is a family of prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...
s, although they are often referred to as penaeid shrimp
. It contains many species of economic importance, such as the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon
Penaeus monodon, the giant tiger prawn , is a marine crustacean that is widely reared for food.-Distribution:...
), whiteleg shrimp
Whiteleg shrimp , also known as Pacific white shrimp, is a variety of prawn of the eastern Pacific Ocean commonly caught or farmed for food.-Description:...
, Atlantic white shrimp
Litopenaeus setiferus is a species of prawn found along the Atlantic coast of North...
and Indian prawn
The Indian prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus , is one of the major commercial prawn species of the world. It is found in the Indo-West Pacific from eastern and south-eastern Africa, through India, Malaysia and Indonesia to southern China and northern Australia.-Common names:F...
. Many prawns are the subject of commercial fishery
A shrimp fishery is a fishery directed toward harvesting either shrimp or prawns. .-Commercial shrimping:...
, and farming
A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the United States, Japan and Western Europe...
, both in marine settings, and in freshwater farms
A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp for human consumption. Freshwater prawn farming shares many characteristics with, and many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming...
. Lateral line
The lateral line is a sense organ in aquatic organisms , used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. Lateral lines are usually visible as faint lines running lengthwise down each side, from the vicinity of the gill covers to the base of the tail...
-like sense organs on the antennae have been reported in some species of Penaeidae. At 210 metres per second (756 km/h), the myelin
Myelin is a dielectric material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Myelin is an outgrowth of a type of glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination...
ated giant interneurons of pelagic penaeid shrimp have the world record for impulse conduction speed in any animal.
There are 48 recognised genera in the family Penaeidae, 23 of them known only from the fossil record (marked †):
- † Albertoppelia
Albertoppelia is an extinct genus of prawn which existed during the Upper Jurassic period, named after Albert Oppel. It contains the single species Abertoppelia kuempeli....
Schweigert & Garassino, 2004
- † Ambilobeia
Ambilobeia is an extinct genus of prawn which existed in Ambilobé, Madagascar during the Triassic period. It contains the species Ambilobeia karojoi....
Garassino & Pasini, 2002
- † Antrimpos
Antrimpos is an extinct genus of crustacean which existed during the Triassic and Jurassic periods. It contains 15 species, including Antrimpos speciosus....
- Artemesia Bate, 1888
- Atypopenaeus Alcock, 1905
- † Bombur Münster, 1839
- † Bylgia
Bylgia is an extinct genus of prawns in the family Penaeidae....
- † Carinacaris Garassino, 1994
- † Cretapenaeus
Cretapenaeus berberus is an extinct species of prawn which existed in Morocco during the Late Cretaceous period. It is the only species in the genus Cretapenaeus....
Garassino, Pasini & Dutheil, 2006
- † Drobna
Drobna deformis is an extinct species of prawn, the only species in the genus Drobna....
- † Dusa
Dusa is an extinct genus of prawn, in the order Decapoda, containing five species....
Farfantepenaeus is a genus of prawns in the family Penaeidae. Its eight species were formerly included in the genus Penaeus .-Species:*Farfantepenaeus aztecus — northern brown shrimp...
- Fenneropenaeus Pérez Farfante, 1969
- Funchalia Johnson, 1868
- † Hakelocaris
Hakelocaris vavassorii is an extinct species of prawn. It was named in 1994 by Alessandro Garassino, and is the only species in the genus Hakelocaris....
- Heteropenaeus De Man, 1896
- † Ifasya
Ifasya is an extinct genus of prawn. It contains the species Ifasya madagascariensis and Ifasya straelini, and was named in 1995 by Alessandro Garassino and Giorgio Teruzzi. It existed in Madagascar during the Lower Triassic period....
Garassino & Teruzzi, 1995
- † Koelga
Koelga is an extinct genus of prawn in the order Decapoda. It contains the species Koelga curvirostris and Koelga muensteri....
- † Libanocaris
Libanocaris is an extinct genus of prawn, containing a single species, Libanocaris rogeri....
- Litopenaeus Pérez Farfante, 1969
- † Longichela
Longichela orobica is an extinct species of prawn which lived in the Norian, and is the only species in the genus Longichela....
Garassino & Teruzzi, 1993
- † Longitergite
Longitergite is an extinct genus of prawn which existed in Russia during the Lower Miocene period. It contains a single species....
Garassino & Teruzzi, 1996
- † Macropenaeus
Macropenaeus is an extinct genus of prawn in the order Decapoda, containing a single species, M. incertus. It existed in Lebanon during the Middle Triassic period....
- Macropetasma Stebbing, 1914
- Marsupenaeus Tirmizi, 1971
- Megokris Pérez Farfante & Kensley, 1997
Melicertus is a genus of "king" prawns, comprising eight species:*Melicertus canaliculatus *Melicertus hathor Burkenroad, 1959*Melicertus kerathurus *Melicertus latisulcatus...
Metapenaeopsis, the velvet shrimps, is a prawn genus in the family Penaeidae. It contains the following species:* Metapenaeopsis acclivis * Metapenaeopsis aegyptia Galil & Golani, 1990...
- Metapenaeus Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
- † Microchela
Microchela is an extinct genus of prawn, which contains a single species Microchela rostrata....
- † Micropenaeus
Micropenaeus is an extinct genus of prawn in the order Decapoda. It was first named in 1998 by Sergio Bravi and Alessandro Garassino....
Bravi & Garassino, 1998
- Parapenaeopsis Alcock, 1901
- Parapenaeus Smith, 1885
- Pelagopenaeus Pérez Farfante & Kensley, 1997
- Penaeopsis Bate, 1881
Penaeus is a genus of prawns, including the giant tiger prawn , the most important species of farmed crustacean worldwide. The genus has been reorganised following a proposition of Pérez Farfante and Kensley based on morphological differences, in particular the genital characteristics of these...
- Protrachypene Burkenroad, 1934
- † Pseudobombur
Pseudobombur is an extinct genus of crustacean, in the order Decapoda. It contains the species Pseudobombur nummuliticus ....
- † Pseudodusa
Pseudodusa is an extinct genus of prawn, containing only the species Pseudodusa frattigianii, known from the Solnhofen limestones of southern Germany....
Schweigert & Garassino, 2004
- † Rauna Münster, 1839
- † Rhodanicaris
Rhodanicaris is an extinct genus of prawn which is preserved in the Callovian la Voulte-sur-Rhône lagerstätte....
Van Straelen, 1924
Rimapenaeus is a genus of prawns. It comprises six species, including the "roughneck shrimp", Rimapenaeus constrictus:*Rimapenaeus byrdi *Rimapenaeus constrictus *Rimapenaeus faoe...
Pérez Farfante & Kensley, 1997
- † Satyrocaris Garassino & Teruzzi, 1993
- Tanypenaeus Pérez Farfante, 1972
- Trachypenaeopsis Burkenroad, 1934
- Trachypenaeus Alcock, 1901
- Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934
- Xiphopenaeus Smith, 1869