Paraná (state)

Paraná (state)

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Paraná is one of the states of Brazil, located in the South
Southern Region, Brazil
The South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 km ², being the smallest portion of the country...

 of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province
Misiones Province
Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamiсa region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north, east and south, and Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest.- History :The province was...

 of Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

 and the republic of Paraguay
Paraguay
Paraguay , officially the Republic of Paraguay , is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the...

, with the Paraná River
Paraná River
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina for some . It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language...

 as its western boundary line. Cut by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests in the world. At the border with Argentina is the National Park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

 of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 as a World Heritage site and the spectacle of the Cataratas do Iguaçu attracts about 700 thousand tourists per year. At only 40 km (24.9 mi) from there, at the border with Paraguay, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu. The State Park
State park
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the federated state level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are typically established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational...

 of Vila Velha near the city of Ponta Grossa
Ponta Grossa
Ponta Grossa is a city in the state of Paraná, Brazil. With a population of over 315,000 inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous city of Paraná.It is the second industrial pole of the State, exceeded only by Curitiba—the State's capital and largest city...

, is another attraction, with great rocky formations sculpted by the erosion of rain and wind. Curitiba
Curitiba
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...

, the capital, is famous for its high quality of life, compared to the Brazilian average, and the Ilha do Mel, next to the historical Paranaguá
Paranaguá
Paranaguá is a city in the state of Paraná in Brazil. Founded in 1648, it is Paraná's oldest city.It is known for its excellent port facilities, being the sea port for Curitiba, the capital of Paraná....

, is another destination for eco-tourists.

History


The first historical information we have from the area where that today is the state of Paraná, comes from the Bandeirantes, groups of the first settles from São Paulo, the city, that already in the 16th century travel around the future Brazil, and parts of what today is Argentina and Paraguay searching gold mines. They travel around the north, in the Paraná, Paranapanema and Ivaí rivers, and found gold for the first time, in the south part, around what is now Curitiba. There they create a small village that lived around the gold. But the mines were completely explored in few years and the village almost disappeared. For two centuries would be only a place to stop in the way south, activity that would grow in the 17th century, because of the intense flow of cattle from Rio Grande do Sul to São Paulo and Rio. In 1693 Curitiba was big enough to be, finally, considered a city.

A second area developed and controlled by the Portuguese in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries was the coast, or what today we call the Paranaguá Bay. It was a safe place for ships coming from south or north, and already in 1648, the port became a official city named Paranaguá, the oldest of the state.

A third place was the missions of the Spanish Jesuits on the Paraná River, situated just above the Guaíra Falls in the north, there priests try to evangelize the Indians into their faith, and at the same time to create a social structure of labor and education based on the catholic systems, that some historians perceive as driven by social conscience, other by a agenda of the usual fight for domination of the land. The whole episode is very controversial. The fact is that those Missions were controlled by Spanish Jesuits and considered dangerous by the Portuguese, after battles between the two groups, the Missions were destroyed and the Jesuits and most of the Christianized Indians moved to what today is north of Argentina. The area around Guaira then became just a kind of fortification as a protection from the Spanish.

The state during this whole period was the southern part of the Province of São Paulo. Only in the 19th century, after the independence from Portugal, Paraná was set apart from São Paulo. The official date of the creation was 1843. This had strong opposition by most politicians from the provinces of São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

 and Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais is one of the 26 states of Brazil, of which it is the second most populous, the third richest, and the fourth largest in area. Minas Gerais is the Brazilian state with the largest number of Presidents of Brazil, the current one, Dilma Rousseff, being one of them. The capital is the...

. The Paulista
Paulista
Paulista is a city in Pernambuco, Brazil, population according to IBGE/2009, 319.373 people making it the 4th most populous city in PE). Its near 6 cities plus the ocean and has the highest HDI of the metro area. It is the birthplace of footballer Rivaldo, and is also famous for its beaches;...

 group claim that the emperor Pedro II of Brazil
Pedro II of Brazil
Dom Pedro II , nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of...

 separated Paraná them to weaken and punish São Paulo, which had been a prominent area of support for the liberal insurrection of 1842.

Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans
German-Brazilian
A German Brazilian is a Brazilian person of ethnic German ancestry or origin...

