governance in which the monarch's title is linked with a popular mandate rather than a constitutional state. It was the norm in some places (such as
, and was occasionally used in 19th- and 20th-century Europe, often reflecting the results of a
. Thus during the
Louis XVI had to change his title to indicate he was the monarch of the people rather than sovereign ruler of the land.
has the only explicit popular monarchy.
in the modern sense can be considered an evolution of the idea, as such constitutions generally place
| Country|| Title || Notes
| Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...
| King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire following his election to the office by the princes of the Kingdom of Germany...
| One of the Emperor's titles
| Kingdom of Croatia
The Kingdom of Croatia , also known as the Kingdom of the Croats , was a medieval kingdom covering most of what is today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans.Established in 925, it ruled as a sovereign state for almost two centuries...
| King of the Croats
|| Kralj Hrvata in Croatian
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...
, Rex Chroatorum in Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors,...
, which was later extended to King of the Croats and the Dalmatians (Kralj Hrvata i Dalmatinaca or Rex Chroatorum Dalmatarumque)
| Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was Portugal's general designation under the monarchy. The kingdom was located in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, Europe and existed from 1139 to 1910...
| King of the Portuguese
|| The first Portuguese king, Afonso Henriques, used the style King of the Portuguese (Rex Portugalensium), to remember that he was elected on the battlefield, after the Battle of Ourique
The Battle of Ourique saw the forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques defeat the Almoravid Moors led by Ali ibn Yusuf.-Background:...
(1139), by his fellows and subjects; their descendants, instead, used the style of King of Portugal (Rex Portugaliae or later in Portuguese
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...
: Rei de Portugal).
| Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was one of the most powerful states to exist in Europe during the second millennium.It originated from the Western portion of the Frankish empire, and consolidated significant power and influence over the next thousand years. Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King, developed a...
| King of the French
|| Used by Louis XVI
Louis XVI was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before being executed in 1793....
from 1791 to 1792, and by Louis-Philippe of France
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. His father was a duke who supported the French Revolution but was nevertheless guillotined. Louis Philippe fled France as a young man and spent 21 years in exile, including considerable time in the...
from 1830 until 1848.
| French Empire
|| Emperor of the French
|| Used by Napoleon I
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...
, Napoleon II (However briefly and ceremonially), and Napoleon III during their various reigns
| Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...
| King of the Belgians
|| Used since the constitutional oath of Leopold I
Leopold I was from 21 July 1831 the first King of the Belgians, following Belgium's independence from the Netherlands. He was the founder of the Belgian line of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha...
in 1831. The Belgian popular monarchy is the sole currently in use.
| Kingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 in the Convention of London by the Great Powers...
| King of the Hellenes
|| Used from 1863 to the monarchy's abolition in 1974.
| German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...
| German Emperor
This article is about the emperors of the German Empire. For full list of German monarchs before 1871, see List of German monarchs.The German Emperor was the official title of the Head of State and ruler of the German Empire, beginning with the proclamation of Wilhelm I as emperor during the...
| Used from 1871 until 1918.
| Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...
| King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
|| Used from 1918 to 1929, when the title was changed to King of Yugoslavia.
| Albanian Kingdom
The Albanian Kingdom was the constitutional monarchal rule in Albania between 1928 and 1939. During this period Albania was a de facto protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy Albania was declared a monarchy by the Constituent Assembly, and Zog I was crowned king...
| King of the Albanians
|| Used by Zog I, the one ruler of the Kingdom of Albania, from 1928 to 'de facto' 1939, and 'de jure' until 1946. Victor Emmanuel III, who claimed the Albanian throne between 1939 and 1943, used the title "King of Albania."
| Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was the Romanian state based on a form of parliamentary monarchy between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania...
| King of the Romanians
|| Used from 1881 until 1947.
| Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a Sovereign state in North-West Europe that existed from 843 until 1707. It occupied the northern third of the island of Great Britain and shared a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England...
| King of Scots
|| This usage became less common with William and Mary
The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the coregency over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, of King William III & II and Queen Mary II...
, who chose to be called King and Queen of Scotland. The Act of Union 1707 saw the Scottish and English thrones abolished and turned into the United Kingdom.
| Principality of Wales
The Principality of Wales existed between 1216 and 1542, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales.It was formally founded in 1216 at the Council of Aberdyfi, and later recognised by the 1218 Treaty of Worcester between Llywelyn the Great of Wales and Henry III of England...
| Prince of the Welsh
|| Evolving from King of the Britons, before mediatising in the 12th century as Prince of the Welsh. Eventually, Dafydd II of Gwynedd and Wales adopted the title Prince of Wales to denote suzreignty over the whole of Wales, not just the Welsh people.