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Puncak Trikora

Puncak Trikora

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Puncak Trikora, until 1963 Wilhelmina Peak, is a 4730 or 4750 m (15,584 ft) high mountain in the Papua province
Papua (Indonesian province)
Papua comprises most of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. Its capital is Jayapura. It's the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia. The province originally covered the entire western half of New Guinea...

 of Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 on New Guinea
New Guinea
New Guinea is the world's second largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 786,000 km2. Located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, it lies geographically to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago...

. It lies in the eastern part of the Sudirman (Nassau) Range
Sudirman Range
The Sudirman Range or Dugunduguoo or Nassau Range is a mountain range in Papua province, Indonesia.Located at , it comprises a western portion of the Maoke Mountains. The highest peak in Oceania and Australasia, Puncak Jaya , is located here, as well as the large Grasberg copper and gold mine,...

 of the Maoke Mountains. Behind Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid is the highest summit of Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua province, Indonesia . Other summits are East Carstensz Peak and Ngga Pulu...

 (Carstensz Pyramid) at 4884 m (16,024 ft), it is either the second or third highest mountain on the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
New Guinea is the world's second largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 786,000 km2. Located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, it lies geographically to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago...

 and the Australasia
Australasia
Australasia is a region of Oceania comprising Australia, New Zealand, the island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. The term was coined by Charles de Brosses in Histoire des navigations aux terres australes...

n continent. As such it appears on some Seven Second Summits
Seven Second Summits
The Seven Second Summits are the second highest mountains of each of the seven continents. All of these mountain peaks are separate peaks rather than a sub-peak of the continents' high point...

 lists, although SRTM-data support that Puncak Mandala (Juliana Peak)
Puncak Mandala
Puncak Mandala , is a mountain located in Papua, Indonesia. Following Mount Carstensz 350 km to the east, Mandala is the second highest freestanding mountain of Oceania, Australasia, New Guinea and Indonesia.-Further reading:* at GunungBagging.com...

 in the Jayawijaya (Orange) Range
Jayawijaya Mountains
The Jayawijaya Mountains, formerly known as the Orange Range, are the eastern mountain range of the Maoke Mountains in the central highlands region of the Indonesian part of New Guinea. The range extends for 230 miles east of the Sudirman Range to the Star Mountains. Its highest point is Trikora...

 is higher with 4760 m (15,617 ft).

Glaciation


Puncak Trikora was covered by an ice cap
Ice cap
An ice cap is an ice mass that covers less than 50 000 km² of land area . Masses of ice covering more than 50 000 km² are termed an ice sheet....

 that melted between 1936 and 1962. In 1909 the ice cap still reached as low as 4400 m (14,436 ft).

History


The navigable Noord River
Lorentz River
The Lorentz River is located in Western New Guinea, Indonesia. It originates in the central east-west mountain range of New Guinea, and flows southwards into the Arafura Sea at Flamingo Bay. During the first two Dutch expeditions to Southern New Guinea it was called Northern River...

 made the mountain more accessible than the other snow covered peaks of Dutch New Guinea and the Dutch organized a series of scientific expeditions in the early 20th century to reach the equatorial eternal snow and climb the mountain. The leader of the first two expeditions was the diplomat and amateur biologist H.A. Lorentz
Hendrikus Albertus Lorentz
Hendrikus Albertus Lorentz was a Dutch explorer in New Guinea and diplomat in South Africa....

. Each expediton was accompanied by soldiers, porters and dayak
Dayak people
The Dayak or Dyak are the native people of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily...

s, who were employed for their expertise with boat journeys.

In July 1907, the first expedition established Camp Alkmaar
Alkmaar
Alkmaar is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of Noord Holland. Alkmaar is well known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination.-History:...

near where the Noord River, since 1910 known as the Lorentz River
Lorentz River
The Lorentz River is located in Western New Guinea, Indonesia. It originates in the central east-west mountain range of New Guinea, and flows southwards into the Arafura Sea at Flamingo Bay. During the first two Dutch expeditions to Southern New Guinea it was called Northern River...

