is a genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...
in the orchid family (Orchidaceae
The Orchidaceae, commonly referred to as the orchid family, is a morphologically diverse and widespread family of monocots in the order Asparagales. Along with the Asteraceae, it is one of the two largest families of flowering plants, with between 21,950 and 26,049 currently accepted species,...
). Species of this genus are commonly called "Leek Orchids". There is no designated type species. Prasophyllum australe
R.Br. was designated as lectotype
In botanical nomenclature and zoological nomenclature, a lectotype is a kind of name-bearing type. When a species was originally described on the basis of a name-bearing type consisting of multiple specimens, one of those may be designated as the lectotype...
The botanical name is derived from the Greek words prason
(leek) and phyllon
(leaf), referring the leek-like leaf.
These deciduous terrestrial orchids occur in Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...
Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...
and a few species in New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...
, growing on poor, sandy soils in temperate heaths and grasslands.
All species have prominent subterranean, tuberous, storage organs. They are sometimes called root-stem tuberoids, because their pole incorporates stem tissues.
species grow in mycorrhizal associations with the fungus Ceratobasidium
Ceratobasidium is a genus of fungi in the order Cantharellales. Basidiocarps are effused and the genus is sometimes grouped among the corticioid fungi, though species also retain features of the heterobasidiomycetes. Rhizoctonia-like anamorphs of Ceratobasidium species are placed in the genus...
One can recognize the genus easily by the hollow, sheathing leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....
through which the inflorescence, a spike of small inverted flowers, emerges. But many of the species are not easy to determine. Many species only flower following summer fires.
The whitish flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...
s are tinged or streaked with pink or green. Most of these species are fragrant. They are pollinated
Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction. Pollen grains transport the male gametes to where the female gamete are contained within the carpel; in gymnosperms the pollen is directly applied to the ovule itself...
by insects. Interspecific hybridization is very common. Flowers from the spike can characteristics of different species.
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms . Collectively the sepals form the calyx, which is the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. Usually green, sepals have the typical function of protecting the petals when the flower is in bud...
s and petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...
s are narrow and inconspicuous. This makes them not very popular amongst orchid hunters.
Labellum is the Latin diminutive of labium, meaning lip. These are anatomical terms used descriptively in biology, for example in Entomology and botany.-Botany:...
on the upper side of the flower is broad and slightly waved at the edge, often bearing an inner plate. This lip can be rigid and sessile or on a short claw. Some species have secretory tissue associated with the base of the labellum. The column is very short.
About 126 species.
The genus is divided in several sections: Bifida
Genoplesium is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.- References :*Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. & Rasmussen, F. eds. . Genera Orchidacearum 1. Oxford Univ. Press....
belong to the same lineage in the cladistic tree. Genoplesium
is cladistically close to Prasophyllum
, which brings into doubt its status as a segregate genus
- Prasophyllum affine Lindl. (1840)
- Prasophyllum album R.S.Rogers, (1909)
- Prasophyllum alpestre D.L.Jones, (1998)
- Prasophyllum alpinum R.Br. (1810) : Alpine Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum amoenum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum antennatum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones (1989)
- Prasophyllum apoxychilum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum australe R.Br. (1810) : Southern Leek Orchid, Austral Leek orchid
- Prasophyllum bagoense D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum brevilabre (Lindl.) Hook.f. (1858)
- Prasophyllum brownii Rchb.f. (1871) : Christmas Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum buftonianum J.H.Willis (1953)
- Prasophyllum calcicola R.J.Bates (1989) : Limestone Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum campestre R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum canaliculatum D.L.Jones (1997)
- Prasophyllum candidum R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum caricetum D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum castaneum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum caudiculum D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum chasmogamum R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum colensoi Hook.f. (1853)
- Prasophyllum concinnum Nicholls (1948) : Trim Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum constrictum R.S.Rogers (1909)
- Prasophyllum correctum D.L.Jones, (1994)
- Prasophyllum crebriflorum D.L.Jones (2003)
