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Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück

Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück

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The '''Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück''' was a [[prince-bishop]]ric centred on the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Osnabrück]]. The diocese was erected in 772 and is the oldest see founded by [[Charlemagne]], in order to [[Christianize]] the conquered [[stem-duchy]] of [[Duchy of Saxony|Saxony]]. The temporal possessions of the see, originally quite limited, grew in time, and its [[prince-bishop]]s exercised an extensive civil jurisdiction within the territory covered by their rights of Imperial immunity. The Prince-Bishopric continued to grow in size, making its status during the [[Protestant Reformation]] a highly contentious issue. In the [[German Mediatisation]] of 1803, the Bishopric was dissolved and the secular or temporal power given to the [[House of Hanover|Hanover]] branch of [[Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg|Brunswick-Lüneburg]]; the see, the chapter, the convents and the Catholic charitable institutions were secularized. The territory of the see passed to [[Prussia]] in 1806, to the [[Kingdom of Westphalia]] in 1807, to [[First French Empire|Napoleonic]] France in 1810, and again to Hanover in 1814. [[Klemens von Gruben]], [[titular Bishop]] of [[Paros]] in [[Greece]], was made [[vicar apostolic]], and as such cared for the spiritual interests of the Catholic population. The Latin (Roman) Catholic Diocese was restored in 1824, but henceforth its bishops would no longer wield any temporal power. ==History== The first bishop of Osnabrück was [[Wiho|Saint Wiho]] (785–804). The second bishop, Meginhard or Meingoz (804–33), effectively organised the see. The temporal protectorate ({{lang-la|Advocatia}}; {{lang-de|Vogtei}}) exercised over so many mediæval dioceses by laymen became, after the 12th century, hereditary in the Amelung family, from whom it passed to [[Henry the Lion]]. After Henry's overthrow, it came into the possession of Count Simon of [[Tecklenburg]] and his descendants, though it was the source of many conflicts with the bishops. In 1236 the Count of Tecklenburg was forced to renounce all jurisdiction over the town of [[Osnabrück]] as well as the lands of the see, the chapter and the parish churches. On the other hand, the bishop and chapter, from the 13th century on, expanded their jurisdiction over many convents, churches and hamlets. Scarcely any other German see freed itself so thoroughly from civil jurisdiction within its territory. The royal prerogatives were transferred little by little to the bishop, e.g. the holding of [[fair]]s and markets, rights of toll and coinage, forest and hunting rights, mining royalties and fortresses so that, by the early part of the 13th century, the bishop was the real governor of the civil territory of Osnabrück. Among the prominent mediæval bishops were Drogo (952–68); Conrad of Veltberg (1002); the learned Thietmar or Detmar (1003–22); [[Benno II]] (1067–88); Johann I (1001–10), who built the actual cathedral in place of the wooden one destroyed by fire in the time of his predecessor; Diethard I (1119–37) was the first bishop elected by the free choice of the cathedral clergy; Philip II (1141–73) ended the conflicts between his see and the [[Imperial Abbey]]s of [[Corvey]] and [[Hersfeld Abbey|Hersfeld]]; [[Adolf IV|Arnold]] of Berg (1137–91) died a [[Crusades|crusader]] at [[Akkon]]. In the time of [[Arnold of Altena|Engelbert of Altena-Isenberg]] (1224–26, deposed following his implication in Archbishop [[Engelbert II of Berg]]'s assassination, rehabilitated 1238–50), [[Arnold of Altena|Bruno of Altena-Isenberg]] (1250–59), and under Conrad II of Rietberg (1269–97) the new orders of [[Franciscans]], [[Dominican Order|Dominicans]] and [[Augustinians]] were received with favour. === 14th to 16th centuries === In the 14th and 15th centuries, the power of the bishops waned before the increasing influence of the