, became unnavigable (4°40′S 138°42′E), but was unsuccessful in penetrating to the highest mountain range. The Second South New Guinea Expedition also used Camp Alkmaar, from where it left on October 9, 1909. A group of nine, including Lorentz and Jan Willem van Nouhuys, were the first to reach the eternal snow of New Guinea at a height of 4460 m (14,633 ft) on November 8, 1909. From the ridge they observed a large lake to the north, which Lorentz named Lake Habbema (4°08′S 138°40′E), after a member of the expedition. No attempt was made to reach the Wilhelmina summit. The return trip was severe; with a loss of four expedition members, the explorers finally returned to Camp Alkmaar in mid-december.

The summit was first reached in 1913 during the Third South New Guinea Expedition, which lasted from September 1912 to April 1913 and followed the same route. It was led by Alphons Franssen Herderschee, an officer of the Royal Dutch East Indies Leger (Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indisch Leger), and its aim was to research the soils, flora and fauna of the region that lay above 2,300 metres. Other expedition members were the zoologist Gerard Martinus Versteeg, the botanist August Adriaan Pulle
August Adriaan Pulle
August Adrian Pulle was a Dutch professor and botanist. He made important contributions to knowledge of the Flora of Suriname and the island of New Guinea.-Education:...

, the geologist Paul François Hubrecht, and J.B. Sitanala, an Indonesian GP
General practitioner
A general practitioner is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities...

. Herderschee also took over the role of ethnographer. Including soldiers, porters and dayaks, the baggage train had 241 members. They were divided up into several groups in order to carry out the different tasks in a time-effective way. Herderschee, Hubrecht and Versteeg formed the summit team, which reached the Wilhelminatop on 21 February 1913.

The 1920-1922 Central New Guinea Expedition
Central New Guinea Expedition
The Central New Guinea Expedition was a Dutch scientific expedition which was seeking from the north coast of the island to reach snow-covered Wilhelminatop of the Central Plateau of Dutch New Guinea...

 had as goal to reach the mountain from the north coast over a route partially explored in a 1914 military expedition. On February 7, 1920 the first exploration, under leadership of A.J.A. van Overeem started at the mouth of the Mamberamo and followed the Idenburg River. In October, they had climbed across the Doorman Mtns and reached the upper Swart Valley (now Toli Valley). Here they made first contact with the Lani people (a.k.a. the Western Dani people
Dani People
The Dani people, also spelled Ndani, and sometimes conflated with the Lani group to the west, are a people from the central highlands of western New Guinea ....

), an agricultural people with whom they stayed for six weeks. Running out of time and food provisions, this expedition returned without climbing Wilhelmina. A follow-up expedition starting in June 1921 and led by J.H.G. Kremer, who was surveyor the previous year, retraced the route, and via the upper Baliem Valley
Baliem Valley
The Baliem Valley, also spelled Balim Valley and sometimes known as the Grand Valley, of the highlands of Western New Guinea, is occupied by the Dani people. The main town in the valley is Wamena...

 and Lake Habbema reached the summit on 4 December 1921. Among the ascendants was Paul Hubrecht, who had been on the top in 1913 and noticed that the ice cap had retreated considerably since 8 years before.

Name


The Dani
Dani People
The Dani people, also spelled Ndani, and sometimes conflated with the Lani group to the west, are a people from the central highlands of western New Guinea ....

 living near lake Habbema call the mountain Ettiakup. Around 1905 the mountain was named after the Dutch Queen Wilhelmina
Queen Wilhelmina
Queen Wilhelmina may refer to:*Wilhelmine of Prussia , Queen consort of the Netherlands 1815–1837*Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Queen of the Netherlands 1890–1948...

. When Indonesia obtained control of West New Guinea in 1963 it changed the name of the mountain to Puncak Trikora, after the Trikora (Tri Komando Rakyat, "People’s Triple Command") speech by Sukarno
Sukarno
Sukarno, born Kusno Sosrodihardjo was the first President of Indonesia.Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia's first President from 1945 to 1967...

 given in December 1961 at a mass meeting in Yogyakarta. The three commands were: to defeat the formation of an independent state of West Papua, raise the Indonesian flag in that country, and be ready for mobilization at any time.

See also

  • List of highest mountains of New Guinea
  • List of Southeast Asian mountains
  • Puncak Mandala
    Puncak Mandala
    Puncak Mandala , is a mountain located in Papua, Indonesia. Following Mount Carstensz 350 km to the east, Mandala is the second highest freestanding mountain of Oceania, Australasia, New Guinea and Indonesia.-Further reading:* at GunungBagging.com...


External links