The President of Mongolia
is the head of state of Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest...
. The Constitution of Mongolia
Constitution of Mongolia is the constitution of Mongolia.It was adopted on January 13. 1992, put into force on February 12, and amended in 1999 and 2001. The new constitution established a parliamentary democracy in Mongolia, guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression,...
implements a parliamentary system
A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined....
, so while much of the President's role is ceremonial, he or she does wield significant political power.
The President is elected by the citizens of Mongolia. Political parties with representation in the State Great Khural nominate candidates. The President can be re-elected only one time. The President can be removed from office
Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as other punishment....
if two-thirds of the Khural find him guilty of abusing his powers or violating his oath. Before inauguration, however, the President-elect has to renounce the membership of any political party.
Powers of the President
- Nominating a candidate for the office of Prime Minister
The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian government's executive arm, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by Parliament, and can be removed by a vote of no confidence.-Powers:...
, who is then approved or rejected by the State Great Khural (parliament). This is largely a ceremonial responsibility, as the Khural will most likely reject any nominee who is not its own choice — in effect, the Prime Minister is appointed by the Khural.
- Vetoing the Khural's legislation (can be overridden with a two-thirds majority)
- Approving judicial appointments
- Appointing the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court of Mongolia
The Supreme Court of Mongolia is the highest court in the judiciary system of Mongolia. The 1992 Constitution states that "the Supreme Court shall be the highest judicial organ"....
- Chairing the national security council
- Acting as commander in chief of the armed forces.
- Nominates the Prosecutor General, the official in charge of implementing the laws, who is then approved or rejected by the Khural.
There is debate about who should be considered the first President of Mongolia. The title does not actually date back to before Mongolia's democratisation, but the office itself is seen as extending through Mongolia's period of communist rule. Sometimes, the Bogd Khan
The Bogd Khan was enthroned as the Great Khaan of Mongolia on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in the Kham region of eastern Tibet, today's Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China...
(seen as the reincarnations of senior lama
Lama is a title for a Tibetan teacher of the Dharma. The name is similar to the Sanskrit term guru .Historically, the term was used for venerated spiritual masters or heads of monasteries...
) are seen as Mongolia's first "presidents", but more commonly, the title is given to the secular leaders who followed them. Balingiin Tserendorj
Balingiin Tserendorj was a Mongolian political figure and the first Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Mongolia from 1924 to 1928.-Early life and career:...
, who was acting head of state in 1924, is sometimes seen as the first president, but it was not until Navaandorjiin Jadambaa
Navaandorjiin Jadambaa was the first republican Head of State of Mongolia. He became Chairman of the State Great Hural in November 1924 following the death of the Bogd Khan...
was appointed Chairman of the State Great Khural in November that there was an official leader. Only a day later, the leadership role was reorganised as the Chairman of the Presidium of the State Little Khural (the Little Khural being the executive committee of the Great Khural). Later, the Little Khural was abolished, and its powers were returned to the Great Khural — as such, the title of the president became Chairman of the Presidium of the State Great Khural. This was shortly afterwards changed to Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural, following a change in nomenclature. Finally, in 1990, the title President of Mongolia was adopted.
Living former Presidents
- Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat (born 1942)
- Natsagiin Bagabandi (born 22 April 1950)
- Nambaryn Enkhbayar
Nambaryn Enkhbayar is a Mongolian political figure. He was the Prime Minister of Mongolia from 2000 to 2004, the Speaker of Parliament from 2004 to 2005, and the President of Mongolia from 2005 to 2009...
(born 1 June 1958)