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Policja

Policja

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Encyclopedia
Policja is the generic name for the police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

. The Polish police force was known as policja throughout the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland , the Polish state was...

 (1918–1939), and in modern post-communist Republic of Poland since 1990. Its current size is 103.309 officers and ca. 12.000 civilian employees . Among the branches in the force are: Criminal Service, Traffic Police Service, Prevention Service and Supporting Service. Most towns and some villages have their own city guards
City Guards
Municipal Guards , also called the Municipal Civil Guards, are the security forces of municipalities of Brazil. Created in the time of Empire of Brazil, the guardsmen are subordinated to the municipality mayors...

, which supervise public order and road safety; however city guards
City Guards
Municipal Guards , also called the Municipal Civil Guards, are the security forces of municipalities of Brazil. Created in the time of Empire of Brazil, the guardsmen are subordinated to the municipality mayors...

 have jurisdiction only over misdemeanor
Misdemeanor
A misdemeanor is a "lesser" criminal act in many common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punished much less severely than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions and regulatory offences...

s and in cases of crimes may serve only in a supportive role for the state police.

Terminology



The force's name, Policja, translates into the English language
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 as Police, whilst the force's full name Policja Rzeczypospolitiej Polskiej is best translated as 'Police of the Polish Republic' or 'Police of the Republic of Poland', however, the full official title of the force is rarely used in speech.

An individual officer is typically called a (plural ); these are not, however, official titles and are not included in the official rank structure, they are simply terms used to refer to any police officer regardless of the rank they may hold. A police station
Police station
A police station or station house is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff. These buildings often contain offices and accommodation for personnel and vehicles, along with locker rooms, temporary holding cells and interview/interrogation rooms.- Facilities...

 is known as or both of which translate more or less into English as Police Commissariat. Female officers may be referred to as , the singular of which is .

On the whole, officers' individual ranks are not used by the general public and thus when addressing an officer, it is common to hear the term (female - ), Polish for mister/miss used to refer to police officers. On occasion, this may or may not be followed by the term .

History



In 1919, with the re-independence of the Polish nation
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland , the Polish state was...

, the state reorganised itself along non-federalist lines and established a centralised form of government. Under the auspices of the new government, a new national police force was formed; this 'Polish State Police' (Policja Państwowa) then existed as the primary law enforcement agency for the entire nation up until the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. During the inter-war period, a number of key law enforcement duties were delegated to other formations, such as the Border Guard and Military Gendarmerie
Military Gendarmerie
The Military Gendarmerie is a military provost formation created in 1990 in Poland.-History:Polish military police traces its history to the communist era Military Internal Service , World War II-era Service for Protection of the Uprising , interwar-era military police in the Second Polish Republic,...

.

With the end of World War II and the onset of the communist period
People's Republic of Poland
The People's Republic of Poland was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1990. Although the Soviet Union took control of the country immediately after the liberation from Nazi Germany in 1944, the name of the state was not changed until eight years later...

, the new Soviet backed government decided to radically change to structure of policing in Poland; the state 'Policja' was renamed as the 'Milicja Obywatelska
Milicja Obywatelska
Milicja Obywatelska was a state police institution in the People's Republic of Poland. It was created in 1944 by Soviet-sponsored PKWN, effectively replacing the pre-war police force. In 1990 it was transformed back into Policja....

' (Citizen's Militia), a name which was meant to reflect a change in the role of the police, from an instrument of oppression ensuring the position of the bourgeoisie, to a force composed of, and at the service of 'normal citizens'. Ironically the reality turned out to be largely the opposite and the Milicja instead represented a rather state-controlled force which was used to exert political repression on the citizens. The Milicja was for the most part, detested by the general populace; events such as the police's conduct during the Gdańsk Shipyard Strike and surrounding the Popiełuszko affair, only worsened the people's view of their law enforcement agencies.

After the fall of the communist government in Poland, the system was reformed once again, this time reviving the pre-war name of 'Policja' and albeit with a few minor changes, the general system of law-enforcement of the Second Republic
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland , the Polish state was...

.

Transportation



Today, most common types include various models from Kia
Kia Motors
Kia Motors , headquartered in Seoul, is South Korea's second-largest automobile manufacturer, following the Hyundai Motor Company, with sales of over 1.4 million vehicles in 2010...

 (Cee'd
Kia cee'd
The Kia Cee'd is a front wheel drive small family car released in the European market by the Korean manufacturer Kia Motors in December 2006—superseding the Kia Spectra—and available as a five-door hatchback, three-door hatchback , and five-door estate with a choice of up to four...

 model - ca. 4000 in use) Škoda
Škoda Auto
Škoda Auto , more commonly known as Škoda, is an automobile manufacturer based in the Czech Republic. Škoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group in 2000, positioned as the entry brand to the group...

 (mainly Octavia
Škoda Octavia
The Škoda Octavia is a small family car produced by Czech automaker Škoda Auto since 1996, its name revived from a model originally produced between 1959 and 1971. The current Octavia is available in five-door liftback and station wagon....

), Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910, in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars...

, Ford Mondeo, Opel
Opel
Adam Opel AG, generally shortened to Opel, is a German automobile company founded by Adam Opel in 1862. Opel has been building automobiles since 1899, and became an Aktiengesellschaft in 1929...

