Pesticide toxicity to bees

Pesticide toxicity to bees

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Encyclopedia
Pesticides vary in their effects on bees. Contact pesticides are usually sprayed on plants and can kill bees when they crawl over sprayed surfaces of plants or other media. Systemic pesticides, on the other hand, are usually incorporated into the soil or onto seeds and move up into the stem, leaves, nectar, and pollen of plants.

Dust and wettable powder pesticides tend to be more hazardous to bees than solutions or emulsifiable concentrates for contact pesticides.

Actual damage to bee populations is a function of toxicity and exposure of the compound, in combination with the mode of application. A systemic pesticide, which is incorporated into the soil or coated on seeds, may kill soil-dwelling insects, such as grubs
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

 or mole cricket
Mole cricket
The mole crickets compose family Gryllotalpidae, of thick-bodied insects about long, with large beady eyes and shovel-like forelimbs highly developed for burrowing and swimming. They can also fly: the adult mole cricket may fly as far as during mating season, is active most of the year, and...

s as well as other insects, including bees, that are exposed to the leaves, fruits, pollen, and nectar of the treated plants.

Classification


Insecticide toxicity is generally measured using acute contact toxicity values – the exposure level that causes 50% of the population exposed to die. Toxicity thresholds are generally set at
  • highly toxic (acute LD50 < 2μg/bee)
  • moderately toxic (acute LD50 2 - 10.99μg/bee)
  • slightly toxic (acute LD50 11 - 100μg/bee)
  • non-toxic (acute LD50 > 100μg/bee) to adult bees.

Colony collapse disorder


Colony collapse disorder
Colony Collapse Disorder
Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or European honey bee colony abruptly disappear. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, the term colony collapse disorder was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of...

 (CCD) is a syndrome that is characterized by the sudden loss of adult bees from the hive. Many possible explanations for CCD have been proposed, but no one primary cause has been found. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has indicated in a report to Congress that a combination of factors may be causing CCD, including pesticides, pathogens, and parasites, all of which have been found at high levels in affected bee hives.

For the majority of pesticides that are registered in the United States, EPA only requires a short-term contact toxicity test on adult honeybees. In some cases, the agency also receives short-term oral toxicity tests, which are required in Europe. EPA's testing requirements do not account for sub-lethal effects to bees or effects on brood or larvae. Their testing requirements are also not designed to determine effects in bees from exposure to systemic pesticides. With Colony Collapse Disorder, whole hive tests in the field are needed in order to determine the effects of a pesticide on bee colonies. To date, there are very few scientifically valid whole hive studies that can be used to determine the effects of pesticides on bee colonies.

Bee kill rate per hive


The kill rate of bees in a single bee hive can be classified as:
< 100 bees per day - normal die off rate
200-400 bees per day - low kill
500-900 bees per day - moderate kill
> 1000 bees per day - high kill

Pesticides

Common name (ISO) Examples of Brand names Pesticide Class length of residual toxicity Comments Bee toxicity
Aldicarb
Aldicarb
Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide which is the active substance in the pesticide Temik. It is effective against thrips, aphids, spider mites, lygus, fleahoppers, and leafminers, but is primarily used as a nematicide. Aldicarb is a cholinesterase inhibitor which prevents the breakdown of...

Temik Carbamate apply 4 weeks before bloom Relatively non-toxic
Carbaryl
Carbaryl
Carbaryl is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide. It is a white crystalline solid commonly sold under the brand name Sevin, a trademark of the Bayer Company. Union Carbide discovered carbaryl and introduced it commercially in 1958...

 
Sevin,
(b) Sevin XLR
Carbamate High risk to bees
foraging even 10 hours
after spraying; 3 – 7 days (b) 8 hours @ 1.5 lb/acre (168 g/Ha) or less.
Bees poisoned with carbaryl can take 2–3 days to die, appearing inactive as if cold. It allows them time to take contaminated nectar and pollen back to the colony. Some crops treated with Sevin under the wrong conditions (in bloom, using a dust formulation, with large numbers of bees in the field) have been responsible for disastrous kills. Sevin is one of the United States' most widely used insecticides for a wide variety of insect pests. It is also one of the most toxic to honey bees, in certain formulations. These should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. There are formulations, however, which are determined to be less toxic (see tables). Usually, applicator-beekeeper communication can effectively be used to adequately protect bees from Sevin poisoning. highly toxic
Carbofuran
Carbofuran
Carbofuran is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. It is marketed under the trade names Furadan, by FMC Corporation and Curater, among several others. It is used to control insects in a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans...

