Polish Brethren

Polish Brethren

Overview
The Polish Brethren were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian
Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism includes all Christian belief systems that disagree with the doctrine of the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia...

 Protestant church that existed in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 from 1565 to 1658. By those on the outside, they were called "Arians
Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

" or "Socinians
Socinianism
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini , which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 15th and 16th centuries and embraced also by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period...

" (Polish: arianie, socynianie), but themselves preferred simply to be called "Brethren" or "Christians," and, after their expulsion from Poland, "Unitarians
Unitarianism
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being....

".

The Ecclesia Minor or Minor Reformed Church of Poland, better known today as the Polish Brethren, was started on January 22, 1556, when Piotr of Goniądz (Peter Gonesius), a Polish student spoke out against the doctrine of the Trinity during the general synod of the Reformed (Calvinist) churches of Poland held in the village of Secemin
Secemin
Secemin is a village in Włoszczowa County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Secemin. It lies approximately south-west of Włoszczowa and west of the regional capital Kielce.The village has a population of 1,600.-References:...

.

A theological debate called by the Polish king Sigismund II Augustus
Sigismund II Augustus
Sigismund II Augustus I was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548...

 himself in 1565 did not succeed in bringing both Protestant factions together again.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Polish Brethren'
Start a new discussion about 'Polish Brethren'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
The Polish Brethren were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian
Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism includes all Christian belief systems that disagree with the doctrine of the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia...

 Protestant church that existed in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 from 1565 to 1658. By those on the outside, they were called "Arians
Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

" or "Socinians
Socinianism
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini , which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 15th and 16th centuries and embraced also by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period...

" (Polish: arianie, socynianie), but themselves preferred simply to be called "Brethren" or "Christians," and, after their expulsion from Poland, "Unitarians
Unitarianism
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being....

".

History


The Ecclesia Minor or Minor Reformed Church of Poland, better known today as the Polish Brethren, was started on January 22, 1556, when Piotr of Goniądz (Peter Gonesius), a Polish student spoke out against the doctrine of the Trinity during the general synod of the Reformed (Calvinist) churches of Poland held in the village of Secemin
Secemin
Secemin is a village in Włoszczowa County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Secemin. It lies approximately south-west of Włoszczowa and west of the regional capital Kielce.The village has a population of 1,600.-References:...

.

1565, Split with the Calvinists


A theological debate called by the Polish king Sigismund II Augustus
Sigismund II Augustus
Sigismund II Augustus I was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548...

 himself in 1565 did not succeed in bringing both Protestant factions together again. Finally, the faction that had supported Piotr of Goniądz' arguments broke all ties with the Calvinists and organized their own synod in the town of Brzeziny
Brzeziny
Brzeziny is a town in Poland, in Łódź Voivodeship, about 20 km east of Łódź. It is the capital of Brzeziny County. Population is 12,417 .- History :...

 on June 10, 1565.

In the 1570s a split was developing between the pacifist and Arian
Arian
Arian may refer to:* Arius, a Christian presbyter in the 3rd and 4th century* a given name in different cultures: Aria, Aryan or Arian...

 group, led by Marcin Czechowic
Marcin Czechowic
Martin Czechowic was a Polish Socinian minister, theologian and writer.-Life:...

 and Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin
Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin
Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin , Latin: Gregorius Paulus Brzezinensis) , was a Socinian writer and theologian, one of the principal creators and propagators of radical wing of the Polish Brethren, and author of several of the first theological works in Polish, which helped to the development of literary...

 and the non-pacifist and Ebionite group led by the Byelorussian Symon Budny
Symon Budny
Symon Budny was a Belarusian and Polish humanist, educator, hebraist, Bible translator, Church reformator, philosopher, sociologist and historian.-Christology:...

. In 1579 the Italian exile Fausto Sozzini arrived in Poland and applied for admission to the Ecclesia Minor, which was refused because of his rather unusual personal objection to water baptism, however they saw in the Italian an able advocate and Sozzini's capable answering of Budny, followed by his marriage to the daughter of Krzysztof Morsztyn Sr.
Krzysztof Morsztyn Sr.
Krzysztof Morsztyn Sr. was founder of the Polish Brethren community in Filipów in 1585.He was father of:* Krzysztof Morsztyn Jr. who taught at the Racovian Academy....

 in 1586 cemented his place among the Polish Brethren. The calling of the group "Socinian" in England is more a result of the place given to Sozzini's writings in the publishing of his grandson Andrzej Wiszowaty Sr. in Amsterdam a century later than any role of active leadership in Sozzini's life — especially given that without submitting to baptism he could never formally join the church that later bore his name abroad.