 (mainly Opel Astra
Opel Astra
The Opel Astra is a small family car engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel since 1991.It is branded as Vauxhall Astra in the United Kingdom, the Buick Excelle XT in China and the Chevrolet Astra/Vectra in Latin America...

), Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

, and Toyota, as of 2011 the FSO Polonez
FSO Polonez
The FSO Polonez is a Polish motor vehicle produced from 1978 to 2002. The car name comes from the Polish dance, polonaise.-Background:The Polonez is a rebodied Polski Fiat 125p that Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych built under license from Fiat...

 (manufactured in Poland) is no longer in use. The polish police force has, since joining the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, been undergoing a thorough restructuring and has in the process acquired a large number of new vehicles; as of 2011 this process is still ongoing and new vehicles are constantly being procured in order to replace ageing old patrol cars as their service lives come to an end. In addition to standard sedan and hatchback model vehicles, the Policja has been investing significant amounts of money in developing their ability to respond to any incident no matter where it may be, this has in turn led to the purchase of a large number of all-terrain 4x4 vehicles and multi-purpose vans and trucks. This expansion in capabilities was a stated requirement of the police force's restructuring program.

Beginning in 2009, the painting scheme is being modified to a silver body design with blue reflective strip, similar to modern German police cars.

Traditionally, vehicles were painted a dark blue color with side doors painted in white, and with white stripes and the word "POLICJA" on both sides. Earlier versions (used at the beginning of 1990s) had a thinner stripe with the word "POLICJA" written under it. This design was adopted from the paint scheme used by the communist milicja. Some formerly used vehicles even had visible traces of the word "POLICJA" being corrected from "MILICJA", with the first two letters in a different shade of white, on a patch of a different shade of blue.

Current patrol fleet



The below list is not intended to be a full list of all the vehicles used by the Polish Police, instead it lists the most commonly used vehicles.

Patrol Cars

  • Kia Cee'd
    Kia cee'd
    The Kia Cee'd is a front wheel drive small family car released in the European market by the Korean manufacturer Kia Motors in December 2006—superseding the Kia Spectra—and available as a five-door hatchback, three-door hatchback , and five-door estate with a choice of up to four...

  • Fiat Bravo
  • Opel Vectra
    Opel Vectra
    The Opel Vectra is a large family car that was engineered and produced by Opel. In the United Kingdom, the car was sold under the Vauxhall marque as the Vauxhall Cavalier and later as the Vauxhall Vectra, from 1995 onwards...

     and Astra
    Opel Astra
    The Opel Astra is a small family car engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel since 1991.It is branded as Vauxhall Astra in the United Kingdom, the Buick Excelle XT in China and the Chevrolet Astra/Vectra in Latin America...

  • Skoda Octavia
    Škoda Octavia
    The Škoda Octavia is a small family car produced by Czech automaker Škoda Auto since 1996, its name revived from a model originally produced between 1959 and 1971. The current Octavia is available in five-door liftback and station wagon....

  • Alfa Romeo 159
    Alfa Romeo 159
    The Alfa Romeo 159 is a compact executive car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo between 2005 and 2011. The 159 was introduced in production form at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show as a replacement for the successful Alfa Romeo 156. The 159 uses the GM/Fiat Premium platform, shared with...

  • Volkswagen Passat
    Volkswagen Passat
    The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car marketed by Volkswagen Passenger Cars through six design generations since 1973. Between the Volkswagen Golf / Volkswagen Jetta and the Volkswagen Phaeton in the current Volkswagen line-up, the Passat and its derivatives have been badged variously as...

  • Ford Mondeo
    Ford Mondeo
    The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...


Vans

  • Fiat Ducato
    Fiat Ducato
    The Fiat Ducato is a large van produced by Fiat. The Fiat Ducato is the same van as the Citroën Jumper and the Peugeot Boxer, which are all very popular vans to convert into motorhomes...

  • Renault Trafic
    Renault Trafic
    The current Trafic resulted from a joint venture between German Opel, Japanese Nissan and French Renault. It is also sold as an Opel Vivaro, Vauxhall Vivaro and by Nissan as the Primastar....

  • Opel Vivaro
    Opel Vivaro
    The Opel Vivaro is a medium-sized light commercial vehicle produced by the German automaker Opel, and sold under the Opel brand in most of Europe, but under the Vauxhall brand in the United Kingdom. It was originally launched in 2001, and is available in panel van, minibus, combined bus/van and...

  • Mercedes-Benz Sprinter
    Mercedes-Benz Sprinter
    The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter is a light and heavy commercial vehicle, built by Daimler AG of Stuttgart, Germany as a van, chassis cab and minibus, and sold as a Mercedes model, except in the U.S. where it is built from complete knock down kits and was sold by Freightliner until 2010 when Mercedes...

  • Volkswagen Transporter (T4)

Motorcycles

  • Yamaha FJR1300
    Yamaha FJR1300
    The Yamaha FJR1300 is the Yamaha Motor Company's largest sport touring motorcycle, currently in production as the FJR1300A and FJR1300AS .-History:...

  • Honda CB250
  • BMW K1200S
  • BMW F800ST
    BMW F800ST
    The BMW F800ST is a sport touring motorcycle, made by BMW Motorrad from 2006. Along with the closely related BMW F800S, other bikes in the F-bike range are the dual-sport F800GS, and the naked F800R...