- Prasophyllum cucullatum Rchb.f. (1871) : Hooded Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum cyphochilum Benth. (1873) : Pouched Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum diversiflorum Nicholls, (1942) : Gorae Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum dossenum R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones, (1991)
- Prasophyllum drummondii Rchb.f. (1871) : Swamp Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum elatum R.Br.. Tall Leek Orchid, Piano Orchid (one of the largest terrestrial orchids of Australia)
- Prasophyllum exiguum Rupp (1948)
- Prasophyllum exile D.L.Jones & R.J.Bates (1991)
- Prasophyllum favonium D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum fecundum R.J.Bates (1989)
- Prasophyllum fimbria Rchb.f. (1871) : Fringed Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum fitzgeraldii R.S.Rogers & Maiden (1909)
- Prasophyllum flavum R.Br. (1810) : Yellow Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum fosteri D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum frenchii F.Muell. (1889) : Maroon Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum fuscum R.Br. (1810) : Tailed Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum gibbosum R.Br. (1810) : Humped Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum giganteum Lindl. (1840) : Bronze Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum goldsackii J.Z.Weber & R.J.Bates (1978)
- Prasophyllum gracillimum Nicholls (1948) : Slender Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum hectori (Buchanan) Molloy, D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem (2005)
- Prasophyllum hians Rchb.f. (1871) : Yawning Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum hygrophilum D.L.Jones & D.T.Rouse (2003)
- Prasophyllum incompositum D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum incorrectum D.L.Jones (2003)
- Prasophyllum incurvum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum lanceolatum R.S.Rogers (1920)
- Prasophyllum lindleyanum Rchb.f. (1871) : Green Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum litorale R.J.Bates (1990)
- Prasophyllum macrotys Lindl. (1840) : Inland Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum milfordense D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum mimulum D.L.Jones (2004)
- Prasophyllum mollissimum Rupp (1948)
- Prasophyllum montanum R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum morganii Nicholls (1930) : Cobungra Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum mucronatum Rupp (1948)
- Prasophyllum murfetii D.L.Jones, (2000)
- Prasophyllum nichollsianum Rupp (1942)
- Prasophyllum niphopedium D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum nublingii R.S.Rogers (1927)
- Prasophyllum obovatum Rupp (1948)
- Prasophyllum occidentale R.S.Rogers (1908)
- Prasophyllum occultans R.J.Bates (1989)
- Prasophyllum odoratissimum D.L.Jones (1996)
- Prasophyllum odoratum R.S.Rogers (1909) : Scented Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum olidum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum ovale Lindl. (1840) : Little Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum pallens D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum pallidum Nicholls (1933) : Pale Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum parviflorum (R.S.Rogers) Nicholls (1941)
- Prasophyllum parvifolium Lindl. (1840) : Autumn Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum patens R.Br. (1810) : Broad-lip Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum paulinae D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem. (1996)
- Prasophyllum perangustum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum petilum D.L.Jones & R.J.Bates (1991)
- Prasophyllum plumiforme Fitzg. (1882)
- Prasophyllum pruinosum R.S.Rogers (1909)
- Prasophyllum pulchellum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum pyriforme E.Coleman (1932)
- Prasophyllum reflexum Fitzg. (1885)
- Prasophyllum regium R.S.Rogers (1918) : King Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum retroflexum D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum robustum (Nicholls) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones (1989)
- Prasophyllum rogersii Rupp (1928) : Marsh Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum rostratum Lindl. (1840) : Slaty Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum sargentii (Nicholls) A.S.George (1971) : Frilled Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum secutum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum solstitium D.L.Jones (2000)
- Prasophyllum sphacelatum D.L.Jones (1996)
- Prasophyllum spicatum R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum stellatum D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum striatum R.Br. (1810) : Streaked Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum suaveolens D.L.Jones & R.J.Bates (1994)
- Prasophyllum subbisectum Nicholls (1936)
- Prasophyllum suttonii Ewart & B.Rees (1912) : Mauve Leek orchid
- Prasophyllum sylvestre R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones (1991)
- Prasophyllum taphanyx D.L.Jones (2004)
- Prasophyllum transversum Fitzg. (1891)
- Prasophyllum triangulare Fitzg. (1882) : Dark Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum trifidum Rupp (1941)
- Prasophyllum truncatum Lindl. (1840)
- Prasophyllum tunbridgense D.L.Jones (1998)
- Prasophyllum unicum Rupp (1942)
- Prasophyllum validum R.S.Rogers (1927) : Green Leek Orchid
- Prasophyllum wallum R.J.Bates & D.L.Jones, (1991)
- Prasophyllum wilkinsoniorum D.L.Jones, (2000)