1602–38, The Racovian Academy


Their biggest cultural centers were Pińczów
Pinczów
Pińczów is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, about 40 km south of Kielce. It is the capital of Pińczów County. Population is 12,304 .-History:...

 and Raków, site of the main Arian printing press
Printing press
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium , thereby transferring the ink...

 and the university Racovian Academy
Racovian Academy
The Racovian Academy was a school of the Socinian Polish Brethren operating in Raków, Kielce County, Poland 1602-1638, and publisher of the Racovian Catechism in 1605....

(Gymnasium Bonarum Artium) founded in 1602 and closed in 1638, which trained over 1000 students.

1658, Expulsion


The Minor Church ended in Poland on July 20, 1658, when the Sejm
Sejm
The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish . It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm ....

 expelled the Socinians from Poland. The Brethren never participated in the Sandomierz Agreement
Sandomierz Agreement
The Sandomierz Agreement was an agreement reached in 1570 in Sandomierz between a number of Protestant groups in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was intended to unite the Calvinists, Lutherans, and Hussites and to oppose the Polish brethren....

 1570 between different Polish Protestants. This occurred after a series of 17th century wars known as The Deluge
The Deluge (Polish history)
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish–Lithuanian theaters of the Russo-Polish and...

 in which protestant Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 invaded Poland, since they (as almost all non-Catholics) were commonly seen as Swedish collaborators.

The brethren found exile in three directions:
  • Prussia
    Prussia
    Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

     - where Christopher Crell
    Krzysztof Crell-Spinowski
    Krzysztof Crell-Spinowski was an Arian theologian, pastor of the church of the Polish Brethren....

     and his sons founded new congregations.
  • Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

     - where Andrzej Wiszowaty Sr. published the Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum quos Unitarios vocant (1668) and Christopher Sand published the Bibliotheca antitrinitariorum
    Bibliotheca antitrinitariorum
    The Bibliotheca antitrinitariorum, or Antitrinitarian Library, first published in 1684, is a posthumous work of Christopher Sandius , an exiled Prussian Antitrinitarian in Amsterdam, in which he chronologically lists all the Arian and Socinian or Antitrinitarian authors from the Reformation to...

    (1684).
  • Transylvania
    Transylvania
    Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

     - where the Unitarian Church of Transylvania
    Unitarian Church of Transylvania
    The Unitarian Church of Transylvania is a church of the Unitarian denomination, based in the city of Cluj in the Principality of Transylvania, present day in Romania...

     enjoyed freedom. This was the destination of Andrzej Wiszowaty Jr.
    Andrzej Wiszowaty Jr.
    Andrzej Wiszowaty Jr. was a grandson of Andrzej Wiszowaty Sr. He taught at the Unitarian Gymnasium in Cluj-Napoca from 1726 or before....

     who became a teacher at the Unitarian College
    Protestant Theological Institute of Cluj
    The Protestant Theological Institute is a Protestant seminary and private university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The state-recognized institution trains ministers for three separate Protestant faiths: Calvinism , Lutheranism , as well as...

     in Cluj
    Cluj
    Cluj may refer to*Cluj-Napoca, county seat of Cluj County, named Cluj until 1974*Cluj County, Romania*Cluj-Napoca International Airport*U Cluj, a Romanian sports club*U Cluj, a Romanian football club*CFR Cluj, a Romanian football club...

    .

Theology


Originally, the Minor Church followed an Arian
Arian
Arian may refer to:* Arius, a Christian presbyter in the 3rd and 4th century* a given name in different cultures: Aria, Aryan or Arian...

 non-trinitarian doctrine inspired by the writings of Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation...

. Later on, Socinianism
Socinianism
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini , which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 15th and 16th centuries and embraced also by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period...

, named for Italian theologian Laelius Socinus, became its main theological approach.
They were against capital punishment
Capital punishment
Capital punishment, the death penalty, or execution is the sentence of death upon a person by the state as a punishment for an offence. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital originates from the Latin capitalis, literally...

, and did not believe in the traditional Christian doctrines of Hell
Hell
In many religious traditions, a hell is a place of suffering and punishment in the afterlife. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations...

 or the Trinity
Trinity
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity defines God as three divine persons : the Father, the Son , and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct yet coexist in unity, and are co-equal, co-eternal and consubstantial . Put another way, the three persons of the Trinity are of one being...

.

