Praetorian prefecture of the East

Praetorian prefecture of the East

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The praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens was one of four large praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
The praetorian prefecture was the largest administrative division of the late Roman Empire, above the mid-level dioceses and the low-level provinces. Praetorian prefectures originated in the reign of Constantine I The praetorian prefecture was the largest administrative division of the late Roman...

s into which the Late
Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world. Precise boundaries for the period are a matter of debate, but noted historian of the period Peter Brown proposed...

 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 was divided. As it comprised the larger part of the Eastern Roman Empire, and its seat was at Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

, the praetorian prefect was the second most powerful man in the East, after the Emperor, in essence serving as his first minister.

Structure


The Prefecture was established after the death of Constantine the Great in 337, when the empire was split up among his sons and Constantius II
Constantius II
Constantius II , was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death....

 received the rule of the East, with a praetorian prefect
Praetorian prefect
Praetorian prefect was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire. Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard, the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides...

 as his chief aide. The part alloted to Constantius encompassed four (later five) dioceses
Roman diocese
A Roman or civil diocese was one of the administrative divisions of the later Roman Empire, starting with the Tetrarchy. It formed the intermediate level of government, grouping several provinces and being in turn subordinated to a praetorian prefecture....

, each in turn comprising several provinces
Roman province
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy , largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy...

. The authority of the prefecture stretched from the Eastern Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

, grouped into the Diocese of Thrace
Diocese of Thrace
The Diocese of Thrace was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of the eastern Balkan Peninsula The Diocese of Thrace was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of the eastern Balkan Peninsula The Diocese of Thrace was a diocese of the later...

, to Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Asia Minor is a geographical location at the westernmost protrusion of Asia, also called Anatolia, and corresponds to the western two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey...

, divided into the dioceses of Asiana
Diocese of Asia
The Diocese of Asia was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of western Asia Minor and the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea...

 and Pontus
Diocese of Pontus
The Diocese of Pontus was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of northern and northeastern Asia Minor up to the border with the Sassanid Empire in Armenia. The diocese was established after the reforms of Diocletian, and its vicarius, headquartered at Amaseia, was...

, and the Middle East, with the dioceses of Oriens
Diocese of the East
The Diocese of the East was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of the western Middle East, between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia...

 and Egypt.

List of known praefecti praetorio Orientis

  • Ablabius
    Ablabius (consul 331)
    Flavius Ablabius or Ablavius was a high official of the Roman Empire.- Life :Ablabius belonged to a poor, Pagan family, and originated from Crete. He converted to Christianity. He later become vicarius of Asia province...

     (329-337/338)
  • Septimius Acindynus
    Septimius Acindynus
    Septimius Acindynus was a Roman consul with Valerius Proculus in 340. He was governor of Antioch when, a man being ordered by him to pay a pound of gold into the public treasury, was unable to comply, and was put into prison. To release him, with his own sanction, his wife "listened to the...

     (338–340)
  • Flavius Philippus
    Flavius Philippus
    Flavius Philippus was a Roman Empire officer under Emperor Constantius II.- Biography :Son of a sausage-maker, Philippus rose in social levels becoming a notarius. In 346, he became Praetorian Prefect of the East under Emperor Constantius, allegedly because of the influence of the court eunuchs...

     (344–351)
  • Saturninius Secundus Salutius
    Salutius
    Saturninius Secundus Salutius was a career Roman official who was a native of Gaul. He was a quaestor when he became a member of Julian's staff, while the latter was Caesar in Gaul. Salutius was well versed in Greek philosophy and rhetoric and won the respect of Julian. It was probably through his...

     (361 until some years into the reign of Valentinian)
  • Domitius Modestus
    Domitius Modestus
    - Life :Of Arab origin, Modestus was comes Orientis from 358 to 362, succeeding to Nebridius and serving under the Emperors Constantius II and Julian...

     (369–377)
  • Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius
    Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius
    Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius was a Roman politician, praefectus urbi of Rome in 368–370 and Roman consul in 379...

     (379)
  • Neoterius
    Neoterius
    - Life :Probably born in Rome, he was notarius under Emperor Valentinian I when, in 365, he was sent to Africa to guarantee for the loyalty of that province during the usurpation of Procopius, who had rebelled against the Eastern Emperor Valens....

     (380-381)
  • Maternus Cynegius
    Maternus Cynegius
    Maternus Cynegius was a praetorian prefect of the East and consul at the end of the 4th century, best known for destroying some of the most sacred sites of Hellenic religion.- Life :...

     (384–388)
  • Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus
    Eutolmius Tatianus
    Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus was a politician of the Late Roman Empire.- Initial career :The family of Eutolmii originated in Syria; Tatian was born in Sidyma, son of Antonius Tatianus, praeses of Caria from 360 to 364 circa. He had a son, Proculus, who followed his footsteps choosing a political...

