Piast dynasty

Piast dynasty

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The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty
Dynasty
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family. Historians traditionally consider many sovereign states' history within a framework of successive dynasties, e.g., China, Ancient Egypt and the Persian Empire...

 of Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

. It began with the semi-legendary Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright)
Piast the Wheelwright
Piast Kołodziej was a semi-legendary figure in prehistoric Poland , the founder of the Piast dynasty that would rule the future Kingdom of Poland.- Legend and aftermath :...

. The first historical ruler was Duke Mieszko I (10th cent.). The Piasts' royal rule in Poland
Poland during the Piast dynasty
History of Poland during the Piast dynasty is the first major stage in the history of Poland from the 10th to the 14th century when Poland was established as a state and a nation during the medieval period of European history. The history of the Polish state begins with the founding of the Piast...

 ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir the Great
Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III the Great , last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty , was the son of King Władysław I the Elbow-high and Hedwig of Kalisz.-Biography:...

. Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia
Duchy of Masovia
The Duchy of Masovia with its capital at Płock was a medieval duchy formed when the Polish Kingdom of the Piasts fragmented in 1138. It was located in the historic Masovian region of northeastern Poland...

 and in the duchies of Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

 after 1370, until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire.

Origin of the name


Although the early dukes and kings of Poland regarded themselves as descendants of Piast, the term "Piast Dynasty" originated in the 17th century:
historians working for a number of rulers who governed duchies in Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

 invented the concept. In a historical book the term was first used by Adam Naruszewicz
Adam Naruszewicz
Adam Stanisław Naruszewicz was a Polish nobleman from an impoverished aristocratic family, poet, historian, dramatist, translator, publicist, Jesuit and titular Bishop of Smolensk and bishop of Łuck .His family had a small estate in Polesie and he was educated at Pinsk.As a senator he...

 in his History of the Polish Nation (1780–86).

History of the dynasty


Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright)
Piast the Wheelwright
Piast Kołodziej was a semi-legendary figure in prehistoric Poland , the founder of the Piast dynasty that would rule the future Kingdom of Poland.- Legend and aftermath :...

 was the legendary founder of the Piast dynasty. His name is first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum
Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum
The Gesta principum Polonorum is a medieval gesta, or deeds narrative, concerned with Duke Boleslaw III Wrymouth, his ancestors, and the Polish principality during and before his reign. Probably completed between 1112 and 1118, the extant text is present in three manuscripts with two distinct...

of Gallus Anonymus
Gallus Anonymus
Gallus Anonymus is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum , composed in Latin about 1115....

, written c. 1113. The last Silesian Piast George William of Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau (Brzeg and Legnica) died in 1675, although numerous families link their genealogy to the Piasts. His son August Freiherr von Liegnitz (1628) and Graf von Liegnitz (1664), the last legitimate male, died in 1679 and the last male through illegitimate line Ferdinand II Freiherr von und zu Hohenstein of the Dukes of Teschen died in 1706. Another illegitimate branch, the Grafen von Karlinsmarck zu Friedland (Korfantów
Korfantów
Korfantów is a town in the Opole Voivodeship of Poland. It has a population of approximately 1,860 inhabitants. It is named after Wojciech Korfanty....

) und Strehlitz, born of Bernhard of Silesia-Oppeln, duke of Falkenberg, by a lady Karlinska of Karlowice, died out at the beginning of the 19th century in a French family.

About 1295 Przemysł II used for arms a white eagle – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms (see depiction) or as the Piast Eagle.

For more information about the history of Poland under the Piasts, see History of Poland (966–1385).

Piast kings and rulers of Poland are listed in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs.
Name Reigned
Chościsko
Choscisko
Chościsko is a legendary figure in a Polish prehistory, father of Piast the Wheelwright, the founder of the Piast dynasty. His name occurs in the first Polish chronicle, Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus, where the author refers three times to Piast as the son of...

 (legendary)
9th century
Piast Kołodziej
Piast the Wheelwright
Piast Kołodziej was a semi-legendary figure in prehistoric Poland , the founder of the Piast dynasty that would rule the future Kingdom of Poland.- Legend and aftermath :...

 (legendary)
9th century
Siemowit
Siemowit
Siemowit was, according to the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, the son of Piast the Wheelwright and Rzepicha. He was considered one of the four legendary Piast princes, but is now considered as a ruler who existed as a historical person....