  • Triumph Tiger 1050
    Triumph Tiger 1050
    The Triumph Tiger 1050 is a continuation of the Triumph Tiger motorcycle model line from the Triumph Tiger 955i produced in Hinckley, England by Triumph Motorcycles. The model name is derived from Triumph's long history of sporting motorcycles of both single and twin cylinder design and of previous...

  • Honda CBF1000A
    Honda CBF1000
    The Honda CBF1000 is a touring sports model motorcycle with a water-cooled, 4-stroke, inline 4-cylinder, 1000 cc engine based on the Honda CBR1000RR engine....


All Terrain Vehicles

  • Nissan Pathfinder
    Nissan Pathfinder
    The Nissan Pathfinder is a SUV manufactured by Nissan Motors since 1986, derived from Nissan's compact pickup truck platform. The Pathfinder is slotted in size between the Murano and Armada or Patrol, but in price between the Xterra and Murano...

  • Kia Sorento
    Kia Sorento
    The Kia Sorento is a mid-size crossover SUV produced since 2002 by the South Korean automaker Kia Motors.- First generation :...

  • Jeep Liberty
    Jeep Liberty
    Inspired by styling from the Dakar and Jeepster concept cars, the Liberty was intended as a replacement for the discontinued Jeep Cherokee . Three trim levels were initially offered; the top end Limited, a more rugged looking Renegade and the base Sport. All were made available with either 2WD or 4WD...

  • Suzuki Vitara

Air support



The Policja currently has a total of 16 helicopters at its disposal, these are based in:
  • Kraków
    Kraków
    Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

     - 2 x PZL Kania
    PZL Kania
    -References:* Taylor, John W R . Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982-83. London:Jane's Yearbooks, 1982. ISBN 0 7106-0748-2.* Taylor, John W R . Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, UK:Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0 7106-0867-5....

  • Szczecin
    Szczecin
    Szczecin , is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Sea. As of June 2009 the population was 406,427....

     - 2 x Mil Mi-2
    Mil Mi-2
    The Mil Mi-2 is a small, lightly armored transport helicopter that could also provide close air support when armed with 57 mm rockets and a 23 mm cannon.-Design and development:...

  • Warsaw
    Warsaw
    Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

     - 3 x Mil Mi-8
    Mil Mi-8
    The Mil Mi-8 is a medium twin-turbine transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. The Mi-8 is the world's most-produced helicopter, and is used by over 50 countries. Russia is the largest operator of the Mi-8/Mi-17 helicopter....

    , 2 x PZL W-3, 1 x Bell 206
    Bell 206
    The Bell 206 is a family of two-bladed, single- or twin-engine helicopters, manufactured by Bell Helicopter at its Mirabel, Quebec plant. Originally developed as the Bell YOH-4 for the United States Army's Light Observation Helicopter program, the 206 failed to be selected...

  • Łódź - 2 x Mil Mi-2
    Mil Mi-2
    The Mil Mi-2 is a small, lightly armored transport helicopter that could also provide close air support when armed with 57 mm rockets and a 23 mm cannon.-Design and development:...

  • Poznań
    Poznan
    Poznań is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 556,022 in June 2009. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be...

     - 2 x Mil Mi-2
    Mil Mi-2
    The Mil Mi-2 is a small, lightly armored transport helicopter that could also provide close air support when armed with 57 mm rockets and a 23 mm cannon.-Design and development:...

  • Wrocław - 2 x Mil Mi-2
    Mil Mi-2
    The Mil Mi-2 is a small, lightly armored transport helicopter that could also provide close air support when armed with 57 mm rockets and a 23 mm cannon.-Design and development:...



In addition to the airborne and land-based patrol units of the Policja, many regional commands, and especially those based near the coast or through which major waterways flow, have maritime units. The largest of police maritime units are currently found on the Vistula
Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 river in Warsaw (under the command of the Capital Police) and the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, or Warmia-Masuria Province , is a voivodeship in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn...

 where there is a large network of lakes and rivers. In coastal areas, maritime law enforcement cooperation also exists between the Policja and the Polish Border Guard.

General commandant of the Policja



general commandants
Name From Until Reason
Leszek Lamparski May 1990 July 1991 dismissed
Roman Hula July 1991 January 1992 resigned and retired
Zenon Smolarek March 1992 March 1995 retired
Jerzy Stańczyk March 1995 January 1997 retired
Marek Papała  January 1997 January 1998 assassinated
Jan Michna January 1998 October 2001 resigned
Antoni Kowalczyk October 2001 October 2003 resigned after scandal
Leszek Szreder October 2003 October 2005 dismissed
Marek Bieńkowski October 2005 February 2007 resigned
Konrad Kornatowski
Konrad Kornatowski
Konrad Kornatowski is a Polish lawyer and policeman; from February 12 to August 8 Polish Chief of Police. On August 9, 2007, he resigned as Poland's Chief of Police in protest of the sacking on the same day of Interior Minister Janusz Kaczmarek.On August 30, 2007, Kornatowski was detained and...