     (388–392)
  • Flavius Rufinus (392, September 10 – 395, November 27)
  • Caesarius (1st time, 395, November 30 – 397, July 13)
  • Flavius Eutychianus (1st time, 397, September 4 – 399, July 25)
  • Aurelianus
    Aurelianus (consul 400)
    Aurelianus , also known as Aurelian, was a prominent politician of the Eastern Roman Empire.- Biography :Aurelianus was the son of the Consul of 361, Taurus, and brother of Caesarius; he had a son called Taurus, Consul in 428...

     (1st time, 399, August 17 – October 2)
  • possibly Flavius Eutychianus (2nd time, 399, December 11 – 400, July 12)
  • Caesarius (2nd time, 400–403)
  • Flavius Eutychianus (3rd time, 404–405)
  • Flavius Anthemius
    Anthemius (praetorian prefect)
    Flavius Anthemius was a high-ranking official of the late Roman Empire. He is notable as a Praetorian prefect of the East and effective regent of the Eastern Roman Empire during the later reign of Arcadius and the first years of Theodosius II, as well as for the construction of the first set of...

     (405–414)
  • Flavius Monaxius
    Monaxius
    Flavius Monaxius was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire, praefectus urbi of Constantinople, Consul and twice praetorian prefect of the East.- Biography :...

     (1st time, 10 May – 30 November 414)
  • Aurelianus
    Aurelianus (consul 400)
    Aurelianus , also known as Aurelian, was a prominent politician of the Eastern Roman Empire.- Biography :Aurelianus was the son of the Consul of 361, Taurus, and brother of Caesarius; he had a son called Taurus, Consul in 428...

     (2nd time, 414–416)
  • Flavius Monaxius
    Monaxius
    Flavius Monaxius was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire, praefectus urbi of Constantinople, Consul and twice praetorian prefect of the East.- Biography :...

     (2nd time, 26 August 416 – 27 May 420)
  • Flavius Eustathius (420–422)
  • Asclepiodotus
    Asclepiodotus (consul 423)
    Flavius Asclepiodotus or Asclepiades was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire- Biography :Asclepiodotus was the brother of the sophist Leontius, and thus of Atenaides, who married in 421 the Emperor Theodosius II taking the name of Aelia Eudocia...

     (423–425)
  • Aetius
    Aetius (praetorian prefect)
    Aetius was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire, praefectus urbi of Constantinople and praetorian prefect of the East.- Life :Aetius was praefectus urbi of Constantinople...

     (425)
  • Hierius
    Hierius (consul 427)
    - Life :Hierus was Praetorian prefect of the East a first time from 425 to 428, then a second time in 432. In 427 also held the consulate, with Ardabur as a colleague, both chosen by the Eastern court...

     (1st time, 425–428)
  • Flavius Florentius
    Florentius (consul 429)
    Flavius Florentius was a prominent high official of the Eastern Roman Empire, who influenced imperial policy during the second quarter of the fifth century.- Biography :...

     (1st time, 428–430)
  • Antiochus Chuzon
    Antiochus Chuzon
    Antiochus Chuzon , called "the Elder" to distinguish him from his nephew, was a high official of the Eastern Roman Empire, praetorian prefect of the East and consul, who participated in the formulation of the Codex Theodosianus....

     (430–431)
  • Rufinus
    Rufinus (praetorian prefect)
    Rufinus was a praetorian prefect of the East, one of the most important officials of the Eastern Roman Empire.- Life :Rufinus was a relative of Emperor Theodosius II . He is attested in office between March 431 and March 432 by two letters of Isidore of Pelusium...

     (431–432)
  • Hierius
    Hierius (consul 427)
    - Life :Hierus was Praetorian prefect of the East a first time from 425 to 428, then a second time in 432. In 427 also held the consulate, with Ardabur as a colleague, both chosen by the Eastern court...

     (2nd time, 432)
  • Flavius Taurus
    Taurus (consul 428)
    Flavius Taurus was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire, Consul in 428.He was the son of Aurelianus, Consul in 400 and powerful Praetorian prefect of the East, and nephew of the Taurus Consul in 361...

     (1st time, 433–434)
  • Flavius Anthemius Isidorus
    Anthemius Isidorus
    Flavius Anthemius Isidorus was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire, the maternal uncle of the Western emperor Anthemius.- Biography :...

     (435–436)
  • Darius
    Darius (praetorian prefect)
    - Life :Darius was a Praetorian prefect of the East. He is attested in office between August 28, 436, when the law preserved in Codex Theodosianus XI 1.37a was addressed to him, to March 16, 437, the day in which another law, preserved in Codex Theodosianus VI 23.4a, was addressed to him.He might...

     (436–437)
  • Flavius Florentius
    Florentius (consul 429)
    Flavius Florentius was a prominent high official of the Eastern Roman Empire, who influenced imperial policy during the second quarter of the fifth century.- Biography :...