cathedral chapter, of the military servants (or knights) of the diocese, and of the town of Osnabrück. The last sought to free itself from the bishop's sovereignty, but never became a [[Imperial Free City|Free City of the Empire]]. The see was almost continually engaged in warlike troubles and difficulties and had even to defend itself against the Bishops of [[Minden]] and [[Münster]]. From the 14th century auxiliary bishops became necessary due to the civil duties that absorbed the attention of the Bishop himself. The successor of Bishop Conrad IV of Rietberg (1488–1508) was Eric of Brunswick (1508–32), simultaneously [[Bishop of Münster]] and [[Paderborn]]. He opposed the Reformers strongly and successfully. [[Franz of Waldeck]] (1533–53), also [[Bishop of Minden]], acted, on the contrary, a very doubtful part. He offered little resistance to [[Lutheranism]] in Münster, though he vigorously opposed the [[Anabaptists]]; after 1543 he allowed in Osnabrück an evangelical service. However, the chapter and the [[Dominican Order|Dominicans]] opposed a German service that dispensed with all the characteristics of the Roman Catholic Mass. In 1548, Bishop Franz promised to suppress the Reformation in Osnabrück and to execute the [[Augsburg Interim]], but fulfilled his promise very indifferently; on his deathbed he received Lutheran communions. His successor, John IV of Hoya (1553–74), was more Catholic, but was succeeded by three bishops of a Protestant mind: [[Henry III of Saxony]] (1574–85), Bernhard of Waldeck (1585–91), and Philip Sigismund (1591–1623). Under them the Reformation overran nearly the whole diocese. === 17th and 18th centuries === In 1624, [[Cardinal (Catholicism)|Cardinal]] [[Eitel Frederick von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen|Eitel Frederick]] of [[Hohenzollern]] became Bishop of Osnabrück and called in the [[Jesuits]]. However, he died soon afterwards. His successor, [[Francis of Wartenberg]] (1625–61), fulfilled the task of imposing the [[Counter-Reformation]] decrees. The city-council was purged of anti-Catholic elements and the former [[Augustinian]] convent was turned over to the [[Jesuits]]. The Edict of Restitution was executed successfully by him and in 1631 he founded a university at Osnabrück. But in 1633, Osnabrück was [[Thirty Years' War|captured by the Swedes]]: the university was discontinued, Catholic religious exercises suppressed, and the see (1633–51) administered by the conquerors. By the [[Peace of Westphalia]] in 1648, the bishop succeeded in preventing the secularisation of the see, as contemplated by the Swedes. Nevertheless, it was stipulated that henceforth a Catholic and a Protestant bishop (of the [[Augsburg Confession]]) would alternately hold the see. During the those periods of rule by a Protestant bishop, always chosen from the ducal House of [[Brunswick-Lüneburg]], the spiritual care of the Catholics was committed to the [[Archbishop of Cologne]]. Wartenberg was made cardinal in 1660 and was succeeded by the married Protestant bishop, [[Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover|Ernest Augustus]] (1661–98), who transferred the residence to [[Hanover]]. He was succeeded by the Catholic bishop, Prince [[Charles Joseph of Lorraine]], [[Bishop of Olmütz]], later [[Archbishop of Trier]] (1698–1715). The Protestant Bishop [[Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany|Ernest Augustus]] (1715–28) was succeeded by [[Clemens August of Bavaria]], [[Archbishopric of Cologne|Archbishop-Elector of Cologne]] (1728–61). The last bishop, [[Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany|Prince Frederick of Great Britain]] (1764–1803), later [[Duke of York]], was, until his majority (1783), under the guardianship of his father, [[George III of the United Kingdom|George III]], monarch of the [[United]] Kingdom and Hanover. Prince Frederick was only six months old when he was appointed bishop. === Residence === From about 1100, after the fire which destroyed the cathedral in Osnabrück the Bishops had their residence in the castle of [[Bad Iburg]]. This period ended when Ernest