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Penny-farthing

Penny-farthing

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Encyclopedia
Penny-farthing, high wheel, high wheeler, and ordinary are all terms used to describe a type of bicycle
Bicycle
A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

 with a large front wheel and a much smaller rear wheel that was popular after the boneshaker, until the development of the safety bicycle
Safety bicycle
A safety bicycle is a type of bicycle that became very popular beginning in the late 1880s as an alternative to the penny-farthing or ordinary and is now the most common type of bicycle. Early bicycles of this style were known as safety bicycles because they were noted for, and marketed as, being...

, in the 1880s. They were the first machines to be called "bicycles".

Although they are now most commonly known as "penny-farthings", this term was probably not used until they were nearly outdated; the first recorded print reference is 1891 in Bicycling News. It comes from the British penny
British One Penny coin (pre-decimal)
The English Penny, originally a coin of 1.3 to 1.5 g pure silver, includes the penny introduced around the year 785 by King Offa of Mercia. However, his coins were similar in size and weight to the continental deniers of the period, and to the Anglo-Saxon sceats which had gone before it, which were...

 and farthing
British Farthing coin
A farthing was a coin of England, Great Britain, and finally of the United Kingdom, worth one quarter of a penny, 1/960th of a pound sterling...

 coins, one much larger than the other, so that the side view resembles a penny leading a farthing. For most of their reign, they were simply known as "bicycles". In the late 1890s, the retronym
Retronym
A retronym is a type of neologism that provides a new name for an object or concept to differentiate the original form or version of it from a more recent form or version. The original name is most often augmented with an adjective to account for later developments of the object or concept itself...

 "ordinary" began to be used, to distinguish them from the emerging safety bicycles, and this term or Hi-wheel (and variants) is preferred by many modern enthusiasts.

About 1870, James Starley
James Starley
James Starley was an English inventor and father of the bicycle industry. He was one of the most innovative and successful builders of bicycles and tricycles. His inventions include the differential gear and the perfection of chain-driven bicycles.-Early life:Starley was born in 1831 at Albourne,...

, described as the father of the bicycle industry, and others began producing bicycles based on the French boneshaker but with front wheels of increasing size, because larger front wheels, up to 1.5 m (60 in) in diameter, enabled higher speeds on bicycles limited to direct drive
Direct drive mechanism
A Direct drive mechanism is one that takes the power coming from a motor without any reductions .-Advantages:* Increased efficiency: The power is not wasted in friction...

. In 1878, Albert Pope began manufacturing the Columbia bicycle
Pope Manufacturing Company
Pope Manufacturing Company was founded by Albert Augustus Pope in Hartford, Connecticut. The company began with the introduction of the "Columbia High Wheeler" bicycle in 1878.-History:...

 outside of Boston, starting their two-decade heyday in America.

Although the trend was short-lived, the penny-farthing became a symbol of the late Victorian era
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

. Its popularity also coincided with the birth of cycling as a sport.

Origins and development


Frenchman Eugene Meyer is now regarded as the father of the High Bicycle by the International Cycling History Conference in place of James Starley
James Starley
James Starley was an English inventor and father of the bicycle industry. He was one of the most innovative and successful builders of bicycles and tricycles. His inventions include the differential gear and the perfection of chain-driven bicycles.-Early life:Starley was born in 1831 at Albourne,...

. Meyer patented a wire-spoke tension wheel with individually adjustable spokes in 1869. They were called "spider" wheels in Britain when introduced there. Meyer produced a classic high bicycle design until the 1880s.

James Starley
James Starley
James Starley was an English inventor and father of the bicycle industry. He was one of the most innovative and successful builders of bicycles and tricycles. His inventions include the differential gear and the perfection of chain-driven bicycles.-Early life:Starley was born in 1831 at Albourne,...

 in Coventry
Coventry
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the county of West Midlands in England. Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 11th largest in the United Kingdom. It is also the second largest city in the English Midlands, after Birmingham, with a population of 300,848, although...

 added the tangent spokes and the mounting step to his famous bicycle named "Ariel." He is regarded as the father of the British cycling industry. Ball bearing
Ball bearing
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races.The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit...

s, solid rubber tires and hollow-section steel frames became standard, reducing weight and making the ride much smoother.