     (2nd time, ca. 438–439)
  • Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus
    Cyrus of Panopolis
    Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus , better known as Cyrus of Panopolis from his birthplace of Panopolis in Egypt, was a senior East Roman official, epic poet, philosopher and a lover of Greek arts...

     (439–441)
  • Thomas (442)
  • Apollonius
    Apollonius (praetorian prefect)
    Apollonius was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire.He was comes sacrarum largitionum in 436, then Praetorian prefect of the East from August 21, 442 to May 22, 443...

     (442–443)
  • Zoilus (444)
  • Hermocrates (444)
  • Flavius Taurus
    Taurus (consul 428)
    Flavius Taurus was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire, Consul in 428.He was the son of Aurelianus, Consul in 400 and powerful Praetorian prefect of the East, and nephew of the Taurus Consul in 361...

     (2nd time, 445)
  • Flavius Constantinus (first term, 447 circa)
  • Antiochus (448)
  • Flavius Florentius Romanus Protogenes (448–449)
  • Hormisdas (449–450)
  • Palladius (450–455)
  • Flavius Constantinus (second term, 456)
  • Flavius Constantinus (third term, 459)
  • Flavius Vivianus
    Vivianus
    - Biography :Vivianus was the father of Paulus and Adamantius.He was Praetorian prefect of the East between 459 and 460. In 463 he was appointed Consul by the Eastern court, but he was not recognised in the West, where the only Consul was Caecina Decius Basilius.Vivianus was well-known as a...

     (459–460)
  • Illustrius Pusaeus
    Illustrius Pusaeus
    Flavius Illustrius Pusaeus was a politician of the Roman Empire.- Biography :Pusaeus was a pupil of the Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus, at his school in Alexandria; other noteworthy figures belonged to the same Pagan circle and studied with Pusaeus, such as Pamprepius , Marcellinus Flavius...

     (465)
  • Amasius (ca. 469)
  • Matronianus (491)
  • Hierius (494–496)
  • Euphemius (496)
  • Polycarpus (498)
  • Constantine (1st time, 502)
  • Appion (503)
  • Leontius (503–504)
  • Constantine (2nd time, 505)
  • Eustathius (505–506)
  • Zoticus (511–512)
  • Marinus (1st time, ca. 512)
  • Sergius (517)
  • Marinus (2nd time, 519)
  • Demosthenes (520–524)
  • Archelaus (524–527)
  • Basilides
    Basilides (patricius)
    Basilides was a Byzantine official, who held the office of magister officiorum during the reign of Justinian I . He was a member of the commission responsible for forming the Corpus Juris Civilis. - Biography :...

     (ca. 527)
  • Atarbius (ca. 528)
  • Iulianus (530–531)
  • John the Cappadocian
    John the Cappadocian
    A different John the Cappadocian was Patriarch from 518-520. See John of Cappadocia.John the Cappadocian,also known as Iohannis Orientalis, was a praetorian prefect of the East in the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Justinian I...

     (1st time, 531–532)
  • Phokas (533)
  • John the Cappadocian
    John the Cappadocian
    A different John the Cappadocian was Patriarch from 518-520. See John of Cappadocia.John the Cappadocian,also known as Iohannis Orientalis, was a praetorian prefect of the East in the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Justinian I...

     (2nd time, 533–541)
  • Flavius Comitas Theodorus Bassus (ca. 541) as John's deputy
  • Peter Barsymes
    Peter Barsymes
    Peter Barsymes was a senior Byzantine official, associated chiefly with public finances and administration, under Byzantine emperor Justinian I ....

     (1st time, 543–546)
  • Flavius Comitas Theodorus Bassus (ca. 548)
  • Addaeus (ca. 551)
  • Hephaestus (551–552)
  • Areobindus (ca. 553)
  • Peter Barsymes
    Peter Barsymes
    Peter Barsymes was a senior Byzantine official, associated chiefly with public finances and administration, under Byzantine emperor Justinian I ....

     (2nd time, 555–562)
  • Diomedes (ca. 572)
  • Georgius (ca. 598)
  • Constantine Lardys
    Constantine Lardys
    Constantine, surnamed Lardys was one of the senior-most officials of the late reign of the Byzantine emperor Maurice .One of the leading members of the Byzantine Senate and a patrikios, he had held the powerful post of praetorian prefect of the East some time during the latter part of Maurice's...

     (ca. 602)

Sources

  • The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire
    Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire
    Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire is a set of three volumes collectively describing every person attested or claimed to have lived in the Roman world from AD 260, the date of the beginning of Gallienus' sole rule, to 641, the date of the death of Heraclius, which is commonly held to mark the...

    (PLRE), Vols. I-III: (Vol. II, pp. 1250–1252;)