 
February 2007 August 2007 resigned
Tadeusz Budzik August 2007 March 2008 resigned
Andrzej Matejuk March 2008 incumbent incumbent


The Policja's general commandant is the senior-most officer of the Polish police. The rank of the general commandant (usually General Inspector) is considered to be equivalent to that of a ranking general in the Polish military and this both himself and his subordinate chief inspectors (who are also considered Police 'Generals') are entitled to wear embroidered white eagles, the state symbol, on their uniform lapels.

The general commandant's office is based in Warsaw's Mostowski Palace
Mostowski Palace
Mostowski Palace is an 18th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland, located at ul. Nowolipie 2 — prior to World War II, at ul...

. It is from here that the day to day administration and organisation of the Polish police's activities is coordinated. The commandant's office is considered to have jurisdictional supremacy over all its other commands, and voivodeship/muunicipal commandants are responsible to the general commandant in their capacity as his regional 'executives'.

The office of general commandant has existed in a number of guises throughout the existence of the Polish police, and whilst the current office came into being following Poland's transformation into a liberal democracy in 1990, the same rank was also used for the highest ranking officer of the State Police of the Second Republic
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland , the Polish state was...

 during the inter-war years. Nowadays, holders of this office are considered to be successors to the commandants of the inter-war state police; commanding officers of the communist-era Milicja Obywatelska (Citizens' Militia) however, are not considered successors of the original cadre of Policja generals as they exercised authority over an organisation often utilised by the state as an instrument of political oppression.

Since 1990 there have been eleven general commandants of the Policja who have completed their service; of whom eight have voluntary left office, two have been dismissed, and one assassinated. General Inspector Marek Papała, the only holder of the office to have died in the course of carrying out his duty, was assassinated by a person or persons unknown on 25 June 1998. He was shot in he head with a silenced weapon whilst exiting his car near his home in Warsaw's southern Mokotów
Mokotów
Mokotów is a dzielnica of Warsaw, the capital of Poland. Mokotów is densely populated. It is a seat to many foreign embassies and companies...

 district. The commandant's murder remains unsolved and is considered to be one of the most significant outstanding cases under active investigation by the Polish police.

Rank structure


{| width="75%" style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background-color:#FFFFFF; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin: 0px 12px 12px 0px;"
|- bgcolor="#CCCCCC"
!
! colspan="5" | Junior officers
! colspan="4" | Senior officers
|- align="center" bgcolor="#efefef"
| Shoulder insignia
for every day uniform
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|- align="center" valign="center"
|- align="center" bgcolor="#efefef"
| Rank
| Officer
| Senior
officer
| Sergeant
| Senior
sergeant
| Staff
sergeant
| Junior
subaltern
| Subaltern
| Senior
subaltern
| Staff
subaltern
|- align="center" bgcolor="#efefef"
{| width="100%" style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background-color:#FFFFFF; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin: 0px 12px 12px 0px;"
|- bgcolor="#CCCCCC"
|}

{| width="75%" style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background-color:#FFFFFF; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin: 0px 12px 12px 0px;"
|- bgcolor="#CCCCCC"
!
! colspan="3" | Junior supervisory officers
! colspan="3" | Senior supervisory officers
! colspan="2" | General officers
|- align="center" bgcolor="#efefef"
| Shoulder insignia
for every day uniform
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|- align="center" valign="center"
|- align="center" bgcolor="#efefef"
| Rank
|Under-
commissioner
|Commissioner
|Chief
commissioner
|Under-
inspector
|Assistant
inspector
|Inspector
|Chief
inspector
|General
inspector
|- align="center" bgcolor="#efefef"
|- bgcolor="#CCCCCC"
|}

Structure and branches of the Policja


The Policja is currently divided into a number of different services. Each voivodeship/municipal command has subdivisions within its force. This leaves the police service with a large number of specialised branches which can more specifically target certain types of crime and apply more expert knowledge in the investigation of cases relating to their area of policing. In addition to these specific groups, all police forces retain a majority of officers for the purpose of patrol duty and general law enforcement.

Typically a constituent force of the Policja will contain the following subdivisions within its structure:
  • Criminal Police - investigation and prevention of serious and violent crime
    • The criminal police may include specislised teams such as anti-drugs and financial crime prevention units
    • All forces have crime scene and forensics units
  • Preventative Police - general law enforcement operations and patrol duty (includes anti-terrorist and riot police divisions)
  • Traffic Police - road safety, traffic marshalling and highway patrol/pursuit
  • Logistical Support Police - provision of logistical support and technical skills
  • Police Aviation Service - aviation support (not present in every force)
  • Investigative Police - investigation of complex cases and process of referral to the state prosecutor's office
  • Judicial Police - protection of court and state prosecutor's office premises, judges, prosecutors, victims and suspects, execution of court orders
  • Maritime Police - maritime patrol and pursuit


{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
|+Service uniform sleeve insignia for uniformed officers
|-
|Branch||Criminal||Preventative||Traffic||Logistical Support||Special Branch||Judicial
|-
|Insignia||||||||||||
|}

Anti-terrorist forces (BOA/SPAP)



The Policja has highly qualified and well equipped counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 formations. The central (national-level) anti-terrorist force is BOA (Biuro Operacji Antyterrorystycznych, Bureau of Anti-terrorist Operations), which reports directly to the general commandant of the Police. On a regional level, voivodeship commands have control of smaller units called SPAP (Samodzielny Pododdział Antyterrorystyczny Policji, Independent Anti-terrorist Police Subunit), these units are responsible for hostage rescue operations, high-risk arrests, search warrant execution service, and other similar tasks.

