Province of Quebec (1763-1791)

Province of Quebec (1763-1791)

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The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 after the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines...

. Great Britain acquired Canada
Canada, New France
Canada was the name of the French colony that once stretched along the St. Lawrence River; the other colonies of New France were Acadia, Louisiana and Newfoundland. Canada, the most developed colony of New France, was divided into three districts, each with its own government: Quebec,...

 by the Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1763)
The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

 when King Louis XV of France
Louis XV of France
Louis XV was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather at the age of five, his first cousin Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, served as Regent of the kingdom until Louis's majority in 1723...

 and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe is an archipelago located in the Leeward Islands, in the Lesser Antilles, with a land area of 1,628 square kilometres and a population of 400,000. It is the first overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. As with the other overseas departments, Guadeloupe...

 for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

. By the Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal Proclamation of 1763
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

, Canada (part of New France) was renamed the Province of Quebec.

In 1774, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act
Quebec Act
The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec...

 that allowed Quebec to restore the use of French customary law ("Coutume de Paris") in private matters alongside the British common law system, and allowing the Catholic Church to collect tithe
Tithe
A tithe is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in cash, cheques, or stocks, whereas historically tithes were required and paid in kind, such as agricultural products...

s. The act also enlarged the boundaries of Quebec to include the Ohio Country
Ohio Country
The Ohio Country was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie...

 and Illinois Country
Illinois Country
The Illinois Country , also known as Upper Louisiana, was a region in what is now the Midwestern United States that was explored and settled by the French during the 17th and 18th centuries. The terms referred to the entire Upper Mississippi River watershed, though settlement was concentrated in...

, from the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains #Whether the stressed vowel is or ,#Whether the "ch" is pronounced as a fricative or an affricate , and#Whether the final vowel is the monophthong or the diphthong .), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians...

 on the east, south to the Ohio River
Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...

, west to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 and north to the southern boundary of lands owned by the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company , abbreviated HBC, or "The Bay" is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and one of the oldest in the world. A fur trading business for much of its existence, today Hudson's Bay Company owns and operates retail stores throughout Canada...

, or Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin that was nominally owned by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870, although numerous aboriginal groups lived in the same territory and disputed the...

.

Through Quebec, the British Crown retained access to the Ohio and Illinois Countries even after the Treaty of Paris, which was meant to have ceded this land to the United States. By well-established trade and military routes across the Great Lakes, the British continued to supply not only their own troops but a wide alliance of
Western Confederacy
The Western Confederacy, also known as Western Indian Confederacy, was a loose confederacy of North American Natives in the Great Lakes region following the American Revolutionary War...

 Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 nations through Detroit, Fort Niagara
Fort Niagara
Fort Niagara is a fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in North America. It is located near Youngstown, New York, on the eastern bank of the Niagara River at its mouth, on Lake Ontario.-Origin:...

, Fort Michilimackinac
Fort Michilimackinac
Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. Built around 1715, it was located along the southern shore of the strategic Straits of Mackinac connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, at the northern tip of the lower...

, and so on, until these posts were turned over to the United States following the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
Jay's Treaty, , also known as Jay's Treaty, The British Treaty, and the Treaty of London of 1794, was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain that is credited with averting war,, resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the American Revolution,, and...

 (1794).

Quebec retained its seigneurial system after the conquest. Owing to an influx of Loyalist
Loyalist (American Revolution)
Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the Kingdom of Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. At the time they were often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men. They were opposed by the Patriots, those who supported the revolution...

 refugees from the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

, the demographics of Quebec came to shift and now included a substantial English-speaking, Anglican or Protestant element from the former Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies were English and later British colonies established on the Atlantic coast of North America between 1607 and 1733. They declared their independence in the American Revolution and formed the United States of America...