Penny-farthing bicycles are dangerous due to the risk of headers. Makers developed "moustache" handlebars, allowing the rider's knees to clear them, "Whatton" handlebars, that wrapped around behind the legs, and ultimately (though too late, after the Starley safety bike), with the 1889 American Eagle and Star, the position of big and small wheel was reversed. This prevented headers, but left the danger of being thrown backwards when riding uphill. Other attempts included moving the seat rearward and driving the wheel by levers or treadles
Treadle bicycle
A treadle bicycle is a bicycle powered by a treadle instead of the more-common crank. Treadles were one of the mechanisms inventors tried in order to position the pedals away from the drive wheel hub before the development of the bicycle chain or in lieu of it...

, as in the Xtraordinary or Facile, or gears, by chain as in the Kangaroo or at the hub in the Crypto; another option was to move the seat well back, as in the Rational.

Even so, bicycling remained the province of the urban well-to-do, and mainly men, until the 1890s, and were among the first examples of conspicuous consumption
Conspicuous consumption
Conspicuous consumption is spending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or wealth. In the mind of a conspicuous consumer, such display serves as a means of attaining or maintaining social status....

.

Attributes


The penny-farthing used a larger wheel than the velocipede, thus giving higher speed on all but steep hills. In addition, the large wheel rolled more readily over cobbles, stones, ruts, and so on. Since rough-paved and unpaved roads were more common than smooth roads, the increase in rider comfort was significant.

The high riding position might seem daunting, but mounting could be learned on a lower velocipede. Once mastered, a high wheeler can be mounted and dismounted easily on flat ground and some hills.

An important and unfortunate attribute of the penny-farthing is that the rider sits high and nearly over the front axle. When the wheel strikes rocks and ruts, or under hard braking, the rider can be pitched forward off the bicycle head-first, called "taking a header" or simply "a header". Headers were relatively common, and a significant hazard: riders sometimes died from headers. Riders coasting down hills often took their feet off the pedals and put them over the tops of the handlebars, so they would be pitched off feet-first instead of head-first.

Penny-farthing bicycles often used similar materials and construction as earlier velocipedes: cast iron frames, solid rubber tires, and plain bearing
Plain bearing
A plain bearing, also known as a plane bearing or a friction bearing is the simplest type of bearing, comprising just a bearing surface and no rolling elements. Therefore the journal slides over the bearing surface. The simplest example of a plain bearing is a shaft rotating in a hole...

s for pedals, steering, and wheels. They were often quite durable and required little service. For example, when cyclist Thomas Stevens
Thomas Stevens (cyclist)
Thomas Stevens was the first person to circle the globe by bicycle. He rode a large-wheeled Ordinary, also known as a penny-farthing, from April 1884 to December 1886...

 rode around the world in 1880s, he reported only one significant mechanical problem in over 20,000 km, caused when the local military confiscated his bicycle and damaged the front wheel.

End of an era


The well known dangers of the penny-farthing were, for the time of its prominence, outweighed by its strengths. While it was a difficult, dangerous machine, it was simpler, lighter, and faster than the safer velocipedes of the time. Additionally, the large wheel rode over bumps in the road more smoothly than smaller-wheeled vehicles. Two new developments changed this situation, and led to the rise of the Safety bicycle. The first was the chain drive, originally used on tricycles, allowing a gear ratio
Gear ratio
The gear ratio of a gear train is the ratio of the angular velocity of the input gear to the angular velocity of the output gear, also known as the speed ratio of the gear train. The gear ratio can be computed directly from the numbers of teeth of the various gears that engage to form the gear...

 to be chosen independent of the wheel size. The second was the pneumatic bicycle tire
Bicycle tire
A bicycle tire is a tire that fits on the wheel of a bicycle, unicycle, tricycle, quadracycle, bicycle trailer, or trailer bike. They may also be used on wheelchairs and handcycles, especially for racing...

, allowing smaller wheels to provide a smooth ride.