Because of their training and skill level, members of the BOA and SPAP units cooperate with similar special police formations from the Czech Republic, United States, UK, Ukraine, France, and Israel. They also, on occasion, train with servicemen from Poland's Special Forces
Special forces of Poland
Wojska Specjalne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, WS RP is the 4th branch of Armed Forces of Republic of Poland formed in early 2007...

, an independent branch of the Polish military.

Peacekeeping and international cooperation


Since the Policja's foundation in its current form in 1990, the service has taken part and continues to participate in a number of international peacekeeping and international police missions around the world. To date the Policja has sent officers to participate in the following international peacekeeping missions:
  • United Nations Mission in Liberia
    United Nations Mission in Liberia
    The United Nations Mission in Liberia is a peace-keeping force established in September 2003 to monitor a ceasefire agreement in Liberia following the resignation of President Charles Taylor and the conclusion of the Second Liberian Civil War....

     (UNMIL) - 3 officers
  • European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM) - initially 12 officers (2003), later reduced to 3 senior advisers (2009)
  • European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan
    European Union Police Mission
    The European Union Police Mission is the European Union's mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina that aids the local police organizations, and is one of a number of European Union Police Missions worldwide. It is the first such mission undertaken by the EU within the framework of the Common Foreign and...

     (EUPOL Afghanistan) - 3 officers and 2 senior advisers
  • European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM) - 10 officers (working alongside 16 officers of the Military Gendarmerie
    Military Gendarmerie
    The Military Gendarmerie is a military provost formation created in 1990 in Poland.-History:Polish military police traces its history to the communist era Military Internal Service , World War II-era Service for Protection of the Uprising , interwar-era military police in the Second Polish Republic,...

    )
  • European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo
    European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo
    The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, EULEX Kosovo, is a deployment of European Union police and civilian resources to Kosovo...

     (EULEX) - 8 senior advisers

In addition to participating in international missions, the Policja also send delegates to and cooperate with international law enforcement agencies and organisations such as Europol
Europol
Europol is the European Union's criminal intelligence agency. It became fully operational on 1 July 1999....

 and Interpol
Interpol
Interpol, whose full name is the International Criminal Police Organization – INTERPOL, is an organization facilitating international police cooperation...

. Currently the Polish officers make up the eighth largest staff contingent of Europol; a figure which is expected to rise as the Polish police force becomes more integrated with, and more active within, the organisation. Europol has also become far more important to Poland's policing community in recent years since Poland, in 2007, became a signatory of the Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty signed on 14 June 1985 near the town of Schengen in Luxembourg, between five of the ten member states of the European Economic Community. It was supplemented by the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement 5 years later...

, allowing for greater European integration, uninterrupted travel, and cross-border police cooperation. To this end, Polish cooperation with the German
Law enforcement in Germany
Law enforcement in Germany is constitutionally vested solely with the states, which is one of the main features of the German political system. Therefore, unlike France, Italy, the United States, Canada or many other countries, Germany has no federal police force comparable to the Italian...

, Czech, Slovakian
Law enforcement in Slovakia
Law enforcement in Slovakia is divided among various agencies under the Slovak ministries of Interior, Justice, Traffic, Defense, Finance and local governments within the Republic. The Slovak Secret Service also lists among its tasks those usually reserved for the police force, for example...

 and Lithuanian
Law enforcement in Lithuania
Law enforcement in Lithuania is the responsibility of a "unified national police force under the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry." From the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which is led by the Police Commissar General, the police force branches out to the National and...

 police services has reached an all time high. Furthermore, the Policja officers have taken part in a number of foreign police officer training and exchange programs, such as Project Lifesaver, which has seen a number of officers sent to the UK to observe and discuss alternative methods of policing abroad.

As a constituent member of Interpol, the Polish police is expected to adhere to the terms of International arrest warrants and cooperate with the police forces of other nations through formal diplomatic channels. In many cases such cooperation has led to the arrest of high-risk criminals.

Organisation


The Polish Police is a centralised police force, organised under one central command in Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 and with all officers assigned to one of 17 voivodeship
Voivodeship
Voivodship is a term denoting the position of, or more commonly the area administered by, a voivod. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times in Poland, Romania, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and Serbia....

/municipal operations' commands, except in the case that they are specialists working independently for the national commandant.

Regional commands


{| class="wikitable" style="width:70%; font-size:85%;"
|-
!colspan="2"| Territorial Force !!rowspan="2"| Seat of Command
! style="width:30%;"| Voivodeship
Voivodeship
Voivodship is a term denoting the position of, or more commonly the area administered by, a voivod. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times in Poland, Romania, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and Serbia....