 
Furadan Carbamate 7 – 14 days U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ban on use on crops grown for human consumption (2009) carbofuran (banned in granular form) highly toxic
Methomyl
Methomyl
Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide. It was introduced in 1966, but its use is restricted because of its high toxicity to humans. Its current primary use is on alfalfa for forage....

 
Lannate
Methomyl
Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide. It was introduced in 1966, but its use is restricted because of its high toxicity to humans. Its current primary use is on alfalfa for forage....

, Nudrin
Carbamate 2 hours + Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Methiocarb
Methiocarb
Methiocarb is a chemical mainly used as a bird repellent, as a insecticide and as molluscicide. It is toxic to humans, not listed as a carcinogen, is toxic to reproductive organs, and a potent neurotoxin. Methiocarb can also cause acute toxicity in humans if anyone is exposed to it for long periods...

Mesurol Carbamate highly toxic
mexacarbate Zectran Carbamate highly toxic
Pirimicarb
Pirimicarb
Pirimicarb is a carbamate insecticide used to control aphids on vegetable, cereal and orchard crops by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity. It was originally developed by Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., now Syngenta, in 1970....

Pirimor, Aphox Carbamate Relatively non-toxic
Propoxur
Propoxur
Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide and was introduced in 1959. Propoxur is a non-systemic insecticide with a fast knockdown and long residual effect used against turf, forestry, and household pests and fleas. It is also used in pest control for other domestic animals, Anopheles mosquitoes, ants,...

 
Baygon
Baygon
Baygon is a pesticide brand produced by S. C. Johnson & Son. It is an insecticide used for extermination and control of many household pests and is very effective for crickets, roaches, ants, carpenter ants, spiders, silverfish, mosquito, and others...

Carbamate
Carbamate
Carbamates are organic compounds derived from carbamic acid . A carbamate group, carbamate ester, and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate esters are also called urethanes.-Synthesis:Carbamic acids are derived...

highly toxic
Acephate
Acephate
Acephate is an organophosphate foliar insecticide of moderate persistence with residual systemic activity of about 10-15 days at the recommended use rate. It is used primarily for control of aphids, including resistant species, in vegetables and in horticulture...

 
Orthene Organophosphate 3 days Moderately toxic
Azinphos-methyl
Azinphos-methyl
Azinphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide manufactured by Bayer CropScience, Gowan Co., and Makhteshim Agan. Like other pesticides in this class, it owes its insecticidal properties to the fact that it is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.-History and uses:Azinphos-methyl is...

 
Guthion, Methyl-Guthion Organophosphate 2.5 days banned in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 since 2006
.
highly toxic
Chlorpyrifos
Chlorpyrifos
Chlorpyrifos is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. It is known by many trade names...

 
Dursban, Lorsban Organophosphate banned in the US for home and garden use Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Coumaphos
Coumaphos
Coumaphos is a non-volatile, fat-soluble phosphorothioate with ectoparasiticide properties: it kills insects and mites. It is well known under manufacturer brand-names as a dip or wash, used on farm and domestic animals to control ticks, mites, flies and fleas...

 
Checkmite Organophosphate This is an insecticide that is used inside the beehive
Beehive (beekeeping)
A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Natural beehives are naturally occurring structures occupied by honeybee colonies, while domesticated honeybees live in man-made beehives, often in an apiary. These man-made...

 to combat varroa mites and small hive beetle
Small hive beetle
The small hive beetle is a beekeeping pest.Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida was first discovered in the United States in 1996 and has now spread to many U.S. states including, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Minnesota,...

s, which are parasites of the honey bee. Overdoses can lead to bee poisoning.
Relatively non-toxic
Demeton
Demeton
Demeton is a phosphorothioate insecticide with the chemical formula C8H19O3PS2.-See also:* Demeton-S-methyl* Disulfoton, its phosphorodithioate equivalent...

Systox Organophosphate <2 hours highly toxic
Demeton-S-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl
Demeton-S-methyl is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H15O3PS2. It is used as an acaricide and insecticide; more specifically it is an organothiophosphate acaricide and an aliphatic organothiophosphate insecticide, respectively. It is flammable....

Meta-systox Organophosphate Moderately toxic
Diazinon
Diazinon
Diazinon , a colorless to dark brown liquid, is a thiophosphoric acid ester developed in 1952 by Ciba-Geigy, a Swiss chemical company...

