Pest (animal)

Pest (animal)

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A pest is an animal which is detrimental to human
Human
Humans are the only living species in the Homo genus...

s or human concerns. It is a loosely defined term, often overlapping with the related terms vermin
Vermin
Vermin is a term applied to various animal species regarded by some as pests or nuisances and especially to those associated with the carrying of disease. Since the term is defined in relation to human activities, which species are included will vary from area to area and even person to person...

, weed
Weed
A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

s, parasites and pathogen
Pathogen
A pathogen gignomai "I give birth to") or infectious agent — colloquially, a germ — is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease in its animal or plant host...

s. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor
Competition (biology)
Competition is an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Limited supply of at least one resource used by both is required. Competition both within and between species is an important topic in ecology, especially community ecology...

 of humanity.

Usage of the term



Often animals are derided as pests as they cause damage to agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

, such as codling moth
Codling moth
The codling moth is a member of the Lepidopteran family Tortricidae. They are known as an agricultural pest, their larva being the common apple worm or maggot. It is native to Europe and was introduced to North America, where it has become one of the regular pests of apple orchards. It is found...

 on apple
Apple
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

s, or boll weevil
Boll weevil
The boll weevil is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters, which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s,...

 on cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

. An animal could also be a pest when it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs
Bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

 within human habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human disease
Disease
A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune...

, such as rat
Rat
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. "True rats" are members of the genus Rattus, the most important of which to humans are the black rat, Rattus rattus, and the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus...

s and flea
Flea
Flea is the common name for insects of the order Siphonaptera which are wingless insects with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood...

s which carry the plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

 disease, mosquito
Mosquito
Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies: the Culicidae . The word Mosquito is from the Spanish and Portuguese for little fly...

es which vector malaria
Malaria
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by eukaryotic protists of the genus Plasmodium. The disease results from the multiplication of Plasmodium parasites within red blood cells, causing symptoms that typically include fever and headache, in severe cases...

, and tick
Tick
Ticks are small arachnids in the order Ixodida, along with mites, constitute the subclass Acarina. Ticks are ectoparasites , living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians...

s which carry Lyme disease
Lyme disease
Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the main cause of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most...

.

The term pest may be used to refer specifically to harmful animal
Animal
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and...

s but is also often taken to mean all harmful organisms including weed
Weed
A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

s, plant pathogenic fungi and virus
Virus
A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea...

es. Pesticide
Pesticide
Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.A pesticide may be a chemical unicycle, biological agent , antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest...

s are chemicals and other agents (e.g. beneficial micro-organisms) that are used to control or protect other organisms from pests. The related term vermin
Vermin
Vermin is a term applied to various animal species regarded by some as pests or nuisances and especially to those associated with the carrying of disease. Since the term is defined in relation to human activities, which species are included will vary from area to area and even person to person...

 has much overlap with pest, but generally only includes those creatures that are seen to be vectors of diseases.

It is possible for an animal to be a pest in one setting but beneficial or domesticated in another (for example, European rabbits introduced to Australia
Rabbits in Australia
In Australia, rabbits are a serious mammalian pest and are an invasive species. Annually, European rabbits cause millions of dollars of damage to crops.-Effects on Australia's ecology:...

 caused ecological
Ecology
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

 damage
Invasive species
"Invasive species", or invasive exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions....

 beyond the scale they inflicted in their natural habitat). Many weed
Weed
A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

s (plant pests) are also seen as useful under certain conditions, for instance Patterson's curse
Patterson's Curse
Echium plantagineum, commonly known as Purple Viper's Bugloss, is a species of Echium, native to western and southern Europe , northern Africa, and southwestern Asia . It has also been introduced to Australia, South Africa and United States and is an invasive plant...

 is often valued as food for honeybees and as a wildflower, even though it can poison livestock.

Plants may be consisidered pests if an invasive species
Invasive species
"Invasive species", or invasive exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions....

. Any prolific animal or plant may be considered pests.

The greatest importance as pests (in the order of economic importance) are insect
Insect
Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body , three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae...

s, mites
MITES
MITES, or Minority Introduction to Engineering and Science, is a highly selective six-week summer program for rising high school seniors held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Its purpose is to expose students from minority, or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds, to the fields of...

, nematode
Nematode
The nematodes or roundworms are the most diverse phylum of pseudocoelomates, and one of the most diverse of all animals. Nematode species are very difficult to distinguish; over 28,000 have been described, of which over 16,000 are parasitic. It has been estimated that the total number of nematode...

s and gastropods.