Church and state


They advocated the separation of church and state
Separation of church and state
The concept of the separation of church and state refers to the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state....

 and taught the equality and brotherhood of all people; they opposed social privileges based on religious affiliation, and their adherents refused military service (they were known for carrying wooden swords instead of real almost obligatory szabla
Szabla
Szabla is the Polish word for sabre. It specifically refers to an Eastern European one-edged sabre-like mêlée weapon with a curved blade and, in most cases, a two-bladed tip called a feather . Initially used by light cavalry, with time it also evolved into a variety of arms used both for martial...

s) and declined political office.

Influence


Although never numerous, they had a significant impact on political thought in Poland. After being expelled from Poland, they emigrated to England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, East Prussia
East Prussia
East Prussia is the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945. From 1772–1829 and 1878–1945, the Province of East Prussia was part of the German state of Prussia. The capital city was Königsberg.East Prussia...

 and the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, where their works were widely published and influenced much of the thinking of later philosophers such as John Locke
John Locke
John Locke FRS , widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social...

 and Pierre Bayle
Pierre Bayle
Pierre Bayle was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1695....

.

Their main ideologues were Piotr z Goniadza
Piotr z Goniadza
Piotr of Goniądz was a Polish political and religious writer, thinker and one of the spiritual leaders of the Polish Brethren.-Life:Little is known of his early life. He was born to a peasant family some time between 1525 and 1530 in the town of Goniądz...

 ("Gonesius"), Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin
Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin
Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin , Latin: Gregorius Paulus Brzezinensis) , was a Socinian writer and theologian, one of the principal creators and propagators of radical wing of the Polish Brethren, and author of several of the first theological works in Polish, which helped to the development of literary...

, Marcin Czechowic
Marcin Czechowic
Martin Czechowic was a Polish Socinian minister, theologian and writer.-Life:...

, although Johannes Crellius
Johannes Crellius
Johannes Crellius was a Polish and German theologian.-Life:...

 (from Germany), and Johann Ludwig von Wolzogen
Johann Ludwig von Wolzogen
Johann Ludwig von Wolzogen was an Austrian nobleman and Socinian theologian.Wolzogen was born in Nové Zámky , known then as Neuhäusel in German and Érsekújvár in Hungarian. He inherited the titles of Baron of Tarenfeldt and Freiherr of Neuhäusel.Comenius became acquainted with Wolzogen in 1638....

 (who came to Poland from Austria) were far better known outside Poland. Among the best known adherents of this fellowship are Mikołaj Sienicki, Jan Niemojewski
Jan Niemojewski
Janusz Jan Niemojewski was a Polish nobleman, and theologian of the Polish Brethren.-Works:* 1583 - "Odpowiedź na potwarz Wilkowskiego"* 1583 - "Obrona przeciw niesprawiedliwemu obwinieniu"....

, and writers and poets Zbigniew Morsztyn
Zbigniew Morsztyn
Zbigniew Morsztyn was a Polish poet.Morsztyn was born in Kraków. For 9 years he was in the army, where he fought the Swedes and Russians during the Northern Wars...

 and Wacław Potocki.

This expulsion is sometimes taken as the beginning of decline of famous Polish religious freedom, although the decline started earlier and ended later: the last non-Catholic deputy was removed from parliament in the beginning of the 18th century. Most of Polish Brethren moved to the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, where they greatly influenced European opinion, becoming precursors to Enlightenment. Through their connection to Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas also influenced the Founding Fathers
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States of America were political leaders and statesmen who participated in the American Revolution by signing the United States Declaration of Independence, taking part in the American Revolutionary War, establishing the United States Constitution, or by some...

 of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

Influence in Britain


John Locke
John Locke
John Locke FRS , widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social...

 was preceded by a few decades by Samuel Przypkowski
Samuel Przypkowski
Samuel Przypkowski was a Polish Socinian theologian, a leading figure in the Polish Brethren and an advocate of religious toleration. In Dissertatio de pace et concordia ecclesiae, published in 1628 in Amsterdam, he called for mutual tolerance by Christians...

 on tolerance and by Andrzej Wiszowaty
Andrzej Wiszowaty
Andrzej Wiszowaty Sr. was a Socinian theologian who worked with Joachim Stegmann on the Racovian Catechism of 1605, and taught at the Racovian Academy of the Polish Brethren....

 on 'rational religion.' Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton PRS was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."...

 had met Samuel Crell, son of Johannes Crellius
Crellius
The Latin name Crellius can refer to three generations of Socinian theologians:* Johannes Crellius, Jan Crell 1590–1633, father.* Christopher Crellius, Krzysztof Crell-Spinowski 1622-1680, son....

, of the Spinowski family. Newton was well informed about the developments in Poland and collected many books from the Racovian Academy.

