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Pedagogy

Pedagogy

Overview
Pedagogy is the study of being a teacher
Teacher
A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

 or the process of teaching. The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction.

Pedagogy is also occasionally referred to as the correct use of instructive strategies (see instructional theory
Instructional theory
An Instructional theory is "a theory that offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop." Instructional theories focus on how to structure material for promoting the education of human beings, particularly youth...

). For example, Paulo Freire
Paulo Freire
Paulo Reglus Neves Freire was a Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy.-Biography:...

 referred to his method of teaching adult humans as "critical pedagogy
Critical pedagogy
Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by Henry Giroux as an "educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive...

". In correlation with those instructive strategies the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning
Learning
Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.Human learning...

 goals
Goal
A goal is an objective, or a projected computation of affairs, that a person or a system plans or intends to achieve.Goal, GOAL or G.O.A.L may also refer to:Sport...

 set by the student and teacher.
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Encyclopedia
Pedagogy is the study of being a teacher
Teacher
A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

 or the process of teaching. The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction.

Pedagogy is also occasionally referred to as the correct use of instructive strategies (see instructional theory
Instructional theory
An Instructional theory is "a theory that offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop." Instructional theories focus on how to structure material for promoting the education of human beings, particularly youth...

). For example, Paulo Freire
Paulo Freire
Paulo Reglus Neves Freire was a Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy.-Biography:...

 referred to his method of teaching adult humans as "critical pedagogy
Critical pedagogy
Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by Henry Giroux as an "educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive...

". In correlation with those instructive strategies the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning
Learning
Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.Human learning...

 goals
Goal
A goal is an objective, or a projected computation of affairs, that a person or a system plans or intends to achieve.Goal, GOAL or G.O.A.L may also refer to:Sport...

 set by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic schools of thought
Socratic method
The Socratic method , named after the classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas...

.

Etymology



The word comes from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

  (paidagōgeō); in which means "child" and (ágō) means "lead"; so it literally means "to lead the child". In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the instruction of his master’s son (girls were not publicly taught). This involved taking him to school or a gym , looking after him and carrying his equipment (e.g. music instruments).

The Latin-derived word for pedagogy: child-instruction, is in modern use in English to refer to the whole context of instruction, learning, and the actual operation involved therein, although both words have roughly the same original meaning. In English the term pedagogy is used to refer to
instructive theory; trainee teachers learn their subject and also the pedagogy appropriate for teaching that subject. The introduction of information technology into schools has necessitated changes in pedagogy; teachers are adopting new methods of teaching facilitated by the new technology.
The late Malcolm Knowles
Malcolm Knowles
Malcolm Shepherd Knowles was an American Adult Educator, famous for the adoption of the theory of Andragogy—initially a term coined by the German teacher Alexander Kapp...

 reasoned that the term andragogy
Andragogy
Andragogy consists of learning strategies focused on adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience. The term ‘andragogy’ has been used in different times and countries with various connotations. Nowadays there exist mainly three...

is more pertinent when discussing adult learning and teaching. He referred to andragogy as the art and science of teaching adults.

Academic degree


An academic degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

, Ped. D., Doctor
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 of Pedagogy, is awarded honorarily by some U.S. universities to distinguished teachers (in the U.S. and U.K. earned degrees within the instructive field are classified as an Ed. D., Doctor of Education
Doctor of Education
The Doctor of Education or Doctor in Education degree , in Latin, Doctor Educationis, is a research-oriented professional doctorate that prepares the student for academic, administrative, clinical, or research positions in educational, civil, and private organizations.-Differences between an Ed.D...

 or a Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...