, Italians
Italian Brazilian
-Italian immigration to Brazil:The Italian government claims there are 25 million Brazilians of Italian descent, which would be the largest population of Italian background outside of Italy itself. There are no actual surveys, or even verifiable calculations supporting such claims. According to...

, Poles
Polish Brazilian
A Polish Brazilian is a Brazilian person of full or partial Polish ancestry, who is aware of such ancestry and remains connected, in some degree, to Polish culture, or a Polish-born person permanently residing in Brazil. The number of Polish descendants in Brazil is estimated at 1.8 million...

 and Ukrainians
Ukrainians of Brazil
Ukrainians of Brazil are Brazilian citizens born in Ukraine, or Brazilians of Ukrainian descent who remain connected, in some degree, to Ukrainian culture...

. The development of the state is closely linked to the arrival of the immigrants.

By the early 20th century, the state had two railway systems: the Paranaguá to Curitiba (69 miles) (111 km) with an extension to Ponta Grossa (118 miles) (190 km) and branches to Rio Negro (55 miles) (89 km), Porto Amazonas (6 miles) (10 km) and Antonina (10 miles) (16 km); and the São Paulo and Rio Grande, which crosses the state from northeast to south-west from União da Vitória, on the Iguaçu, to a junction with the Sorocabana line of São Paulo at Itararé. The junction of the two systems was at Ponta Grossa, north-west of Curitiba.

Geography


Paraná is bounded on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province
Misiones Province
Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamiсa region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north, east and south, and Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest.- History :The province was...

 of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

 and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.

The state has two geographic regions, a narrow coastal zone that is home to the Serra do Mar coastal forests
Serra do Mar coastal forests
Biome: Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsRealm: NeotropicalWWF ID: NT0160Size: 104,800 square kilometers...

, and a high plateau (2500 to 3000 ft.) (750 to 1000 m) whose precipitous, deeply eroded eastern escarpments are known as the Serra do Mar
Serra do Mar
Serra do Mar is a 1,500 km long system of mountain ranges and escarpments in Southeastern Brazil, which runs in parallel to the Atlantic Ocean coast from the state of Espírito Santo to southern Santa Catarina, although some include Serra Geral in the Serra do Mar, in which case this range...

 or Serra de Cubatão. The southern and central portions of the state is covered by the Araucaria moist forests
Araucaria moist forests
The Araucaria moist forests are a subtropical moist forest ecoregion of southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina.-Setting:The Araucaria moist forests cover an area of , encompassing a region of mountains and plateaus in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do...

, and has large tracts of Yerba Mate
Yerba mate
Maté, yerba maté or erva maté , Ilex paraguariensis, is a species of holly native to subtropical South America in northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay...

 (Ilex paraguayensis), known in Brazil as erva mate, used to make a tea called Chimarrão. The plateau slopes westward to the Paraná river, is well watered and moderately fertile, and has a remarkably uniform climate of a mild temperate character; the lower western and northern portions of the state are covered by the Paraná-Paraíba interior forests
Paraná-Paraíba interior forests
The Alto Paraná Atlantic forests, also known as the Paraná-Paraíba interior forests, is a tropical moist forest ecoregion of southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and eastern Paraguay.-Setting:...

 ecoregion.

The largest rivers in the state comprise the Paranapanema
Paranapanema River
The Paranapanema River is one of the most important rivers of the interior of the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The river forms the boundary between the states of São Paulo and Paraná....

 and its tributaries the Cinza and Tibaji, the Ivaí
Ivaí River
The Ivaí River is a river of Paraná state in southern Brazil. It is a tributary of the Paraná River. Its official spelling is Ivaí, with variants including Ivahy and Ival.-See also:*List of rivers of Paraná...

, Piquiri, Jejuy-guassu, and the Iguaçu with its principal tributary the Rio Negro. The Paranapanema and a small tributary, the Itarare', form the boundary line with São Paulo west of the Serra do Mar, and the Iguaçu and Negro, the boundary line with Santa Catarina and Argentina - both streams having their sources in the Serra do Mar and flowing westward to the Paraná. The other streams have shorter courses, and all are obstructed by falls and rapids. Twenty miles above the mouth of the Iguaçu are the Iguaçu Falls, 215 ft. (66 m) high, broken into twenty or more falls separated by rocks and islands, and surrounded by a wild, unsettled and wooded country. The surface of the plateau is undulating and the greater part is adapted to agricultural and pastoral purposes.