The Englishman John Biddle
John Biddle (Unitarian)
John Biddle or Bidle was an influential English nontrinitarian, and Unitarian. He is often called "the Father of English Unitarianism".- Life :...

 had translated two works by Przypkowski, as well as the Racovian Catechism
Racovian Catechism
The Racovian Catechism is a nontrinitarian statement of faith from the 16th century. The title Racovian comes from the publishers, the Polish Brethren, who had founded a sizeable town in Raków, Kielce County, where the Racovian Academy and printing press was founded by Jakub Sienieński in...

 and a work by Joachim Stegmann
Joachim Stegmann
Joachim Stegmann Sr. was a German Socinian theologian, Bible translator, mathematician and rector of the Racovian Academy....

, a "Polish Brother" from Germany. Biddle's followers had very close relations with the Polish Socinian family of Crellius (aka Spinowski).

Influence in America


Subsequently, the Unitarian
Unitarianism
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being....

 of Christianity was continued by, most notably, Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley, FRS was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works...

, who had emigrated to the United States and was a friend of both James Madison
James Madison
James Madison, Jr. was an American statesman and political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United States and is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being the primary author of the United States Constitution and at first an opponent of, and then a key author of the United...

 and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...

, the latter of whom sometimes attended services at Priestley's congregation in Philadelphia. Notably, Priestley was very well informed on the earlier developments in Poland, especially by his mentions of Socinus
Socinus
Sozzini may refer to:* Fausto Paolo Sozzini * Lelio Sozzini...

 and Szymon Budny (translator of Bible, author of many pamphlets against the Trinity).

In the modern era


In the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland , the Polish state was...

, 1937, priest Karol Grycz-Śmiałowski recreated what he considered was a revival of the Church of Polish Brethren in Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

. In the People's Republic of Poland
People's Republic of Poland
The People's Republic of Poland was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1990. Although the Soviet Union took control of the country immediately after the liberation from Nazi Germany in 1944, the name of the state was not changed until eight years later...

 it was registered in 1967 as the Unity of Polish Brethren (Jednota Braci Polskich).

Modern groups which look to the Polish Brethren include the Christadelphians
Christadelphians
Christadelphians is a Christian group that developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century...

 and CoGGC
Church of God General Conference (Abrahamic Faith)
The Church of God General Conference is an Adventist Christian body which is also known as the Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith and the Church of God General Conference ...

. Although Christadelphians had since their origins in the 1840s always looked for historical precedents, particularly to Arius
Arius
Arius was a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt of Libyan origins. His teachings about the nature of the Godhead, which emphasized the Father's divinity over the Son , and his opposition to the Athanasian or Trinitarian Christology, made him a controversial figure in the First Council of...

, the group was unaware of closer precedents in Socinianism
Socinianism
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini , which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 15th and 16th centuries and embraced also by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period...

. This changed with a series of articles in the community magazine during the early seventies subsequently published. The Polish arm of the Christadelphians use the name Bracia w Chrystusie in conscious echo of Socinian precedents. The Atlanta Bible College of the CoGGC also publish a Journal continuing research into the Polish Brethren and related groups.

See also


  • Unitarianism
    Unitarianism
    Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being....

  • History of philosophy in Poland
    History of philosophy in Poland
    The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general. Polish philosophy drew upon the broader currents of European philosophy, and in turn contributed to their growth...


Further reading

  • Joseph Kasparek
    Józef Kasparek
    Józef Kasparek was a Polish lawyer, historian and political scientist.Until World War II he lived in southeastern Poland , in an area that is now in western Ukraine.-Early years:...

    , The Constitutions of Poland and of the United States: Kinships and Genealogy, Miami, FL, American Institute of Polish Culture, 1980.
  • Earl Morse Wilbur
    Earl Morse Wilbur
    Earl Morse Wilbur was an American Unitarian historian.Wilbur was the first dean 1904-1910; then president 1911-1931; and until 1934, professor of homiletics and practical theology at the Pacific Unitarian School for Ministry, Berkeley, California of the American Unitarian Association .-Works:* * *...

    , A History of Unitarianism: Socinianism and Its Antecedents, Harvard University Press, 1945.
  • George Huntston Williams
    George Huntston Williams
    George Huntston Williams American professor of Unitarian theology and historian of the Socinian movement. He was among the original Editorial Advisors of the scholarly journal Dionysius.-Works:...

    , The Polish Brethren: Documentation of the History and Thought of Unitarianism in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and in the Diaspora 1601–1685, Scholars Press, 1980, ISBN 0-89130-343-X

External links