Insects




  • Ant
    Ant
    Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

    s, cockroach
    Cockroach
    Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea, of which about 30 species out of 4,500 total are associated with human habitations...

    es, flies
    Diptera
    Diptera , or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. It is a large order, containing an estimated 240,000 species, although under half...

     and wasp
    Wasp
    The term wasp is typically defined as any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. Almost every pest insect species has at least one wasp species that preys upon it or parasitizes it, making wasps critically important in natural control of their...

    s are household pests, typically as they consume human food
  • Aphids and caterpillar
    Caterpillar
    Caterpillars are the larval form of members of the order Lepidoptera . They are mostly herbivorous in food habit, although some species are insectivorous. Caterpillars are voracious feeders and many of them are considered to be pests in agriculture...

    s cause damage to crop plants
  • Lice
    Louse
    Lice is the common name for over 3,000 species of wingless insects of the order Phthiraptera; three of which are classified as human disease agents...

    , flea
    Flea
    Flea is the common name for insects of the order Siphonaptera which are wingless insects with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood...

    s and bed bugs can all cause skin irritation
  • Mosquitoes, tsetse flies and kissing bugs cause irritation and carry disease
  • Termite
    Termite
    Termites are a group of eusocial insects that, until recently, were classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera , but are now accepted as the epifamily Termitoidae, of the cockroach order Blattodea...

    s, silverfish
    Silverfish
    Lepisma saccharina, frequently called silverfish, fishmoths, carpet sharks or paramites, are small, wingless insects in the order Thysanura...

    , woodworm
    Woodworm
    A woodworm is not a specific species. It is the larval stage of certain woodboring beetles including:*Ambrosia beetles *Bark borer beetle / Waney edge borer *Common furniture beetle...

     and wood ants cause structural damage
  • Bookworms
    Bookworm (insect)
    Bookworm is a popular generalization for any insect which supposedly bores through books.Actual book-borers are uncommon. Both the larvae of the death watch beetle and the common furniture beetle will tunnel through wood and paper if it is nearby the wood.A major book-feeding insect is the book...

    , carpet beetle
    Carpet beetle
    Carpet beetle may refer to any of the following types of beetle:*Dermestidae, a family of Coleoptera*Varied carpet beetle, a 3 mm–long beetle that can be a serious household pest...

    s and clothes moths cause non-structural damage
  • Gypsy moth
    Gypsy moth
    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. Originally ranging from Europe to Asia, it was introduced to North America in the late 1860s and has been expanding its range ever since...

    s attack hardwood trees (see Gypsy moths in the United States
    Gypsy moths in the United States
    The gypsy moth was introduced in 1868 into the United States by Leopold Trouvelot, a French scientist living in Medford, Massachusetts. Because native silk-spinning caterpillars were susceptible to disease, Trouvelot imported the species in order to breed a more resistant hybrid species. Some of...

    )

Mites

  • Chiggers cause skin irritation
  • Sarcoptes scabiei
    Sarcoptes scabiei
    Sarcoptes scabiei or the itch mite is a parasitic arthropod that burrows into skin and causes scabies. Animals affected include not only human but also wild and domesticated dogs and cats in which it is one cause of mange...

    causes scabies
  • Tick
    Tick
    Ticks are small arachnids in the order Ixodida, along with mites, constitute the subclass Acarina. Ticks are ectoparasites , living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians...

    s and mite
    Mite
    Mites, along with ticks, are small arthropods belonging to the subclass Acari and the class Arachnida. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology.-Diversity and systematics:...

    s cause irritation and can spread disease

Gastropods


Some slug
Slug
Slug is a common name that is normally applied to any gastropod mollusc that lacks a shell, has a very reduced shell, or has a small internal shell...

s are pests in both agriculture and gardens. Their significance is increasing drastically. Deroceras reticulatum
Deroceras reticulatum
Deroceras reticulatum, common names "grey field slug" and "grey garden slug", is a species of small air-breathing land slug, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Agriolimacidae...

is a worldwide distributed slug pest. Local importance slug pests include: Deroceras
Deroceras
Deroceras is a taxonomic genus of small to medium sized, air-breathing, land slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Agriolimacidae.-Description:...

spp., Milax
Milax
Milax may refer to:*Milax, Azerbaijan*Milax , a genus of land slugs in the family Milacidae*MilaX, an OpenSolaris distribution* Milax caucasicus, a species of slug* Milax gagates, common name the "greenhouse slug" is a slug...

spp., Tandonia
Tandonia
Tandonia is a genus of air-breathing, keeled, land slugs. These are shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the family Milacidae.- Distribution :Distribution of genus Tandonia include Europe to north Africa and Asia Minor...

sp., Limax
Limax
Limax is a genus of air-breathing land slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Limacidae.The generic name Limax literally means "slug"....

spp., Arion spp. and some species of Veronicellidae
Veronicellidae
The Veronicellidae, common name the leatherleaf slugs, are a terrestrial family of pulmonate slugs.This family has no subfamilies ....

