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The Pontifical Biblical Institute
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...
: Pontificio Istituto Biblico
) in Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...
, Italy is an institution of the Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...
run by the Jesuits that offers instruction at the university level. It was founded by Pope Pius X
Pope Saint Pius X , born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the 257th Pope of the Catholic Church, serving from 1903 to 1914. He was the first pope since Pope Pius V to be canonized. Pius X rejected modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting traditional devotional practices and orthodox...
in an Apostolic Letter, Vinea Electa
, in 1909 as a center of advanced studies in Holy Scripture in order to promote in the most effective manner possible the doctrine and all the connected studies, according to the spirit of the Catholic Church, according to the founding letter of 7 May 1909.
From the start the Institute was in the hands of the Jesuits: its first rector was Fr Leopold Fonck, S.J..
At first the Institute prepared students for exams at the Pontifical Biblical Commission
The Pontifical Biblical Commission is an organism established within the Roman Curia to ensure the proper interpretation and defense of Sacred Scripture.-The Commission 1901-1971:...
; it was licensed in 1916 by Pope Benedict XV
Pope Benedict XV , born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as Pope from 3 September 1914 to 22 January 1922...
to grant academic degrees in the name of the Biblical Commission, and by Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI , born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was Pope from 6 February 1922, and sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929 until his death on 10 February 1939...
to grant doctorates, associating the Institute with the Pontifical Gregorian University
The Pontifical Gregorian University is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy.Heir of the Roman College founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola over 460 years ago, the Gregorian University was the first university founded by the Jesuits...
The Institute is a member of the Gregorian Consortium
The Gregorian Consortium is a collaborative association of three pontifical universities/institutes in Rome.The motu proprio Quod maxime of Pope Pius XI, united in 1930 the Pontifical Gregorian University, the Pontifical Oriental Institute, and the Pontifical Biblical Institute into a University...
- Leopold Fonck (1865-1930), founding rector from 1909 to 1930
- Augustin Bea
Augustin Bea, SJ was a German scholar at the Gregorian University specializing in biblical studies and biblical archeology. He was confessor of Pope Pius XII. In 1959, Pope John XXIII made him cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the first President of the Secretariat for Promoting...
(1881-1968), rector from 1930 to 1949
- Ernest Vogt (1903-1984), rector from 1949 to 1963
- Roderick A. MacKenzie (1911-1994), rector from 1963 to 1969
- Carlo Maria Martini
Carlo Maria Martini, SJ is an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of Milan from 1980 to 2002, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1983.-Early life and education:...
(1927-), rector from 1969 to 1978
- Maurice Gilbert (1934-), rector from 1978 to 1984
- Albert Vanhoye
Albert Vanhoye is a priest of the Society of Jesus and an exegete. He was created cardinal in 2006. He gave the 2008 Lenten Papal and Curial Retreat.-Formation and studies:...
(1923-), rector from 1984 to 1990
- Klemens Stock (1934-), rector from 1990 to 1996
- Robert F. O'Toole (1936-), rector from 1996 to 2002
- Stephen Pisano (1946-), rector from 2002 to 2008
- José-Maria Abrego de Lacy (1945-), rector since 2008