. These United Empire Loyalists
United Empire Loyalists
The name United Empire Loyalists is an honorific given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War and prior to the Treaty of Paris...

 settled mainly in the Eastern Townships
Eastern Townships
The Eastern Townships is a tourist region and a former administrative region in south-eastern Quebec, lying between the former seigneuries south of the Saint Lawrence River and the United States border. Its northern boundary roughly followed Logan's Line, the geologic boundary between the flat,...

, Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, and what was known then as the pays d'en haut (high country) west of the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it now defines the border between these two provinces.-Geography:...

. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the colony in two at the Ottawa River, so that the western part (Upper Canada
Upper Canada
The Province of Upper Canada was a political division in British Canada established in 1791 by the British Empire to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees from the United States of America after the American Revolution...

) could be under the British legal system, with English speakers in the majority. The eastern part was named Lower Canada
Lower Canada
The Province of Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence...

.

Lieutenant-Governors of the Province of Quebec 1763–1791


After the capitulation of Montreal in 1760, New France was placed under military government. Civil government was instituted in 1764
  • James Murray 1760-1766
  • Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
    Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
    Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB , known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Irish-British soldier and administrator...

     1766-1778
  • Sir Frederick Haldimand
    Frederick Haldimand
    Sir Frederick Haldimand, KB was a military officer best known for his service in the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War...

     1778–1786
  • Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
    Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
    Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB , known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Irish-British soldier and administrator...

     1786–1796

Counsellors to the governor



The Province of Quebec did not have an elected legislature and was ruled directly by the governor with advice from counsellors. A council responsible to advise the governor (then James Murray) on all affairs of state was created in 1764. In 1774, the Quebec Act created a Council for the Affairs of the Province of Quebec to advise the governor on legislative affairs. The Legislative Council served as an advisory council to the governor until a legislative assembly was established after 1791.

The individuals James Murray called into the council from 1764 to 1766:
Member Appointment Notes
Chief Justice William Gregory 1764 served until 1766
Chief Justice William Hey (1733-1797) 1764 Chief Justice of Quebec 1766-1773
Attorney General George Suckling
George Suckling
George Suckling was a lawyer who was appointed to be the first Chief Justice of the British Virgin Islands in 1776. Suckling's appointment was not popular in the islands, which were at the time a notorious haunt for the lawless and for those seeking to evade their creditors elsewhere...

 (1759-178?)
1764 lawyer; served until 1766; most of his career was in the West Indies
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

 Paulus Aemilius Irving (1714-1796)
1764 served until 1768; acting President of the Council 1766-1768; commander-in-Chief of British Forces in Quebec and administrator 1766-1768
Hector Theophilus de Cramahé
Hector Theophilus de Cramahé
Hector Theophilus de Cramahé , born Théophile Hector Chateigner de Cramahé, was Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Quebec, and titular Lieutenant Governor of Detroit....

 (1720-1788)
1764 served until 1766 Lieutenant Governor of Quebec 1771-1782; later member of the Legislative Council
Adam Mabane
Adam Mabane
Adam Mabane was a physician, judge and political figure in the early Province of Quebec.He was born in Scotland around 1734. He was a surgeon's assistant in the British army led by Amherst and came to Quebec in 1760. Mabane served at the military hospital in the town of Quebec and also set up in...

 (1734–1792)
1764 served until 1766; British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 physician and judge; later member of the Legislative Council 1775-1792
Walter Murray
Walter Murray
Walter Murray may refer to:*Walter Charles Murray, president of the University of Saskatchewan, 1908–1937*Walter Murray Collegiate Institute, high school in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada...

(1701?-1772)
1764 served until 1771; relative to then Governor Murray; British Army officer under James Wolfe; head of the Port of Quebec
Port of Quebec
The Port of Quebec is an inland port located in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It is the oldest port in Canada, and the second largest in Quebec after the Port of Montreal.-History:...

 and justice of the peace and Receiver General
Captain Samuel Holland
Samuel Holland
Samuel Johannes Holland was a Royal Engineer and first Surveyor General of British North America.-Life in the Netherlands:...