 
Spectracide Organophosphate Residential uses of diazinon were outlawed in the U.S. in 2004. Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Dicrotophos
Dicrotophos
Dicrotophos is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide. Some common brand names for dicrotophos include Bidrin, Carbicron, Diapadrin, Dicron and Ektafos....

Bidrin Organophosphate highly toxic
Dichlorvos
Dichlorvos
Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate is a highly volatile organophosphate, widely used as a insecticide to control household pests, in public health, and protecting stored product from insects. It is effective against mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and...

DDVP, Vapona Organophosphate highly toxic
Dimethoate
Dimethoate
Dimethoate is a widely used organophosphate insecticide used to kill insects on contact. It was patented and introduced in the 1950s by American Cyanamid. Like other organophosphates, dimethoate is an anticholinesterase which disables cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for central nervous system...

 
Cygon, De-Fend Organophosphate 3 days Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Fenthion
Fenthion
Fenthion is an organothiophosphate insecticide, avicide, and acaricide. Like most other organophosphates, its mode of action is via cholinesterase inhibition. Due to its relatively low toxicity towards humans and mammals, fenthion is listed as moderately toxic compound in U.S. Environmental...

 
Entex, Baytex, Baycid, Dalf, DMPT, Mercaptophos, Prentox, Fenthion 4E, Queletox,Lebaycid Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Fenitrothion
Fenitrothion
Fenitrothion is a phosphorothioate insecticide....

 
Sumithion Organophosphate highly toxic
fensulfothion Dasanit Organophosphate highly toxic
Fonofos Dyfonate EC Organophosphate 3 hours List of Schedule 2 substances (CWC) highly toxic
Malathion
Malathion
Malathion is an organophosphate parasympathomimetic which binds irreversibly to cholinesterase. Malathion is an insecticide of relatively low human toxicity, however one recent study has shown that children with higher levels of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in their urine are more likely...

Malathion USB, ~ EC, Cythion, maldison, mercaptothion Organophosphate >8 fl oz/acre (58 L/km²) ⇒ 5.5 days highly toxic
Methamidophos
Methamidophos
Methamidophos is an organophosphate insecticide.Crops grown with the use of methamidophos include some Latin American rice. Many nations use methamidophos on crops, including developed nations such as Spain, US, Japan, and Australia...

 
Monitor, Tameron Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Methidathion
Methidathion
Methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide.-External links:*...

 
Supracide Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
methyl parathion
Parathion
Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion, is an organophosphate compound. It is a potent insecticide and acaricide. It was originally developed by IG Farben in the 1940s. It is highly toxic to non-target organisms, including humans. Its use is banned or restricted in many...

Parathion
Parathion
Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion, is an organophosphate compound. It is a potent insecticide and acaricide. It was originally developed by IG Farben in the 1940s. It is highly toxic to non-target organisms, including humans. Its use is banned or restricted in many...

, Penncap-M
Organophosphate 5–8 days By far the most potentially damaging pesticides for honey bees are those packaged in tiny capsules (microencapsulated). Microencapsulated methyl parathion (PennCap M), for example, is a liquid formulation containing capsules approximately the size of pollen grains, which contain the active ingredient. When bees are out in the field, these capsules can become attached electrostatically to the pollen-collecting hairs of the insects, and at times are collected by design. When stored in pollen, the slow-release feature of the capsules allows the methyl parathion to be a potential killer for several months. At the present time, there is no way to detect whether bees are indeed poisoned by micro-encapsulated methyl parathion, so a beekeeper potentially could lose replacement bees for those already poisoned by the pesticide. It is, therefore, strongly recommended by experts that this formulation be used only when honey bee exposure is not a possibility.

It is classified as a UNEP Persistent Organic Pollutant
Persistent organic pollutant
thumb|right|275px|State parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic PollutantsPersistent organic pollutants are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes...

 and WHO
Who
Who may refer to:* Who , an English-language pronoun* who , a Unix command* Who?, one of the Five Ws in journalism- Art and entertainment :* Who? , a 1958 novel by Algis Budrys...

 Toxicity Class
Toxicity Class
Toxicity Class refers to a classification system for pesticides that has been created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization...

