Pythodoris II

Pythodoris II

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Pythodoris II or Pythodorida II was client ruler in association with her cousin Rhoemetalces III
Rhoemetalces III
Rhoemetalces III was a King of the Thracians. He was the son of the Monarch Rhescuporis II. He in association with his cousin-wife Pythodoris II were client rulers of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from 38 to 46, in succession to Pythodoris’ mother Tryphaena and her brother...

 of the Odrysian kingdom
Odrysian kingdom
The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC. It consisted largely of present-day Bulgaria, spreading to parts of Northern Dobruja, parts of Northern Greece and modern-day European Turkey...

 of Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

 under the Romans from 38 to 46, in succession to her mother Antonia Tryphaena
Antonia Tryphaena
Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace....

 and brother Rhoemetalces II
Rhoemetalces II
Rhoemetalces II was a Client Ruler in association with his mother Antonia Tryphaena of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from 18 to 38. On coinage his royal title is in Greek:ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΑΣ or of King Rhoemetalces...

. She was a daughter of Tryphaena and the former Thracian King Cotys VIII, and was named after her maternal grandparents and her paternal grandmother.

In 38, after the death of Rhoemetalces II, Tryphaena abdicated the throne at the request of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

Caligula , also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most...

. Caligula put Rhoemetalces III on the Thracian throne. Rhescuporis II
Rhescuporis II
Rhescuporis II was king of half of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 12 to 18, in succession to his brother Rhoemetalces I, and briefly ruler of the entire realm thereafter, usurping the other half from nephew Cotys VIII. He was a son of the earlier Thracian king Cotys VI and the younger brother...

 who was the father of Rhoemetalces III, had murdered and usurped the throne of Pythodoris' father. Caligula and Tryphaena arranged for Pythodoris to marry Rhoemetalces III to repair past dynastic rifts. The plan did not succeed. Pythodoris II and Rhoemetalces III reigned together as client rulers of Thrace from 38 until 46, when the latter was murdered by insurgents or on the orders of his wife. The subsequent fate of Pythodoris II is unknown; she seems not to have any children with her cousin. Pythodoris and Rhoemetalces III were the last monarchs of Thrace; under the Roman Emperor Claudius
Claudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...

, the kingdom was made a Roman province.

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