 / Municipality
!! style="width:30%;"| Police Force
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...


| Greater Poland
Greater Poland Voivodeship
Wielkopolska Voivodeship , or Greater Poland Voivodeship, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland. It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznań, Kalisz, Konin, Piła and Leszno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998...

 || Greater Poland Command || Poznań
Poznan
Poznań is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 556,022 in June 2009. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be...


| Kuyavian-Pomeranian
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
-Transportation:Transportation infrastructure is of critical importance to the voivodeship's economy. Kuyavia-Pomerania is a major node point in the Polish transportation system. Railway lines from the South and East pass through Bydgoszcz in order to reach the major ports on the Baltic Sea...

 || Kuyavian-Pomeranian Command || Bydgoszcz
| Lesser Poland
Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Małopolska Voivodeship , or Lesser Poland Voivodeship, is a voivodeship, in southern Poland...

 || Lesser Poland Command || Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...


| Łódź || Łódź Voivodeship Command || Łódź
| Lower Silesian
Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province , is one of the 16 voivodeships into which Poland is currently divided. It lies in southwestern Poland...

 || Lower Silesian Command || Wrocław
| Lublin
Lublin Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties : 4 city counties and 20 land counties. These are further divided into 213 gminas....

 || Lublin Voivodeship Command || Lublin
Lublin
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 350,392 . Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula river...


| Lubusz
Lubusz Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Lubusz Voivodeship is divided into 14 counties : 2 city counties and 12 land counties. These are further divided into 83 gminas....

 || Lubusz Command || Gorzów Wielkopolski
Gorzów Wielkopolski
Gorzów Wielkopolski is a city in western Poland, on the Warta river. It is the biggest city in the Lubusz Voivodeship with 125,149 inhabitants...


| Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 || Capital Police Command || Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...


| Masovian
Masovian Voivodeship
-Administrative division:Masovian Voivodeship is divided into 42 counties : 5 city counties and 37 "land counties"...

 || Masovian Command || Radom
Radom
Radom is a city in central Poland with 223,397 inhabitants . It is located on the Mleczna River in the Masovian Voivodeship , having previously been the capital of Radom Voivodeship ; 100 km south of Poland's capital, Warsaw.It is home to the biennial Radom Air Show, the largest and...


| Opole
Opole Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Opole Voivodeship is divided into 12 counties : 1 city county and 11 land counties. These are further divided into 71 gminas.The counties are listed in the following table .- Economy :...

 || Opole Voivodeship Command || Opole
Opole
Opole is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River . It has a population of 125,992 and is the capital of the Upper Silesia, Opole Voivodeship and, also the seat of Opole County...


| Podlaskie
Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship , is a voivodeship in northeastern Poland. It borders on Masovian Voivodeship to the west, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the northwest, Lublin Voivodeship to the south, the Belarusssian Voblasts of Grodno and Brest to the east, the Lithuanian Counties of Alytus and...

 || Podlaskie Command || Białystok
| Pomeranian
Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship, or Pomerania Province , is a voivodeship, or province, in north-central Poland. It comprises most of Pomerelia , as well as an area east of the Vistula River...

 || Pomeranian Command || Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...


| Silesian
Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province , is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centering on the historic region known as Upper Silesia...

 || Silesian Command || Katowice
Katowice
Katowice is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers . Katowice is located in the Silesian Highlands, about north of the Silesian Beskids and about southeast of the Sudetes Mountains.It is the central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2...


| Subcarpathian
Subcarpathian Voivodeship
Podkarpackie Voivodeship , or Subcarpathian Voivodeship, is a voivodeship, or province, in extreme-southeastern Poland. Its administrative capital and largest city is Rzeszów...

 || Subcarpathian Command || Rzeszów
Rzeszów
Rzeszów is a city in southeastern Poland with a population of 179,455 in 2010. It is located on both sides of the Wisłok River, in the heartland of the Sandomierska Valley...


| Świętokrzyskie
Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship
Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, or Świętokrzyskie Province , is one of the 16 voivodeships into which Poland is presently divided. It is situated in central Poland, in the historical province of Lesser Poland, and takes its name from the Świętokrzyskie mountain range...

 || Świętokrzyskie Command || Kielce
Kielce
Kielce ) is a city in central Poland with 204,891 inhabitants . It is also the capital city of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999, previously in Kielce Voivodeship...


| Warmian-Masurian
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, or Warmia-Masuria Province , is a voivodeship in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn...

 || Warmian-Masurian Command || Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Olsztyn is a city in northeastern Poland, on the Łyna River. Olsztyn has been the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship since 1999. It was previously in the Olsztyn Voivodeship...


| West Pomeranian
West Pomeranian Voivodeship
West Pomeranian Voivodeship, , is a voivodeship in northwestern Poland. It borders on Pomeranian Voivodeship to the east, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the southeast, Lubusz Voivodeship to the south, the German federal-state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania to the west, and the Baltic Sea to the north...

 || West Pomeranian Command || Szczecin
Szczecin
Szczecin , is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Sea. As of June 2009 the population was 406,427....


|}

Police training establishments


The Policja has five training establishments sited within Poland. Four of these training establishments are police schools
Police academy
A police academy is a training school for new police recruits, also known as a law enforcement academy.-Australia:Larger police departments usually run their own academies. States often run a centralised academy for training of personnel of law enforcement agencies within the state.Police...

 for enlisted personnel, whilst the fifth is a higher educational institution tasked with the education of officers and senior officials in a range of disciplines and expertises. The four junior colleges are located in:
  • Piła, Greater Poland Voivodeship
    Greater Poland Voivodeship
    Wielkopolska Voivodeship , or Greater Poland Voivodeship, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland. It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznań, Kalisz, Konin, Piła and Leszno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998...