The nephew of one of the men responsible for popularity of the penny-farthing was largely responsible for its death. James Starley had built the Ariel (spirit of the air) high-wheeler in 1870; but this was a time of innovation, and when chain drive
Chain drive
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles...

s were upgraded so that each link had a small roller
Roller chain
Roller chain or bush roller chain is the type of chain drive most commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on many kinds of domestic, industrial and agricultural machinery, including conveyors, wire and tube drawing machines, printing presses, cars, motorcycles, and simple machines like...

, higher and higher speeds became possible without the large wheel. In 1885, Starley's nephew John Kemp Starley
John Kemp Starley
John Kemp Starley was an English inventor and industrialist who is widely considered the inventor of the modern bicycle, and also originator of the name Rover....

 took these new developments to launch the Rover Safety Bicycle, so-called because the rider, seated much lower and farther behind the front wheel contact point, was less prone to "a header" (going over the bars).

In 1888, when John Dunlop
John Boyd Dunlop
John Boyd Dunlop was a Scottish inventor. He was one of the founders of the rubber company that bore his name, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company....

 re-invented the pneumatic tire for his son's tricycle, the high wheel was made obsolete. The comfortable ride once found only on tall wheels could now be enjoyed on smaller chain-driven bicycles. By 1893, high-wheelers were no longer being produced. Use lingered into the 1920s in track cycling
Track cycling
Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles....

 until racing safety bicycles were perfected.

Today, enthusiasts ride restored Penny-farthings, and a few manufacturers build new ones.

Characteristics


The ordinary is a direct-drive
Direct drive mechanism
A Direct drive mechanism is one that takes the power coming from a motor without any reductions .-Advantages:* Increased efficiency: The power is not wasted in friction...

 bicycle, meaning the cranks and pedals are fixed directly to the hub. Instead of using "gears"
Bicycle gearing
A bicycle gear or gear ratio refers to the rate at which the rider's legs turn compared to the rate at which the wheels turn. Bicycle gearing refers to how the gear ratio is set or changed. On some bicycles, there is only one gear so the ratio is fixed. Most modern bicycles have multiple gears,...

 to multiply the revolutions of the pedals, the driven wheel was enlarged to close to the rider's inseam, to increase the maximum speed. This shifted the rider nearly on top of the wheel. His feet could not reach the ground.

Construction


The frame is a single tube following the circumference of the front wheel, then diverting to a trailing wheel. A mounting peg is above the rear wheel. The front wheel is in a rigid fork with little if any trail. A spoon brake is usually fitted on the fork crown, operated by a lever from one of the handlebars
Bicycle handlebar
Bicycle handlebar or often bicycle handlebars refers to the steering mechanism for bicycles; the equivalent of a steering wheel. Besides steering, handlebars also often support a portion of the rider's weight, depending on their riding position, and provide a convenient mounting place for brake...

. The bars are usually mustache shaped, dropping from the level of the headset
Headset (bicycle part)
The headset is the set of components on a bicycle that provides a rotatable interface between the bicycle fork and the head tube of the bicycle frame itself. The short tube through which the steerer of the fork passes is called the head tube. A typical headset consists of two cups that are pressed...

. The saddle
Bicycle saddle
A bicycle saddle, often called a seat, is one of three contact points on an upright bicycle, the others being the pedals and the handlebars.The bicycle saddle has been known as such since the bicycle evolved from the draisine, a forerunner of the bicycle...

 mounts on the frame less than 50 cm (18 in) behind the headset.

One particular model, made by Pope Manufacturing Company
Pope Manufacturing Company
Pope Manufacturing Company was founded by Albert Augustus Pope in Hartford, Connecticut. The company began with the introduction of the "Columbia High Wheeler" bicycle in 1878.-History:...

 in 1886, weighs 36 lb, has a 60-spoke 53-inch front wheel and a 20-spoke 18-inch rear wheel. It is fitted with solid rubber tires. The rims, frame, fork, and handlebars are made from hollow, steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

 tubing. The steel axles are mounted in adjustable ball bearing
Ball bearing
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races.The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit...

s. The leather saddle is suspended by springs.

Another model, made by Humber and Co., Ltd.
Humber (bicycle)
Humber is an English brand of bicycle.One model is the Humber Sport 3-speed pictured on this page. It includes an unusual fork design, called "Duplex", in which each blade consist of two separate tubes, and a stylish chainring that includes the shape of five persons.-History:Made by Humber car...