 (1728-1801)
1764 served until 1770?; British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 officer and served as first Surveyor General of British North America
Thomas Dunn (1729-1818) 1764 served until 1774; colonial administrator and soldier; merchant; master in the Court of Chancery 1764; later member of the Legislative Council
François Mounier (?-1769) 1764 served until 1769; Hugenot merchant, justice of the peace; examiner in the Court of Chancery and judge of the Court of Common Pleas 1764-1769
Captain James Cuthbert Sr. (1719-1798) 1766 served until 1774; army officer (15th Regiment of Foot), merchant, justice of the peace; Seigneur of Berthier
Benjamin Price (?-1768 or 1769) 1764 served until 1768; merchant, justice of the peace, master in the Court of Chancery 1764-1768


List of councillors under Carleton from 1766 to 1774:
Member Appointment Notes
Chief Justice William Hey 1766 appointed during Murray's term as Governor; Chief Justice of Quebec 1766-1773
Attorney General Francis Maseres
Francis Maseres
Francis Maseres was an English lawyer. He is known as attorney general of the Province of Quebec, judge, mathematician, historian, member of the Royal Society, and cursitor baron of the exchequer.- Biography :...

 (1731-1724)
1766 served until 1769; lawyer, office holder, and author
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

 Paulus Aemilius Irving (1714-1796)
1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and till 1768; acting President of the Council 1766-1768; commander-in-chief of British Forces in Quebec and administrator 1766-1768
Hector Theophilus de Cramahé
Hector Theophilus de Cramahé
Hector Theophilus de Cramahé , born Théophile Hector Chateigner de Cramahé, was Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Quebec, and titular Lieutenant Governor of Detroit....

 (1720-1788)
1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1771; Lieutenant Governor of Quebec 1771-1782; later member of the Legislative Council
Adam Mabane
Adam Mabane
Adam Mabane was a physician, judge and political figure in the early Province of Quebec.He was born in Scotland around 1734. He was a surgeon's assistant in the British army led by Amherst and came to Quebec in 1760. Mabane served at the military hospital in the town of Quebec and also set up in...

 (1734–1792)
1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1766; British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 physician and judge; later member of the Legislative Council 1775-1792
Walter Murray
Walter Murray
Walter Murray may refer to:*Walter Charles Murray, president of the University of Saskatchewan, 1908–1937*Walter Murray Collegiate Institute, high school in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada...

(1701?-1772)
1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1771; relative to then Governor Murray; British Army officer under James Wolfe; head of the Port of Quebec
Port of Quebec
The Port of Quebec is an inland port located in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. It is the oldest port in Canada, and the second largest in Quebec after the Port of Montreal.-History:...

 and justice of the peace and Receiver General
Captain Samuel Holland
Samuel Holland
Samuel Johannes Holland was a Royal Engineer and first Surveyor General of British North America.-Life in the Netherlands:...

 (1728-1801)
1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1770; British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 officer and served as first Surveyor General of British North America
Thomas Dunn (1729-1818) 1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and unilt 1774; colonial administrator and soldier; merchant; master in the Court of Chancery 1764; later member of the Legislative Council
François Mounier 1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1769; Hugenot merchant, justice of the peace; examiner in the Court of Chancery and judge of the Court of Common Pleas 1764-1769
Captain James Cuthbert Sr. (1719-1798) 1766 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1774; army officer (15th Regiment of Foot), merchant, justice of the peace; Seigneur of Berthier
Benjamin Price (?-1768 or 1769) 1764 appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1768; merchant, justice of the peace, master in the Court of Chancery 1764-1768

See also


  • Former colonies and territories in Canada
    Former colonies and territories in Canada
    Former colonies, territories, boundaries, and claims in Canada prior to the current classification of provinces and territories. In North America, ethnographers commonly classify Aboriginals into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits and by related linguistic dialects...

  • Territorial evolution of Canada
    Territorial evolution of Canada
    The federation of Canada was created in 1867 when three colonies of British North America were united. One of these colonies split into two new provinces, three other colonies joined later...

    after 1867