     - Piła Police School
  • Słupsk, Pomeranian Voivodeship
    Pomeranian Voivodeship
    Pomeranian Voivodeship, or Pomerania Province , is a voivodeship, or province, in north-central Poland. It comprises most of Pomerelia , as well as an area east of the Vistula River...

     - Słupsk Police School
  • Katowice
    Katowice
    Katowice is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers . Katowice is located in the Silesian Highlands, about north of the Silesian Beskids and about southeast of the Sudetes Mountains.It is the central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2...

    , Silesian Voivodeship
    Silesian Voivodeship
    Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province , is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centering on the historic region known as Upper Silesia...

     - Katowice Police School
  • Legionowo
    Legionowo
    Legionowo is a town in Masovia . According to the 2004 Census estimate the town has a total population of 50,759.Legionowo is located ca. 23 km to the north-east of the center of Warsaw and only 7 km to the south of Zegrze Reservoir , near the Warsaw-Gdańsk railroad and Warsaw-Suwałki...

    , Masovian Voivodeship
    Masovian Voivodeship
    -Administrative division:Masovian Voivodeship is divided into 42 counties : 5 city counties and 37 "land counties"...

     - Police Training Centre

The final police training establishment in Poland is the or Higher Police School in Szczytno
Szczytno
Szczytno is a town in north-eastern Poland with 27,970 inhabitants . Previously part of the Olsztyn Voivodeship, Szczytno was assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in 1999. It is the seat of Szczytno County....

 (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, or Warmia-Masuria Province , is a voivodeship in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn...

). This school was founded in 1954 as the officer academy of the Milicja Obywatelska
Milicja Obywatelska
Milicja Obywatelska was a state police institution in the People's Republic of Poland. It was created in 1944 by Soviet-sponsored PKWN, effectively replacing the pre-war police force. In 1990 it was transformed back into Policja....

, renamed in 1972 to the Higher Militia School, the college finally became the Higher Police School upon Poland's return to liberal democracy in 1990. Since then it has remained the only establishment in the country certified to run courses for commissioned officers of the Polish police, and the officer's commissioning course. All students who attend the Higher Police School are expected to study criminal, constitutional and economic law. In addition to academic studies, officer candidates are trained in modern policing techniques, weapons' handling, and informatics. The college has numerous links with senior police academies in Europe and throughout the wider world.

Cricitism of the Policja


Overall the level of trust in the Policja and its work has increased steadily over the years since 2001. In 2001 only 46% of respondents to a national survey carried out on behalf of the police categorised their work and achievements as 'good', however, by the end of 2009 this figure had grown significantly, and despite small undulations, an average of 72% rated the Policja's work as 'good' or better. This brings the level of trust in the police to around the same level of 64-75% seen in other member states of the European Union.

Much in the same way as other national police forces, the Policja is sometimes criticised for the methods it employs in maintaining law and order, such criticism is typically voiced by Polish youth. This is most commonly expressed with the acronyms HWDP
HWDP
HWDP or ChWDP is a frequently used acronym of a Polish vulgar phrase chuj w dupę policji, meaning literally a dick up the police's ass...

 and JP
JP
-People:* Jayaprakash Narayan, a late Indian freedom fighter and politician* Jayaprakash Narayan , an Indian politician and founder of Lok Satta Party...

.

Equipment


All uniformed and most non-uniformed officers of the state police are routinely armed. In addition to their firearm, Policja officers carry handcuffs
Handcuffs
Handcuffs are restraint devices designed to secure an individual's wrists close together. They comprise two parts, linked together by a chain, a hinge, or rigid bar. Each half has a rotating arm which engages with a ratchet that prevents it from being opened once closed around a person's wrist...

 and a number of other pieces of equipment which usually includes a personal radio system for communication with other officers and their police station. Pepper spray
Pepper spray
Pepper spray, also known as OC spray , OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears...

 is also commonly issued to officers in order to provide them with an alternative non-violent weapon with which to incapacitate violent suspects.

Riot police, when needs be, are provided with non-ballistic body armour, helmets and shields. The existence of a well-enforced ban on civilian-owned firearms in Poland has significantly aided the police in keeping gun crime to a minimum, and thus the incidence of police firearms use is low.

Firearms


{|
|-
| valign="top" width="33%"|
Assault rifles (used by special branch only)
  • AKMS
  • H&K G-36
    Heckler & Koch G36
    The Heckler & Koch G36 is a 5.56×45mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch in Germany as a replacement for the 7.62mm G3 battle rifle. It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3...

     (limited use)
  • HK-416 (limited use in Anti-terrorism Squad)
  • HK-417 (limited use in Anti-terrorism Squad)


Sniper rifles
  • SVD
  • SAKO
    SAKO
    SAKO, Limited is a Finnish firearm manufacturer located in Riihimäki....

     TRG-21
  • SAKO
    SAKO
    SAKO, Limited is a Finnish firearm manufacturer located in Riihimäki....

     TRG-22
  • SAKO
    SAKO
    SAKO, Limited is a Finnish firearm manufacturer located in Riihimäki....

     TRG-42


Grenade launchers
  • RWGŁ-3
  • AWGŁ-1
  • GL-06
    Brügger & Thomet GL-06
    The GL-06 grenade launcher is a stand-alone shoulder-firing non-lethal weapon intended for military and police applications. The GL-06 was developed in response to a recent request from the police force of a leading European nation which sought to obtain a non-lethal weapon for anti-riot...