, "Ia, Extremely Hazardous".
highly toxic
Mevinphos
Mevinphos
Mevinphos is an organophosphate insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to control insects in a wide range of crops. It is most commonly used for the control of chewing and sucking insects, as well as spider mites.-Manufacture:...

Phosdrin Organophosphate highly toxic
Monocrotophos
Monocrotophos
Monocrotophos is an organophosphate insecticide. It is acutely toxic to birds and humans, and for that reason has been banned in the U.S. and many other countries...

Azodrin Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Naled
Naled
Naled is a species of a class of insecticides referred to as organophosphates....

Dibrom Organophosphate 16 hours highly toxic
Omethoate
Omethoate
Omethoate is a systemic organophosphorous insecticide and acaricide available as a soluble concentrate. It is used to control insects and mites in horticulture and agriculture, as well as in the home garden....

Organophosphate Should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the crop requires pollination. highly toxic
Oxydemeton-methyl Metasystox-R Organophosphate <2 hours highly toxic
Phorate
Phorate
Phorate is an organophosphate used as an insecticide and acaricide. At normal conditions, it is a pale yellow mobile liquid poorly soluble in water but readily soluble in organic solvents. It is relatively stable and hydrolyses only at very acidic or basic conditions. It is very toxic both for...

Thimet EC Organophosphate 5 hours highly toxic
Phosmet
Phosmet
Phosmet is a phthalimide-derived, non-systemic, organophosphate insecticide used on plants and animals. It is mainly used on apple trees for control of coddling moth, though it is also used on a wide range of fruit crops, ornamentals, and vines for the control of aphids, suckers, mites, and fruit...

 
Imidan Organophosphate highly toxic
phosphamidon
Phosphamidon
Phosphamidon is an organophosphate insecticide first reported in 1960. It acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor.The commercial product typically exists as a mixture of 70% -isomer and 30% -isomer.- Toxicity and regulation:...

Dimecron Organophosphate highly toxic
pyrazophos Afugan Organophosphate
Organophosphate
An organophosphate is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates are probably the most pervasive organophosphorus compounds. Many of the most important biochemicals are organophosphates, including DNA and RNA as well as many cofactors that are essential for life...

fungicide highly toxic
tetrachlorvinphos Rabon, Stirofos, Gardona, Gardcide Organophosphate highly toxic
Trichlorfon, Metrifonate Dylox, Dipterex Organophosphate 3 – 6 hours Relatively non-toxic
Permethrin
Permethrin
Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, and insect repellent. It belongs to the family of synthetic chemicals called pyrethroids and functions as a neurotoxin, affecting neuron membranes by prolonging sodium channel activation. It is not known to...

 
Ambush, Pounce Synthetic pyrethroid
Pyrethroid
A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums . Pyrethroids now constitute a major commercial household insecticides...

1 – 2 days safened by repellency under arid conditions. Permethrin is also the active ingredient in insecticides used against the Small hive beetle
Small hive beetle
The small hive beetle is a beekeeping pest.Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida was first discovered in the United States in 1996 and has now spread to many U.S. states including, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Minnesota,...

, which is a parasite of the beehive
Beehive (beekeeping)
A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Natural beehives are naturally occurring structures occupied by honeybee colonies, while domesticated honeybees live in man-made beehives, often in an apiary. These man-made...

 in the temperate climate regions.
highly toxic
Cypermethrin
Cypermethrin
Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as in consumer products for domestic purposes. It behaves as a fast-acting neurotoxin in insects. It is easily degraded on soil and plants but can be effective for weeks when...

 
Ammo, Raid Synthetic pyrethroid Less than 2 hours Cypermethrin is found in many household ant
Ant
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

 and cockroach
Cockroach
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea, of which about 30 species out of 4,500 total are associated with human habitations...

 killers, including Raid
Raid (insecticide)
Raid is the brand name of a line of insecticides produced by SC Johnson, first launched in 1956.The initial active ingredient was the first synthetic pyrethroid, allethrin...

 and ant chalk
Ant chalk
Ant chalk, also known as Chinese chalk or 'Miraculous Insecticide Chalk', is an insecticide in the form of normal looking chalk. It contains the pesticides deltamethrin and cypermethrin.-Controversy:...

.
highly toxic
Fenvalerate
Fenvalerate
Fenvalerate is an insecticide. It is a mixture of four optical isomers which have different insecticidal activities. The 2-S alpha configuration is the most insecticidally active isomer. Fenvalerate consists of about 23% of this isomer....