, of Beeston, Nottingham
Beeston, Nottinghamshire
Beeston is a town in Nottinghamshire, England. It is southwest of Nottingham city centre. Although typically regarded as a suburb of the City of Nottingham, and officially designated as part of the Nottingham Urban Area, for local government purposes it is in the borough of Broxtowe, lying outside...

, England, weighs only 24 lb, and has 52 and 18-inch wheels. It has no step and no brakes, in order to minimize weight.

A third model, also made by Pope Manufacturing Company, weighs 49 lb and has forged
Forging
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: '"cold," "warm," or "hot" forging. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 580 metric tons...

 steel forks. A brake lever on the right, straight handlebar operates a spoon brake against the front wheel.

All three have cranks that can be adjusted for length.

Operation


Mounting requires skill. One foot is placed on a peg above the back wheel. The rider grasps the handlebar, scoots and lifts himself into the saddle.

Although easy to ride slowly because of their high center of mass and the inverted pendulum effect, the penny-farthing was prone to accidents. To stop, the rider presses back on the pedals while applying a spoon-shaped brake pressing the tire. The center of mass
Center of mass
In physics, the center of mass or barycenter of a system is the average location of all of its mass. In the case of a rigid body, the position of the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body...

 being high and not far behind the front wheel meant any sudden stop or collision with a pothole or other obstruction could send the rider over the handlebars ("taking a header" or "coming a cropper"). On long downhills, some riders hooked their feet over the handlebars. This made for quick descents but left no chance of stopping. A new type of handlebar
Bicycle handlebar
Bicycle handlebar or often bicycle handlebars refers to the steering mechanism for bicycles; the equivalent of a steering wheel. Besides steering, handlebars also often support a portion of the rider's weight, depending on their riding position, and provide a convenient mounting place for brake...

 was introduced, called Whatton bars, that looped behind the legs so that riders could still keep their feet on the pedals and also be able to leap feet-first forward off the machine.

Performance


The first recorded hour record
Hour record
The hour record for bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one hour on a bicycle. There are several records. The most famous is for upright bicycles meeting the requirements of the Union Cycliste Internationale . It is one of the most prestigious in cycling...

 was set in 1876 when Frank Dodds of England pedaled 15.8 miles (25.506 km) in an hour on a high wheeler.
The last (paced) hour record
Hour record
The hour record for bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one hour on a bicycle. There are several records. The most famous is for upright bicycles meeting the requirements of the Union Cycliste Internationale . It is one of the most prestigious in cycling...

 ever achieved on a penny-farthing bicycle was 38.17 km by Frederick J. Osmond (England) in 1891.

In 1884, Thomas Stevens
Thomas Stevens (cyclist)
Thomas Stevens was the first person to circle the globe by bicycle. He rode a large-wheeled Ordinary, also known as a penny-farthing, from April 1884 to December 1886...

 rode a Columbia penny-farthing from San Francisco to Boston, the first cyclist to cross the United States. In 1885–86, he continued from London through Europe, the Middle East, China, and Japan, to become the first to ride round the world.

Tremendous feats of balance were reported, including negotiating a narrow bridge parapet and riding down the US Capitol steps with the small wheel in front.

In popular culture


The bike, with the one wheel dominating, led to riders being referred to in America as "wheelmen", a name that lived on for nearly a century in the League of American Wheelmen until renamed the League of American Bicyclists
League of American Bicyclists
The League of American Bicyclists is a non-profit membership organization which promotes cycling for fun, fitness and transportation through advocacy and education....

 in 1994. Clubs of racing cyclists wore uniforms of peaked cap
Peaked cap
A peaked cap, forage cap, barracks cover, or combination cap is a form of headgear worn by the armed forces of many nations and also by many uniformed civilian organizations such as law enforcement agencies...

s, tight jackets and knee-length breeches, with leather shoes, the caps and jackets displaying the club's colors. In 1967 collectors and restorers of penny-farthings (and other early bicycles) founded the Wheelmen, a non-profit organization "dedicated to keeping alive the heritage of American cycling".