  • HK69
    Heckler & Koch HK69A1
    The HK69A1 is a 40 mm grenade launcher developed and produced by the German arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch . The weapon was designed to engage enemy troops and strongpoints out to a distance of 350 m; it can also be used to deploy smoke grenades and illumination flares.-Development:The launcher’s...



Shotguns
  • Mossberg
    Mossberg
    - Firearms :* O.F. Mossberg & Sons, a US firearms manufacturerFirearms manufactured by O.F. Mossberg & Sons:* Mossberg 183, a .410-bore bolt-action shotgun* Mossberg 185, a 20-gauge bolt-action shotgun* Mossberg 930, a semi-automatic shotgun...

      (590 model)
  • Remington
    Remington
    - People :* Eliphalet Remington , American firearms designer* Philo Remington , American firearms and typewriter manufacturer, son of Eliphalet Remington* Frederic Remington , American painter and sculptor...

     (870 MCS)
  • Hatsan (Escort model)
  • Benelli M3
    Benelli M3
    The Benelli M3 is a dual-mode shotgun designed and manufactured by Italian firearms manufacturer Benelli. The M3 holds a maximum of seven rounds and uses the proprietary Benelli semi-automatic system first showcased in the M1. The M3 is notable for allowing the user the choice of semi-automatic...

     (limited use)

| valign="top" width="33%"|
Handguns:
  • Walther P99
    Walther P99
    The Walther P99 is a semi-automatic pistol developed by the German company Carl Walther GmbH Sportwaffen of Ulm for law enforcement, security forces and the civilian shooting market as a replacement for the Walther P5 and the P88...

     (manufactured in Poland in Łucznik Arms Factory under licence)
  • Glock-17
  • Glock-19
  • Glock-26
  • P-83 Wanad
    P-83 Wanad
    The P-83 Wanad is a 9 mm Polish semi-automatic pistol, chambered for the 9x18mm Makarov cartridge and designed by Ryszard Chełmicki and Marian Gryszkiewicz of the state research institute Ośrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy in Radom...

  • P-64
  • CZ-75 (limited use)
  • Gward (virtually phased out)
  • Taurus
    Taurus (manufacturer)
    Forjas Taurus is a manufacturing conglomerate based in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Beginning as a tool and die manufacturer, the company now consists of divisions focusing on firearms, metals manufacturing, plastics, body armor, helmets, and civil construction.-History:Taurus produced its first...

     (virtually phased out)

Sub-machine guns (used by special weapons units only)
  • PM-84 Glauberyt
    PM-84 Glauberyt
    The PM-84 Glauberyt is a Polish submachine gun. It is a personal weapon intended for combat and self-defense at ranges up to 150 m with single shot or fully automatic fire mode. It features compact design, minimum overall dimensions, small weight, very good accuracy, and fire stability...

  • PM-98 Glauberyt
  • H&K MP5  (limited use)
  • H&K UMP (9mm variant, limited use)
  • IMI Uzi (limited use)
  • FN P-90 (limited use)
  • PM-63 RAK
    PM-63 Rak
    The PM-63 RAK is a Polish 9mm submachine gun, designed by Piotr Wilniewczyc in cooperation with Tadeusz Bednarski, Grzegorz Czubak and Marian Wakalski...

     ( virtually phased out)

|}

Representative Band of the Policja



The Policja's representative band was first founded in 1968. Its core was composed of a group of several musicians, which gradually expanded. From the beginning, the band improved rapidly, reaching a high artistic level, as reflected in the discretion of the judges at musical contests nationwide. In the years 1984, 1986, 1988, the band won its most prestigious trophy, the Cup of the Minister of Internal Affairs. From the outset, the musicians performed at various national, departmental, religious and state events.

The band's musicians have on numerous occasions represented the Polish police outside the country, including concerts in Denmark, Belgium, Czech Republic, Belarus and Russia, yet they still value their well-kept tradition of playing performances for the ordinary residents of Warsaw. Its musicians annually take part in the International Congress of Music in Krakow and donate all the proceeds of their performances to a number of charities for the sick and disadvantaged. The band's musical repertoire includes marches, concert pieces, transcriptions of orchestral music and religious songs, as well as a great deal of other developmental music. Being the official representative band of the Policja, the group's musicians are often invited to play parade music for important events on national holidays such as the 3rd May Constitution Day.

On the 40th anniversary of the Policja's band, 22nd January 2009, a large concert was held at the Bajka theatre in Warsaw. The program included, inter alia, a solo performance of the Włodzimierz Korcz theme from the series 07 zgłoś się
07 zgłoś się
07 zgłoś się is a very successful Polish criminal television series. Directed by Krzysztof Szmagier, it centers around the investigations of Police lieutenant Sławomir Borewicz, played by Bronisław Cieślak....

.

See also

  • Milicja Obywatelska
    Milicja Obywatelska
    Milicja Obywatelska was a state police institution in the People's Republic of Poland. It was created in 1944 by Soviet-sponsored PKWN, effectively replacing the pre-war police force. In 1990 it was transformed back into Policja....

     (MO) - communist era police/militia service
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji)
  • Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB) - communist era secret police service

External links


Further reading