 
Asana, Pydrin Synthetic pyrethroid 1 day safened by repellency under arid conditions highly toxic
Resmethrin
Resmethrin
Resmethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide with many uses, including control of the adult mosquito population.The resmethrin molecule has four stereoisomers determined by cis-trans orientation around a carbon triangle and chirality. Technical resmethrin is a mixture of -, -, -, - isomers, typically in...

Chrysron, Crossfire, Pynosect, Raid Flying Insect Killer, Scourge, Sun-Bugger #4, SPB-1382, Synthrin, Syntox, Vectrin, Whitmire PT-110 Synthetic pyrethroid highly toxic
Methoxychlor
Methoxychlor
Methoxychlor is a synthetic organochlorine used as an insecticide.-Usage:Methoxychlor is used to protect crops, ornamentals, livestock, and pets against fleas, mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other insects...

 
DMDT, Marlate Chlorinated cyclodiene 2 hours available as a General Use Pesticide highly toxic
Endosulfan
Endosulfan
Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally. Endosulfan became a highly controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential for bioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor...

 
Thiodan Chlorinated cyclodiene 8 hours banned in European Union (2007?), New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

 (2009)
moderately toxic
Clothianidin
Clothianidin
Clothianidin is an insecticide developed by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer AG. Similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, it is a neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides which act on the central nervous system of insects with lower toxicity to mammals...

Poncho Neonicotinoid Banned in Germany
In June 2008, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Germany) suspended the registration of eight neonicotinoid pesticide seed treatment products used in oilseed rape and sweetcorn
Sweetcorn
Sweet corn is a variety of maize with a high sugar content. Sweet corn is the result of a naturally occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the endosperm of the corn kernel...

, a few weeks after honey bee keepers in the southern state of Baden Württemberg reported a wave of honey bee deaths linked to one of the pesticides, clothianidin
Clothianidin
Clothianidin is an insecticide developed by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer AG. Similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, it is a neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides which act on the central nervous system of insects with lower toxicity to mammals...

.
Highly Toxic
Thiamethoxam Actara Neonicotinoid Clothianidin is a major metabolite of Thiamethoxam. Highly Toxic
Imidacloprid
Imidacloprid
Imidacloprid is a nicotine-based, systemic insecticide, which acts as a neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids. Although it is now off patent, the primary manufacturer of this chemical is Bayer CropScience,...

Confidor, Gaucho
Gaucho
Gaucho is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and Southern Brazil...

, Kohinor, Admire, Advantage, Merit, Confidor, Hachikusan, Amigo, SeedPlus (Chemtura Corp.), Monceren GT, Premise, Prothor, and Winner
Neonicotinoid (see also Imidacloprid effects on bee population
Imidacloprid effects on bee population
Imidacloprid is a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide produced by the German chemical firm Bayer CropScience and sold under such trade names as Gaucho, Admire, Merit, Advantage, Confidor, Provado, and Winner. It acts as a neurotoxin and interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses in insects...

)Banned in France since 1999
highly toxic
dicofol Acaricide Relatively non-toxic
petroleum oils Relatively non-toxic
2,4-D
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a common systemic pesticide/herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. It is the most widely used herbicide in the world, and the third most commonly used in North America...

ingredient in over 1,500 products Synthetic auxin herbicide
Herbicide
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic "imitations" of plant...

Relatively non-toxic

Common insecticides toxic to bees and used on soybeans


Many insecticide
Insecticide
An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind...

s used against soybean aphid
Soybean aphid
The soybean aphid is an insect pest of soybean that is exotic to North America. The soybean aphid is native to Asia. It has been described as a common pest of soybeans in China and as an occasional pest of soybeans in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand...

s are highly toxic to bees.
  • Orthene 75S (acephate
    Acephate
    Acephate is an organophosphate foliar insecticide of moderate persistence with residual systemic activity of about 10-15 days at the recommended use rate. It is used primarily for control of aphids, including resistant species, in vegetables and in horticulture...

    )
  • Address 75 WSP (acephate
    Acephate
    Acephate is an organophosphate foliar insecticide of moderate persistence with residual systemic activity of about 10-15 days at the recommended use rate. It is used primarily for control of aphids, including resistant species, in vegetables and in horticulture...