). The term is also used to denote an emphasis in education as a specialty in a field (for instance, a Doctor of Music
Doctor of Music
The Doctor of Music degree , like other doctorates, is an academic degree of the highest level. The D.Mus. is intended for musicians and composers who wish to combine the highest attainments in their area of specialization with doctoral-level academic study in music...

 degree in piano pedagogy
Piano pedagogy
Piano pedagogy is the study of the teaching of piano playing. Whereas the professional field of music education pertains to the teaching of music in school classrooms or group settings, piano pedagogy focuses on the teaching of musical skills to piano students on the level of the individual...

).

Pedagogues


A number of people contributed to the theories of pedagogy, among these are

  • Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz
    Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz
    Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz was a German philosopher and pedagog.-Life:Born at Magdeburg, he read philosophy at Berlin, Halle and Königsberg, devoting himself mainly to the doctrines of Hegel and Schleiermacher...

  • John Asimakopoulos
    John Asimakopoulos
    John Asimakopoulos, born September 10, 1970, is associate professor of sociology at the City University of New York-Bronx. He is also a social justice activist, author, and public intellectual.-Background:...

  • Caleb Gattegno
    Caleb Gattegno
    Caleb Gattegno Alexandria, Egypt is best known for his innovative approaches to teaching and learning mathematics , foreign languages and reading...

  • Benjamin Bloom
    Benjamin Bloom
    Benjamin Samuel Bloom was an American educational psychologist who made contributions to the classification of educational objectives and to the theory of mastery-learning...

  • John Dewey
    John Dewey
    John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology...

  • Adolphe Ferriere
    Adolphe Ferrière
    Adolphe Ferrière was one of the founders of the movement of the progressive education.He shortly worked in a school in Glarisegg and later founded an experimental school in Lausanne, Switzerland, but Adolphe Ferrière had to quickly abandon teaching due to his deafness...

  • Celestin Freinet
    Célestin Freinet
    Célestin Freinet was a noted French pedagogue, and educational reformer.- Early life :...

  • Paulo Freire
    Paulo Freire
    Paulo Reglus Neves Freire was a Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy.-Biography:...

  • Friedrich Fröbel
  • Eugenio María de Hostos
    Eugenio María de Hostos
    Eugenio María de Hostos known as "El Ciudadano de América" , was a Puerto Rican educator, philosopher, intellectual, lawyer, sociologist and independence advocate....

  • Kurt Hahn
    Kurt Hahn
    Kurt Martin Hahn was a German educator whose philosophies are considered internationally influential.-Biography:...

  • Gloria Jean Watkins (bell hooks)
    Bell hooks
    Gloria Jean Watkins , better known by her pen name bell hooks, is an American author, feminist, and social activist....

  • Jan Amos Komensky
    Comenius
    John Amos Comenius ; ; Latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) was a Czech teacher, educator, and writer. He served as the last bishop of Unity of the Brethren, and became a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica...

  • Shinichi Suzuki (violinist)

  • Janusz Korczak
    Janusz Korczak
    Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit was a Polish-Jewish children's author, and pediatrician known as Pan Doktor or Stary Doktor...

  • William G Perry
    William G. Perry
    William G. Perry, Jr. was a well-known educational psychologist who studied the cognitive development of students during their college years. He was a professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and founder and longtime director of the Bureau of Study Counsel...

  • Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach....

  • Jean Piaget
    Jean Piaget
    Jean Piaget was a French-speaking Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology"....

  • Simon Soloveychik
    Simon Soloveychik
    Simon L'vovich Soloveychik was a Russian publicist, educator and philosopher.- Brief biography :After graduating Moscow State University in 1953 he worked as a boys and girls scouts leader, a secondary school teacher, and a correspondent of Pioneer magazine.In 1960 he worked for the newspaper...

  • Rudolf Steiner
    Rudolf Steiner
    Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. He gained initial recognition as a literary critic and cultural philosopher...

  • Lev Vygotsky
    Lev Vygotsky
    Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of cultural-historical psychology, and the leader of the Vygotsky Circle.-Biography:...

