Provisional government

Provisional government

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A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a very large government. The early provisional governments were created to prepare for the return of royal rule. Irregularly convened assemblies during the English Revolution
English Revolution
"English Revolution" has been used to describe two different events in English history. The first to be so called—by Whig historians—was the Glorious Revolution of 1688, whereby James II was replaced by William III and Mary II as monarch and a constitutional monarchy was established.In the...

, such as Confederate Ireland
Confederate Ireland
Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. During this time, two-thirds of Ireland was governed by the Irish Catholic Confederation, also known as the "Confederation of Kilkenny"...

 (1641-49), were described as "provisional." The practice of using "provisional government" as part of a formal name can be traced to Talleyrand's government in France in 1814. The numerous provisional governments during the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It was the first Europe-wide collapse of traditional authority, but within a year reactionary...

 gave the word its modern meaning: A liberal government established to prepare for elections. The most notable provisional government was the Russian Provisional Government
Russian Provisional Government
The Russian Provisional Government was the short-lived administrative body which sought to govern Russia immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II . On September 14, the State Duma of the Russian Empire was officially dissolved by the newly created Directorate, and the country was...

 in 1917.
These governments are unelected, usually unstable or at war with another party for power. In a time of crisis a collapsed government may reform under a coalition. In Somalia a coalition has formed to combat the tyrant rule in southern Somalia.
  • Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)
    Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)
    The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912...

    , established after the success of the Wuchang uprising
    Wuchang Uprising
    The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

    .
  • Provisional Government of Northern Epirus (1914), established against annexation to Albania
    Principality of Albania
    The Principality of Albania refers to the short-lived monarchy in Albania, headed by William, Prince of Albania and to the state after the First World War, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1925, when Albania was declared a republic.-Principality:The Principality was established on February...

    .
  • Provisional Government of India
    Provisional Government of India
    Provisional Government of India was a provisional government-in-exile established by Indian Nationalists in Afghanistan during World War I with support from the Central Powers. Its purpose was to enroll support from both the Afghan Emir, as well as Tsarist Russia, China and Japan for the Indian...

     (1915), established in Kabul
    Kabul
    Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

    .
  • Provisional Government of the Irish Republic
    Provisional Government of the Irish Republic
    In the Easter Rising in Dublin on 24 April 1916, the Proclamation of the Irish Republic read by Patrick Pearse was headed and signed as being issued by the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic...

     (1916), a title adopted by the leadership of the short-lived Easter Rising
    Easter Rising
    The Easter Rising was an insurrection staged in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans with the aims of ending British rule in Ireland and establishing the Irish Republic at a time when the British Empire was heavily engaged in the First World War...

    .
  • Provisional Government of National Defense (northern Greece), 1916
  • Russian Provisional Government
    Russian Provisional Government
    The Russian Provisional Government was the short-lived administrative body which sought to govern Russia immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II . On September 14, the State Duma of the Russian Empire was officially dissolved by the newly created Directorate, and the country was...

     (1917), established as a result of the February Revolution
    February Revolution
    The February Revolution of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. Centered around the then capital Petrograd in March . Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the end of the Romanov dynasty, and the end of the Russian Empire...

     which overthrew Tsar
    Tsar
    Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism...

     Nicholas II
    Nicholas II of Russia
    Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Prince of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church.Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until...

    .
  • Estonian Provisional Government
    Estonian Provisional Government
    The Estonian Provisional Government was formed on February 24, 1918 by the Salvation Committee appointed by Maapäev the Estonian Province Assembly. The Provisional Government was led by Konstantin Päts...

     (1918-1919)
  • Ukrainian Provisional Government
    Hetmanate
    The Ukrainian State or The Hetmanate was a short-lived polity in Ukraine, installed by Ukrainian Cossacks and military organizations under the support of the Central Powers, after disbanding the Central Rada of the Ukrainian National Republic on 28 April 1918.-History:On April 29, 1918 the head...

     (1918).
  • Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
    Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
    The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was the partially recognised government in exile of Korea, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chongqing, during the Colonial Korea.-History:...

     (1919), established in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea.
  • Provisional Government of Southern Ireland
    Provisional Government of Southern Ireland
    The provisional Government of Southern Ireland was the provisional government for the administration of Southern Ireland between 16 January 1922 and 6 December 1922. The government was effectively a transitional administration for the period between the ratifying of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the...

     (1922), established by agreement between the British government and Irish revolutionaries, in order to pave the way for the establishment of the Irish Free State
    Irish Free State
    The Irish Free State was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by the British government and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand...

     in the same year.
  • Provisional Government of Lithuania (1941), established when Lithuanians overthrew the Soviet
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

     occupation during the Lithuanian 1941 independence
    Lithuanian 1941 independence
    The June Uprising was a brief period in the history of Lithuania between the first Soviet and Nazi occupations in June 1941. Approximately one year earlier, on June 15, 1940, the Red Army invaded Lithuania and the unpopular Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was soon established. Political...

    . It functioned briefly until Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

     annexed the country.
  • Provisional Government of Free India (1943-1945), established by Indian nationalists in Axis controlled Indian territory in southeast Asia. It had diplomatic relationships with nine countries.
  • Provisional Government of Italy (1944)
  • Provisional Government of Hungary (1944-1945)
  • Provisional Government of the French Republic
    Provisional Government of the French Republic
    The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946, following the fall of Vichy France and prior to the Fourth French Republic....