    )
  • Sevin (Carbaryl)
  • Lorsban 4E (Chlorpyrifos)
  • Dimate (Dimethoate)
  • Steward 1.25 SC (Indoxacarb)
  • Lannate (Methomyl)
  • Cheminova Methyl 4EC (Methyl Parathion)
  • Penncap M (microencapsulated Methyl Parathion
    Parathion
    Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion, is an organophosphate compound. It is a potent insecticide and acaricide. It was originally developed by IG Farben in the 1940s. It is highly toxic to non-target organisms, including humans. Its use is banned or restricted in many...

    )
  • Tracer (Spinosad
    Spinosad
    Spinosad is a new chemical class of insecticides that are registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency‎ to control a variety of insects...

    )

Highly toxic and banned in the US

  • Aldrin
    Aldrin
    Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide that was widely used until the 1970s, when it was banned in most countries. It is a colourless solid. Before the ban, it was heavily used as a pesticide to treat seed and soil...

     banned by US EPA in 1974
  • Dieldrin
    Dieldrin
    Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon originally produced in 1948 by J. Hyman & Co, Denver, as an insecticide. Dieldrin is closely related to aldrin, which reacts further to form dieldrin. Aldrin is not toxic to insects; it is oxidized in the insect to form dieldrin which is the active compound...

     banned by US EPA in 1974
  • Heptachlor
    Heptachlor
    Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide. Usually sold as a white or tan powder, heptachlor is one of the cyclodiene insecticides. In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring questioned the safety of heptachlor and other chlorinated insecticides. Due to its highly...

  • lindane
    Lindane
    Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, , gammaxene, Gammallin and erroneously known as benzene hexachloride , is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and...

    , BHC
    Hexachlorocyclohexane
    Hexachlorocyclohexane or 666 is a six chlorine substituted cyclohexane, a polyhalogenated compound. It comes in many forms. Some are pesticides.Common forms are:* α-HCH , or α-BCH, alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane...

     (banned in California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

    )

Lawsuit against the EPA in the United States


In August 2008, the Natural Resources Defense Council
Natural Resources Defense Council
The Natural Resources Defense Council is a New York City-based, non-profit, non-partisan international environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington DC, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Beijing...

, a New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 environmental advocacy group, filed a lawsuit against the federal Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 accusing the agency of withholding information about the risks pesticides pose to honeybees.

See also

  • Bees and toxic chemicals
    Bees and toxic chemicals
    Bees can suffer serious effects from toxic chemicals in their environments. These include various synthetic chemicals, such as insecticides and fertilizers, as well as a variety of naturally occurring chemicals from plants, such as ethanol resulting from the fermentation of organic material...

  • Colony Collapse Disorder
    Colony Collapse Disorder
    Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or European honey bee colony abruptly disappear. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, the term colony collapse disorder was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of...

  • Endangered arthropod
    Endangered arthropod
    An endangered arthropod is defined here as any of a number of species within the phylum Arthropoda, whose extinction is likely in the foreseeable future . Estimating the number of arthropod endangered species is extremely difficult, primarily because a vast number of the species themselves are...

  • Pesticide misuse
    Pesticide misuse
    Under United States laws, pesticide misuse is the use of a pesticide in a way that violates laws regulating their use or endangers humans or the environment; many of these regulations are laid out in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...

  • Pesticide
    Pesticide
    Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.A pesticide may be a chemical unicycle, biological agent , antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest...

    s
  • Pollinator decline
    Pollinator decline
    The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide during the end of the twentieth century....

  • Fipronil
    Fipronil
    Fipronil is a broad spectrum insecticide that disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking the passage of chloride ions through the GABA receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels, components of the central nervous system. This causes hyperexcitation of contaminated insects' nerves...


External links


http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/20772/pnw591.pdf How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides PNW 591, A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Copyright 2006, Oregon State University. Revision of the WSU 1999 version of the same publication.
  • Mayer, D.F., Johansen, C.A. & Baird, C.R.; How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides, PNW518, A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Copyright 1999 Washington State University. Includes an extensive list of toxic chemicals such as pesticides that affect bees.
  • McBride, Dean k.; Protecting Honeybees From Pesticides, 1997 North Dakota State University
    North Dakota State University
    North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University , is a public university in Fargo, North Dakota. NDSU has about 14,000 students and it is the largest university in North Dakota based on full time students and land size...

  • Sanford, Malcolm T.; Protecting Honey Bees From Pesticides, University of Florida
    University of Florida
    The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

    Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension, April 1993
  • US EPA Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2001-5