The high-wheeler lives on in the gear inch
Gear inches
Gear inches is a system that assigns numerical measurements to bicycle gear ratios, to indicate how low or high a gear is.Gear inches has no current physical significance; it corresponds to the diameter in inches of the main wheel of an old-fashioned penny-farthing bicycle with equivalent gearing...

 units used by cyclists in English-speaking countries to describe gear ratios. These are calculated by multiplying the wheel diameter in inches by the number of teeth on the front chain-wheel and dividing by the teeth on the rear sprocket. The result is the equivalent diameter of a penny-farthing wheel. A 60-inch gear, the largest practicable size for a high-wheeler, is nowadays a middle gear of a utility bicycle
Utility bicycle
A utility bicycle is a bicycle designed for practical transportation, as opposed to bicycles which are primarily designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles, sport/training bicycles, and mountain bicycles. The vast majority of bicycles can be found in the...

, while top gears on many exceed 100 inches. There was at least one 64-inch Columbia made in the mid-1880s, but 60 was the largest in regular production.
  • The "Couplets du facteur rural" (verses of the country postman) in Act 3 of Le château à Toto
    Le château à Toto
    Le château à Toto is an opéra bouffe in three acts of 1868 with music by Jacques Offenbach. The French libretto was by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy...

    , French libretto
    Libretto
    A libretto is the text used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata, or musical. The term "libretto" is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as mass, requiem, and sacred cantata, or even the story line of a...

     by Henri Meilhac
    Henri Meilhac
    Henri Meilhac , was a French dramatist and opera librettist.-Biography:Meilhac was born in Paris in 1831. As a young man, he began writing fanciful articles for Parisian newspapers and vaudevilles, in a vivacious boulevardier spirit which brought him to the forefront...

     and Ludovic Halévy
    Ludovic Halévy
    Ludovic Halévy was a French author and playwright. He was half Jewish : his Jewish father had converted to Christianity prior to his birth, to marry his mother, née Alexandrine Lebas.-Biography:Ludovic Halévy was born in Paris...

     (music by Jacques Offenbach
    Jacques Offenbach
    Jacques Offenbach was a Prussian-born French composer, cellist and impresario. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Johann Strauss, Jr....

    , 1869) touch on the merits of the "vélocipède".

  • A penny-farthing was the logo of The Village
    The Village (The Prisoner)
    The Village is the fictional setting of the 1960s UK television series The Prisoner where the main character, Number Six, is held with other former spies and operatives...

     in the cult 1960s television
    Television
    Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

     series The Prisoner
    The Prisoner
    The Prisoner is a 17-episode British television series first broadcast in the UK from 29 September 1967 to 1 February 1968. Starring and co-created by Patrick McGoohan, it combined spy fiction with elements of science fiction, allegory and psychological drama.The series follows a British former...

    , and was also featured in the show's closing titles. Co-creator and star Patrick McGoohan
    Patrick McGoohan
    Patrick Joseph McGoohan was an American-born actor, raised in Ireland and England, with an extensive stage and film career, most notably in the 1960s television series Danger Man , and The Prisoner, which he co-created...

     has stated that the bike represented slowing down the wheels of progress.

  • The 1941 Disney short The Nifty Nineties
    The Nifty Nineties
    The Nifty Nineties is an animated short film produced in Technicolor by Walt Disney Productions and released to theaters on June 20, 1941 by RKO Radio Pictures. The film stars Mickey and Minnie Mouse and romanticizes the decade of the 1890s....

    , set in an 1890s-style setting, features Goofy
    Goofy
    Goofy is a cartoon character created in 1932 at Walt Disney Productions. Goofy is a tall, anthropomorphic dog, and typically wears a turtle neck and vest, with pants, shoes, white gloves, and a tall hat originally designed as a rumpled fedora. Goofy is a close friend of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck...

     riding a penny-farthing for a short distance before falling off.
  • The classic Around the World in 80 Days opens with Passepartout (played by Cantinflas
    Cantinflas
    Fortino Mario Alfonso Moreno Reyes , was a Mexican comic film actor, producer, and screenwriter known professionally as Cantinflas. He often portrayed impoverished campesinos or a peasant of pelado origin...