     (1944-46)
  • Provisional government of Israel
    Provisional government of Israel
    The provisional government of Israel was the temporary cabinet which governed Israel from shortly before independence until the formation of the first government in March 1949 following the first Knesset elections in January that year....

     (1948-49), established after Israel's declaration of independence and in place until after the first Knesset elections
    Israeli legislative election, 1949
    Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held in newly independent Israel on 25 January 1949. Voter turnout was 86.9%. Two days after its first meeting on 14 February 1949, legislators voted to change the name of the body to the Knesset...

    .
  • Provisional Government of the Syrian Arab Republic
    Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

     (1949), established by national consensus to draft a new constitution and reintroduce civilian rule after a series of military governments.
  • Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic
    Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic
    The Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic was the government-in-exile of the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence .- Creation and purpose :The GPRA was set up in Cairo, Egypt, by the FLN on September 19, 1958, four years...

     (1958-62) (guerrilla movement)
  • Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (1969-1976) (established during the war
    Vietnam War
    The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

     against America and Republic of Vietnam
  • Provisional government of Bangladesh (1970-1972), established after the declaration of freedom of Bengalis exiled to Calcutta.
  • National Transitional Council of Libya
    National Transitional Council
    The National Transitional Council of Libya , sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, the Interim National Council, or the Libyan National Council,...

     formed during the 2011 civil war
    2011 Libyan civil war
    The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

     in Libya
    Libya
    Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

     against the Gaddafi-led government.


Provisional governments were also established throughout Europe as occupied nations were liberated from Nazi occupation by the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

.

See also

  • Flensburg Government
    Flensburg government
    The Flensburg Government , also known as the Flensburg Cabinet and the Dönitz Government , was the short-lived administration that attempted to rule the Third Reich during most of May 1945 at the end of World War II in Europe...

     (1945), established following the suicides of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels during the closing days of the Third Reich.
  • Administration for Western Armenia
    Administration for Western Armenia
    The Administration for Western Armenia was an temporary Armenian provisional government between 1915 and 1918, with the autonomous region initially set up around Lake Van after the Siege of Van of the Caucasus Campaign, with the leadership of Aram Manukian of Armenian Revolutionary Federation. It...

     (1915), established in Van Province
    Van Province
    Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010....

    .
  • South West Caucasian Republic (1919), established in Kars
    Kars
    Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. The population of the city is 73,826 as of 2010.-Etymology:As Chorzene, the town appears in Roman historiography as part of ancient Armenia...

    .
  • Articles of Confederation
    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution...

     (1777-1787), the supreme law in America established during the American Revolution
    American Revolution
    The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

     until the ratification of the United States Constitution
    United States Constitution
    The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

     in 1788.
  • National Council of Government
    National Council of Government
    The National Council of Government was the ruling body of Haiti from 1986 to 1988. The council was first established on February 7, 1986 as a joint military and civilian provisional government following the exile of President for Life Jean-Claude Duvalier. The council consisted of a President,...

     (1986-1988), interim ruling body of Haiti
    Haiti
    Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti , is a Caribbean country. It occupies the western, smaller portion of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Ayiti was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island...

    , after the departure of Jean-Claude Duvalier
    Jean-Claude Duvalier
    Jean-Claude Duvalier, nicknamed "Bébé Doc" or "Baby Doc" was the President of Haiti from 1971 until his overthrow by a popular uprising in 1986. He succeeded his father, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier, as the ruler of Haiti upon his father's death in 1971...

  • National Salvation Front (1989), after the overthrow of Nicolae Ceauşescu
    Nicolae Ceausescu
    Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian Communist politician. He was General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and as such was the country's second and last Communist leader...

    's regime in the Romanian Revolution of 1989
    Romanian Revolution of 1989
    The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a series of riots and clashes in December 1989. These were part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several Warsaw Pact countries...

    .
  • Eritrea
    Eritrea
    Eritrea , officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea derives it's name from the Greek word Erethria, meaning 'red land'. The capital is Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast...

     has had a transitional government.(1993)
  • Coalition Provisional Authority
    Coalition Provisional Authority
    The Coalition Provisional Authority was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States and its allies, members of the Multi-National Force – Iraq which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003...

    , the Iraqi Interim Governing Council, the Iraqi Interim Government
    Iraqi Interim Government
    The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005...

     and the Iraqi Transitional Government
    Iraqi Transitional Government
    The Iraqi Transitional Government was the government of Iraq from May 3rd, 2005, when it replaced the Iraqi Interim Government, until May 20th, 2006, when it was replaced by the first permanent government....

     were all provisional authorities established following the 2003 invasion of Iraq
    2003 invasion of Iraq
    The 2003 invasion of Iraq , was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations...

     to govern pending the adoption of a permanent constitution.
  • Government in exile
    Government in exile
    A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their...

  • Provisional Revolutionary Government
    Provisional Revolutionary Government
    The title Provisional Revolutionary Government could refer to one of several provisional governments:* The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, formed on June 8, 1969....

  • Interregnum
    Interregnum
    An interregnum is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order...