  • Henry Giroux
    Henry Giroux
    Henry Giroux, born September 18, 1943, in Providence, Rhode Island, is an American cultural critic. One of the founding theorists of critical pedagogy in the United States, he is best known for his pioneering work in public pedagogy, cultural studies, youth studies, higher education, media studies,...

  • Peter McLaren
    Peter McLaren
    Peter McLaren is a Professor in the Division of Urban Schooling, the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles . He is the author and editor of forty-five books and hundreds of scholarly articles and chapters...

  • Maria Montessori
    Maria Montessori
    Maria Montessori was an Italian physician and educator, a noted humanitarian and devout Catholic best known for the philosophy of education which bears her name...

  • Pierre Bourdieu
    Pierre Bourdieu
    Pierre Bourdieu was a French sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher.Starting from the role of economic capital for social positioning, Bourdieu pioneered investigative frameworks and terminologies such as cultural, social, and symbolic capital, and the concepts of habitus, field or location,...

  • Joseph Jacotot
    Joseph Jacotot
    Joseph Jacotot was a French teacher and educational philosopher, creator of the method of "intellectual emancipation." He was born at Dijon on the 4th of March 1770...

  • Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
    Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
    Tsunesaburō Makiguchi was a Japanese educator who founded and became the first president of Sōka Gakkai....



See also


  • Adult
    Adult
    An adult is a human being or living organism that is of relatively mature age, typically associated with sexual maturity and the attainment of reproductive age....

  • Andragogy
    Andragogy
    Andragogy consists of learning strategies focused on adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience. The term ‘andragogy’ has been used in different times and countries with various connotations. Nowadays there exist mainly three...

  • Child
    Child
    Biologically, a child is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Some vernacular definitions of a child include the fetus, as being an unborn child. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority...

  • Concept learning
    Concept learning
    Concept learning, also known as category learning, concept attainment, and concept formation, is largely based on the works of the cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner...

  • Creative Pedagogy
    Creative Pedagogy
    Creative Pedagogy is the science and art of creative teaching. It is a sub-field of Pedagogy, opposed to Critical pedagogy...

  • Critical pedagogy
    Critical pedagogy
    Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by Henry Giroux as an "educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive...

  • Education
    Education
    Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

  • Educational philosophy
  • Educational psychology
    Educational psychology
    Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing...

  • Education theory
    Education theory
    Educational theory can refer to either speculative educational thought in general or to a theory of education as something that guides, explains, or describes educational practice....

  • Educology
    Educology
    The term educology means the fund of knowledge about the educational process. Educology consists of discourse about education. The discourse is made up of warranted assertions, valid explanatory theories and sound justificatory arguments about the educational process...

  • Teacher
    Teacher
    A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

  • Contemporary Educational Psychology — a Wikibook about educational psychology
  • Heutagogy
    Heutagogy
    In education, heutagogy, a concept coined by Stewart Hase of Southern Cross University in Australia, is the study of self-determined learning. The notion is an expansion and reinterpretation of andragogy, and it is possible to mistake it for the same...

  • Instructional design
    Instructional design
    Instructional Design is the practice of creating "instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing." The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and...

  • Learning theory (education)
    Learning theory (education)
    In psychology and education, learning is commonly defined as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views . Learning as a process focuses on what...

  • Horace Mann
    Horace Mann
    Horace Mann was an American education reformer, and a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833. He served in the Massachusetts Senate from 1834 to 1837. In 1848, after serving as Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education since its creation, he was...

  • Piano pedagogy
    Piano pedagogy
    Piano pedagogy is the study of the teaching of piano playing. Whereas the professional field of music education pertains to the teaching of music in school classrooms or group settings, piano pedagogy focuses on the teaching of musical skills to piano students on the level of the individual...

  • Team-based learning
    Team-Based Learning
    Team-based learning has two distinct usages. It was a term first popularized by Larry Michaelsen, the central figure in the development of the TBL method while at University of Oklahoma, to describe an educational strategy that he developed for use in academic settings...



External links