/Ziemowit (semi-legendary)
9th – 10th century
Lestko
Lestko
Lestko is the second legendary duke of Poland, and son of Siemowit, born ca. 870-880. Though proof of his actual existence is unclear, if he did exist, he must have been an influential person, because the tribes that lived in what is now Poland were known as "Lestkowici".- Bibliography :*...

/Leszek (semi-legendary)
9th – 10th century
Siemomysł
Siemomysl
Siemomysł was the third pagan Polans duke, listed by Gallus Anonymous in his Gesta principum Polonorum, of Piast dynasty, and the father of Poland's first historical ruler, Mieszko I. He was son of the second known Polans duke Lestek...

/Ziemomysł (semi-legendary)
10th c.–ca.960
Mieszko I (first historical ruler, see Dagome Iudex
Dagome iudex
"Dagome iudex" is one of the earliest historical documents relating to Poland. Poland is not mentioned by name, but reference is made to Dagome and Ote and their sons in 991, placing their land under the protection of the Apostolic See...

)
ca.960–92
Boleslaus I of Poland (the Brave) 992–1025
Mieszko II Lambert 1025–34
Bezprym
Bezprym
Bezprym was a Duke of Poland during 1031–1032.He was the eldest son of Bolesław I the Brave, King of Poland, but was deprived of the succession by his father, who around 1001 sent him to Italy, in order to became a monk at one of Saint Romuald's hermitages in Ravenna.Expelled by his half-brother...

 
1031
Casimir the Restorer
Casimir I of Poland
Casimir I the Restorer , was a Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de facto monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death....

 
1034–58
Boleslaus II the Bold  1058–79
Ladislaus Herman of Poland  1079–1102
Zbigniew and Boleslaus III of Poland (the Wrymouthed) 1102–07
Boleslaus III of Poland the Wrymouthed 1107–38
Ladislaus the Exile  1138–46
Boleslaus the Curly  1146–73
Mieszko the Old  1173–77
Casimir the Just  1177–94
Leszek the White and Ladislaus Spindleshanks 1194–1202
Ladislaus Spindleshanks  1202
Leszek the White  1202–10
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot was a Duke of Silesia from 1163 to 1173 , Duke of Racibórz from 1173, Duke of Opole from 1202 and from 9 June 1210 until his death, Duke of Kraków and High Duke of Poland....

 
1210–11
Leszek the White  1211–27
Ladislaus Spindleshanks  1228
Konrad of Masovia  1229–32
Henry the Bearded  1232–38
Henry the Pious
Henry II the Pious
Henry II the Pious , of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland as well as Duke of Southern Greater Poland from 1238 until his death. During 1238–1239 he also served as a regent of two other Piast duchies: Sandomierz...

 
1238–41
Konrad of Masovia  1241–43
Boleslaus the Bashful  1243–79
Leszek the Black  1279–88
Henry IV Probus  1288–90
Przemysl II  1290–91
Ladislaus the Short  1306–33
Casimir the Great
Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III the Great , last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty , was the son of King Władysław I the Elbow-high and Hedwig of Kalisz.-Biography:...

 
1333–70

See also

  • :Category:House of Piast
  • List of Polish rulers
  • Dukes of Silesia
    Dukes of Silesia
    The Dukes of Silesia were the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into 4-5 hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the...

     and Silesian Piasts
    Silesian Piasts
    The Silesian Piasts were the oldest line of the Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile, son of Bolesław III Wrymouth, Duke of Poland...

  • Dukes of Masovia
    Dukes of Masovia
    The Dukes of Masovia were a line of the Piast dynasty who ruled in Masovia. The following is a list of all rulers of the Duchy of Masovia and its parts...

  • Dukes of Greater Poland
    Dukes of Greater Poland
    The Duchy of Greater Poland was a historical state of Poland, which existed from 1138 until 1320.-History:At the death of Polish duke Boleslaus III the Wrymouth , according to his testament, his country was divided by his will into 4-5 hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and the royal...

  • Dukes of Cuiavia
  • Dukes of Leczyca
  • Dukes of Sieradz
  • Poland during the Piast dynasty
    Poland during the Piast dynasty
    History of Poland during the Piast dynasty is the first major stage in the history of Poland from the 10th to the 14th century when Poland was established as a state and a nation during the medieval period of European history. The history of the Polish state begins with the founding of the Piast...


External links