The average altitude of these areas exceeds 3600 meters, and the poor natural conditions hamper the establishment of [[telecommunication]] facilities in the region. [[Satellite phone]]s have been provided to 186 remote villages in Qinghai Province as of September 14, 2007. The areas benefited were Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Qinghai has recently been provided with satellite telephone access. In June 2007, [[China Satcom]] carried out an in-depth survey in Yushu and Guoluo, and made a special satellite phones for these areas. Two phones were provided to each village for free, and calls were charged at the rate of 0.2 [[Renminbi|yuan]] per minute for both local and national calls, with the extra charges assumed by China Satcom. No monthly rent was charged on the satellite phone. International calls were also available.

Tourism

[[Image:qinghai lake.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Qinghai Lake]] from space, November 1994.]] Many tourist attractions center on [[Xining]], the provincial seat of Qinghai. During the hot summer months, many tourists from the hot Southern and Eastern parts of China travel to Xining, as the climate of Xining in July and August is quite mild and comfortable, making the city an ideal summer retreat. [[Qinghai Lake]] ({{lang|zh-s|青海湖}}, qīnghǎi hú) is another tourist attraction, albeit further from Xining than [[Kumbum]]. The lake is the largest saltwater lake in China, and is also located on the "Roof of the World," the Tibetan Plateau. The lake itself lies at 3,600m elevation. The surrounding area is made up of rolling [[grassland]]s and populated by ethnic Tibetans. Most pre-arranged tours stop at Bird Island ({{lang|zh-s|鸟岛}}, niǎo dǎo). An international bicycle race takes place annually from Xining to Qinghai Lake.

Colleges and universities

*[[Qinghai University]] (青海大学) *[[Qinghai Radio & Television University]] Also see [[List of universities and colleges in Qinghai]]

See also

*[[2010 Yushu earthquake]] *[[Geladandong]] *[[Haplogroup D1 (Y-DNA)]] *[[Haplogroup O3 (Y-DNA)]] *[[Tectonic summary of Qinghai Province]]

External links

{{commons|Qinghai}} *[http://www.qh.gov.cn/ Qinghai Government website] {{Geographic location |Centre = Qinghai |North = |Northeast = [[Gansu]] |East = |Southeast = [[Sichuan]] |South = |Southwest = [[Tibet Autonomous Region]] |West = |Northwest = [[Xingjiang]] }} {{Qinghai topics}} {{Qinghai}} {{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}