: Veronicella sloanei
Veronicella sloanei
Veronicella sloanei, common name the Pancake Slug, is a species of air-breathing land slug, a terrestrial, pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Veronicellidae, the leatherleaf slugs.- Description :...

.

Land snail
Land snail
A land snail is any of the many species of snail that live on land, as opposed to those that live in salt water and fresh water. Land snails are terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have shells, It is not always an easy matter to say which species are terrestrial, because some are more or less...

 pests include:
  • Helix aspersa
    Helix aspersa
    Helix aspersa, known by the common name garden snail, is a species of land snail, a pulmonate gastropod that is one of the best-known of all terrestrial molluscs. The species has been placed in the genus Helix, in all sources between 1774 and 1988 and in most sources until recently...

    damages citrus fruits in California,
  • Cernuella virgata
    Cernuella virgata
    Cernuella virgata, also known as Helicella virgata, common name, the "vineyard snail", is a species of small, air-breathing land snail, a pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Hygromiidae, the hairy snails and their allies....

    , Theba pisana
    Theba pisana
    Theba pisana, common names the white garden snail, the sand hill snail, white Italian snail, the Mediterranean coastal snail, or simply the Mediterranean snail, is an edible species of medium-sized air-breathing land snail, a pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicidae...

    and Cochlicella
    Cochlicella
    Cochlicella is a genus of small, narrow-shelled, air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Cochlicellidae, previously placed in the Helicidae or Hygromiidae....

    spp. decrease quality of grains when harvested with the product in South Australia.
  • Achatina fulica damages vegetables and ornamental plant
    Ornamental plant
    Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display...

    s in the Pacific region.
  • Succinea costaricana
    Succinea costaricana
    Succinea costaricana is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Succineidae, the amber snails.- Distribution :Neotropical:* Costa Rica* Mexico- Human importance :...

    damages ornamental plants in Costa Rica.
  • Ovachlamys fulgens
    Ovachlamys fulgens
    Ovachlamys fulgens is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicarionidae.Ovachlamys fulgens was originally discovered and described as Macrochlamys fulgens by the British malacologist Gerard Pierre Laurent Kalshoven Gude in...

    damages ornamental plants and orchids in Costa Rica.
  • Other species considered to be pests include: Amphibulima patula
    Amphibulima patula
    Amphibulima patula is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Orthalicidae.- Subspecies :Subspecies of Amphibulima patula include:* Amphibulima patula patula...

     dominicensis
    , Zachrysia provisoria
    Zachrysia provisoria
    Zachrysia provisoria is a species of air-breathing land snail, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Camaenidae or Pleurodontidae.- Description :...

    and Bradybaena similaris.


Freshwater snail
Freshwater snail
A freshwater snail is one kind of freshwater mollusc, the other kind being freshwater clams and mussels, i.e. freshwater bivalves. Specifically a freshwater snail is a gastropod that lives in a watery non-marine habitat. The majority of freshwater gastropods have a shell, with very few exceptions....

 pests include:
  • Pomacea canaliculata
    Pomacea canaliculata
    Pomacea canaliculata, common name the channeled applesnail, is a species of large freshwater snail with gills and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails....

    damages rice in Southeast Asia.
  • Bulinus
    Bulinus
    Bulinus is a genus of small tropical freshwater snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Planorbidae, the ramshorn snails and their allies....

    sp., Biomphalaria
    Biomphalaria
    Biomphalaria is a genus of air-breathing freshwater snails, aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails and their allies.Biomphalaria is the type genus of the tribe Biomphalariini....

    spp. and Oncomelania
    Oncomelania
    Oncomelania is a genus of very small tropical freshwater snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Pomatiopsidae.These Oncomelania snails are distantly related to the marine periwinkle, and more closely related to the small marine snails of the family Rissoidae.-Species:There are two species...

    are intermediate hosts of schistosomes causing schistosomiasis
    Schistosomiasis
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematodes , a parasitic worm of the genus Schistosoma. Snails often act as an intermediary agent for the infectious diseases until a new human host is found...

    .
  • Various species in Lymnaeidae
    Lymnaeidae
    Lymnaeidae is a taxonomic family of small to large air-breathing freshwater snails, aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks, that belong to the clade Hygrophila....

     are intermediate hosts of fasciolosis.

Vertebrate pests



Mammals

  • Mice
    MICE
    -Fiction:*Mice , alien species in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy*The Mice -Acronyms:* "Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions", facilities terminology for events...