    ) riding a penny-farthing through the streets of London.

  • It is also a symbol of the city of Davis, California
    Davis, California
    Davis is a city in Yolo County, California, United States. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area...

    , and Redmond, Washington
    Redmond, Washington
    Redmond is a city in King County, Washington, United States, located east of Seattle. The population was 54,144 at the 2010 census,up from 45,256 in 2000....

    .
  • The Canberra Bicycle Museum features an Ordinary that can be sat on for taking pictures. Formerly at the Canberra Trademan's Union Club, the museum relocated in May 2006 to an adjacent address in Dickson, Australian Capital Territory
    Dickson, Australian Capital Territory
    Dickson is a suburb in the Inner North of Canberra, Australia. It is named after Sir James Dickson who was a Queensland advocate of Australian Federation and one of the founders of the Australian Constitution...

    .

Events

  • Each February in Evandale
    Evandale, Tasmania
    Evandale is a small town in northern Tasmania, Australia. It sits on the banks of the South Esk River 18 km south of Launceston. A classified historic town, many of its buildings remain largely in original condition...

    , Tasmania
    Tasmania
    Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...

    , penny-farthing enthusiasts from around the world converge on the small village for a series of Penny Farthing races, including the national championship.
  • In 2004, British leukemia
    Leukemia
    Leukemia or leukaemia is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts". Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases...

     patient and charity fundraiser Lloyd Scott
    Lloyd Scott
    Lloyd Scott, MBE is an English former professional football goalkeeper and now charity fundraiser, best known in the UK for his charity marathons. He is notable for competing in the 2002 London Marathon in a deep-sea diving costume during which he broke the world record for slowest marathon time...

     (43) rode a penny-farthing across the Australian outback to raise money for a charity cause.
  • In November 2008, Briton Joff Summerfield completed a 22,000-mile round-the-world trip on a penny farthing. Summerfield spent two-and-a-half years cycling through 23 countries, taking in sights such as the Taj Mahal, Angkor Wat and Mount Everest.
  • Every 10 years, Knutsford
    Knutsford
    Knutsford is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority area of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, in North West England...

     in England, hosts The Knutsford Great Race, first started in 1980, with the next event due 2020. The 1980 race had 15 teams/entries with 16 competing in 1990 and 2000. The 2010 race was limited to 50 teams and was in aid of the ShelterBox
    ShelterBox
    ShelterBox is an international disaster relief charity that provides portable refuge to disaster victims around the world. Since 2001, it has worked in more than 45 countries, supplying aid to more than 600,000 people, and delivers emergency shelter, warmth and dignity to people affected by...

     Charity.

See also


  • Big Wheel, a tricycle
  • High wheeler
    High Wheeler
    The high wheeler was an early car body style virtually unique to the United States.It is typified by large-diameter slender wheels, frequently with solid tires, to provide ample ground clearance on the primitive roads in much of the country at the turn of the 20th century...

    , an automobile
  • Monowheel
    Monowheel
    A monowheel is a one-wheeled single-track vehicle similar to a unicycle. However, instead of sitting above the wheel, the rider sits either within it or next to it. The wheel is a ring, usually driven by smaller wheels pressing against its inner rim...

    , a single-wheeled vehicle
  • Tall bike
    Tall bike
    A tall bike is an unusually tall bicycle often constructed by hobbyists from spare parts. Typically, two conventional bicycle frames are connected, by welding, brazing, or other means, one atop the other...

    , an unusually tall bicycle
  • Unicycle
    Unicycle
    A unicycle is a human-powered, single-track vehicle with one wheel. Unicycles resemble bicycles, but are less complex.-History:One theory of the advent of the unicycle stems from the popularity of the penny-farthing during the late 19th century...

    , a single-wheeled vehicle
  • Velocipede
    Velocipede
    Velocipede is an umbrella term for any human-powered land vehicle with one or more wheels. The most common type of velocipede today is the bicycle....

    , a predecessor
  • Yike Bike, an electric "mini-farthing" design
  • Václav Klement
    Václav Klement
    Václav Klement - was a Czech automotive pioneer, co-founder of what is now Škoda Auto.-See also:* Laurin & Klement...