Augustus built a baroque castle in Osnabrück, the castle being was finished in 1673. ==Bishops== * Wiho I. ( Wicho I) 783 to 1. April 809 * Meginhard 810 to 12. April 829 * Goswin 829–845 * Gosbert 845 to 11. April 860 * Eckbert 860 to 1. February 887 * [[Egilmar]] 887 to 11. May 906 * Bernhard I. 906–918 * Dodo I. 918 to 14. May 949 * Drogo 949 to 7. November 967 * Ludolf 967 to 31. March 978 * Dodo II. 978 to 12. April 996 ** Kuno 978–980 (counter-bishop) * Günther 996 to 27. November 1000 * Wodilulf 998 to 17. February 1003 * Dietmar 1003 to 18. June 1022 * Meginher 1023 to 10. December 1027 * Gozmar 1028 to 10. December 1036 * Alberich 1036 to 19. April 1052 * Benno I. (Werner) 1052–03. December 1067 * [[Benno II of Osnabrück|Benno II]] (Bernhard) 1068 to 27 July 1088 * Marquard 1088–1093 * Wicho II. 1093 to 21. April 1101 * Johann I. 1101 to 13. July 1109 * Gottschalk von Diepholz 1109 to 1. January 1119 * Diethard 1119–1137 ** Konrad 1119–1125 (counter-bishop) * Udo von Steinfurt 1137 to 28. June 1141 * [[Philipp von Katzenelnbogen]] 1141 to 15. June 1173 ** Wezel 1141 (counter-bishop) * [[Arnold von Altena (bishop)|Arnold von Altena]] 1173–1190 * [[Gerhard I. von Oldenburg-Wildeshausen]] 1190–1216 * [[Adolf von Tecklenburg]] 1216–1224 ==List of Prince-Bishops== Prince-Bishops of Osnabrück include: * 1224–1226: Engelbert I. von Isenberg * 1206–1227: Otto I. * 1227–1239: Konrad I. von Velber * 1239–1250: Engelbert I. von Isenberg * 1251–1258: Bruno von Isenberg * 1259–1264: Balduin von Rüssel * 1265–1269: Widukind von Waldeck * 1270–1297: Konrad von Rietberg * 1297–1308: Ludwig von Ravensberg * 1309–1320: Engelbert II. von Weyhe * 1321–1349: [[Gottfried von Arnsberg]] * 1350–1366: Johann II. Hoet * 1366–1376: [[Melchior von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen]] * 1376–1402: Dietrich von Horne * 1402–1410: Heinrich I. von Schaumburg-Holstein * 1410–1424: Otto von Hoya * 1424–1437: Johann III. von Diepholz * 1437–1442: Erich von Hoya * 1442–1450: Heinrich von Moers * 1450–1454: Albert von Hoya * 1454–1455: [[Rudolf van Diepholt|Rudolf von Diepholz]] * 1455–1482: Konrad III. von Diepholz * 1482–1508: [[Konrad VI. (Rietberg)|Konrad IV. von Rietberg]] * 1508–1532: [[Erich von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen]] * 1532–1553: [[Franz von Waldeck]] (From 1543 on Lutheran) * 1553-1574: [[Johann II. von Hoya]] * 1574-1585: [[Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg|Henry II of Saxe-Lauenburg]] * 1585-1591: Bernhard von Waldeck * 1591-1623: Philipp Sigismund von Braunschweig * 1623-1625: [[Eitel Frederick von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen]] (Catholic) * 1625-1634: [[Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg]] (Catholic) * 1634-1648: [[Gustav Gustavsson af Vasaborg]] (Lutheran) * 1648-1661: [[Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg]] (Catholic) * 1662-1698: [[Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg]] (Lutheran) * 1698-1715: [[Charles Joseph of Lorraine]] (Catholic) * 1715-1728: [[Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany]] (Lutheran) * 1728-1761: [[Klemens August of Bavaria]] (Catholic) * 1764-1802: [[Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany]] (Lutheran), last Prince-Bishop * 1802-1857: [[sede vacante]] ** 1803-1827: Karl von Gruben, Catholic [[Vicar Apostolic]] to the See of Osnabrück, void of any regalia ** 1830–1855: Carl Anton Lüpke, Catholic leading auxiliary bishop ** 1855–1857: Eduard Jakob Wedekin, in [[personal union]] Catholic bishop of [[Diocese of Hildesheim|Hildesheim]] For the further Catholic bishops see [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Osnabrück#Ordinaries|List of Ordinaries]] ==Further reading== * [http://www.bistum-osnabrück.de/ Official site (in German)] * [http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dosna.html Osnabrück at catholic-hierarchy.org] * [http://www.hoeckmann.de/germany/lowersaxony.htm Map of Lower Saxony in 1789]
{{Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle}} {{coord missing}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Osnabruck}}