    , rats
    RATS
    RATS may refer to:* RATS , Regression Analysis of Time Series, a statistical package* Rough Auditing Tool for Security, a computer program...

     and other small rodent
    Rodent
    Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing....

    s cause infestations
  • Fox
    Fox
    Fox is a common name for many species of omnivorous mammals belonging to the Canidae family. Foxes are small to medium-sized canids , characterized by possessing a long narrow snout, and a bushy tail .Members of about 37 species are referred to as foxes, of which only 12 species actually belong to...

    es, opossums, raccoon
    Raccoon
    Procyon is a genus of nocturnal mammals, comprising three species commonly known as raccoons, in the family Procyonidae. The most familiar species, the common raccoon , is often known simply as "the" raccoon, as the two other raccoon species in the genus are native only to the tropics and are...

    s and bear
    Bear
    Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern...

    s eat waste
  • Gopher
    Gopher
    - Animal kingdom :* Gopher , including:** Pocket gophers , about 40 species distributed from North America to Colombia** Several ground squirrels of North America, particularly those formerly classified as Spermophilus* Gopher tortoise , distributed in North America- Other uses :* Minnesota, the...

    s and mole
    Mole (animal)
    Moles are small cylindrical mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle. They have velvety fur; tiny or invisible ears and eyes; and short, powerful limbs with large paws oriented for digging. The term is especially and most properly used for the true moles, those of the Talpidae family in the...

    s destroy lawns
  • Feral cat
    Feral cat
    A feral cat is a descendant of a domesticated cat that has returned to the wild. It is distinguished from a stray cat, which is a pet cat that has been lost or abandoned, while feral cats are born in the wild; the offspring of a stray cat can be considered feral if born in the wild.In many parts of...

    s and feral dogs eat human food and carry disease
  • White-tailed deer
    White-tailed Deer
    The white-tailed deer , also known as the Virginia deer or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States , Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru...

     are now seen as pests in many suburban and exurban areas of the US, though not in more rural areas.

Birds

  • Pigeons and seagulls eat human food and carry disease
  • Many birds, such as crows, eat crop seed
  • Canada Goose
    Canada Goose
    The Canada Goose is a wild goose belonging to the genus Branta, which is native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, having a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brownish-gray body....

    ; non-migratory birds of this species are now widely regarded as pests in the United States (see Canada Goose#Relationship with humans).

See also

  • List of parasites of humans
  • List of common household pests
  • Lists of plant diseases
  • Invasive species
    Invasive species
    "Invasive species", or invasive exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions....

  • Weed
    Weed
    A weed in a general sense is a plant that is considered by the user of the term to be a nuisance, and normally applied to unwanted plants in human-controlled settings, especially farm fields and gardens, but also lawns, parks, woods, and other areas. More specifically, the term is often used to...

    s
  • Vermin
    Vermin
    Vermin is a term applied to various animal species regarded by some as pests or nuisances and especially to those associated with the carrying of disease. Since the term is defined in relation to human activities, which species are included will vary from area to area and even person to person...

  • Synanthrope
    Synanthrope
    Synanthropes is a term applied to species of wild animals and plants of various kinds that live near, and benefit from, an association with humans and the somewhat artificial habitats that humans create around them . Those habitats include houses, gardens, farms, roadsides, garbage dumps, and so on...

  • Urban wildlife
    Urban wildlife
    Urban wildlife is wildlife that can live or thrive in urban environments. Some urban wildlife, such as house mice, are synanthropic, ecologically associated with humans. Different types of urban area support different kinds of wildlife...

  • Pest control
    Pest control
    Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to a person's health, the ecology or the economy.-History:...

  • Nuisance wildlife management
    Nuisance wildlife management
    Nuisance wildlife management is the term given to the process of selective removal of problem individuals or populations of certain species of wildlife. Other terms for the field, include "Wildlife Damage Management , "Wildlife Control", and "Animal Damage Control" to name a few...

  • Home stored product entomology
    Home stored product entomology
    Home stored product entomology is the study of insects which infest foodstuffs stored in the home. It deals with the prevention, detection and eradication of the pests...


Further reading

  • Burch, John B.
    John B. Burch
    John Bayard Burch is an American zoologist, a biology professor at the University of Michigan, and is the Curator of Mollusks at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. His research interests are broad, and have encompassed not only the anatomy, systematics, and genetics of mollusks, but...

    . 1960. Some snails and slugs of quarantine significance to the United States. U.S. Dept. Argriculture, Agricultural Research Service 82(1): 73 pp

External links

  • UF/IFAS Pest Alert Web site - arthropod
    Arthropod
    An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton , a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods are members of the phylum Arthropoda , and include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and others...

    s, nematode
    Nematode
    The nematodes or roundworms are the most diverse phylum of pseudocoelomates, and one of the most diverse of all animals. Nematode species are very difficult to distinguish; over 28,000 have been described, of which over 16,000 are parasitic. It has been estimated that the total number of nematode...

    s and plant diseases affecting humans, livestock/pets, agricultural and ornamental plants.