Demographics








According to the IBGE
IBGE
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE , is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil...

 of 2010, the state population is 10,439,601. The population density was 51.48 PD/km2.

Urbanization: 84.5% (2006); Population growth: 1.4% (1991–2000); Houses: 3,177,000 (2006).

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census produced the following numbers: 7,641,000 White
White Brazilian
White Brazilians make up 48.4% of Brazil's population, or around 92 million people, according to the IBGE's 2008 PNAD . Whites are present in the entire territory of Brazil, although the main concentrations are found in the South and Southeastern parts of the country...

 (72.68%), 2,537,000 Pardos
Pardos
Pardos was the catepan of Italy briefly in 1042 following the short term of George Maniakes.In July 1042, Maniakes was disgraced and recalled by Constantine IX Monomachos at the behest of Romanus Sclerus, brother of the emperor's mistress. According to Johannes Skylitzes, Romanus had even raped...

 (Multiracial) (24.30%), 174,000 Black
Afro-Brazilian
In Brazil, the term "preto" is one of the five categories used by the Brazilian Census, along with "branco" , "pardo" , "amarelo" and "indígena"...

 (1.49%), 121,000 Asian
Asian Brazilian
An Asian Brazilian is is a Brazilian citizen of full or partial Asian ancestry, who remains culturally connected to Asia, or an Asian-born person permanently residing in Brazil. Brazil received many immigrants from Asia, both from Middle East and East Asia...

 (1.12%), 38,000 Amerindian
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
The Indigenous peoples in Brazil comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the country prior to the European invasion around 1500...

 (0.36%).

Like the other two Southern states, Paraná experienced a massive European immigration wave that has shaped its current population. Europeans spread to all parts of the state, though some groups have remained in specific areas.

The two major European groups in the state are the Italians and Germans. Italians have a major presence throughout the state, and they are the most significant group in several cities of the north and northwest, like Londrina, Maringá, Apucarana, Umuarama, Cianorte and others. Germans have large communities in the west, south and in the Curitiba metropolitan area. They are a major group in several cities, like Toledo, Cascavel, Francisco Beltrão, Pato Branco and also in Rolândia, at the north.

The Polish are the third largest group and have big communities in the central and south regions, mainly around Curitiba (see: Morska Wola
Morska Wola
Morska Wola was a Polish settlement, located in Brazil, in the state of Paraná. It was founded by the Maritime and Colonial League in 1934. The League purchased land from local Indian tribes and carried out an extensive promotional campaign in Poland, trying to lure settlers...

). In Colombo, a 230.000 city in Curitiba's Metropolitan area, they are the predominant group. Though most of the Polish immigrants were Catholic, part of the group was Jewish. Today Jews with Polish background are around 90% of the Jewish Paranaense community. They live mainly in Curitiba and Londrina. The former mayor of Curitiba and governor of Paraná, Jaime Lerner
Jaime Lerner
Jaime Lerner was governor of the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. He is renowned as an architect and urban planner, having been mayor of Curitiba, capital of Paraná, three times...

, is of Jewish Polish ancestry.

Ukrainians also arrived in big groups, and today are the majority in some small cities in the south, specially Prudentópolis
Prudentópolis
Prudentópolis is a Brazilian city in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. As of 2008, it had a population of 50,614 people. It is the center of the Ukrainian community in Brazil.-History:...

. The Dutch are concentrated around the central state region, near cities of Ponta Grossa and Castro. Other European groups also present almost everywhere, but in smaller numbers, are the Portuguese and Spaniards, who arrived in the country as immigrants but also coming from other states. Today the European population is increasingly becoming mixed, the communities are less isolated, and are merging through marriage.

The Japanese also played a important role in Paraná history. Along with the Italians, they colonized the north of the state in the first half of 20th century. Today they have a strong presence there and in all major cities, specially in Londrina and Maringá, and are the majority in the small town of Açai. Also important was the Lebanese immigration. In the last decades of 19th century and beginning of the 20th, the Lebanese that arrived were mainly from the Christian communities of Lebanon, and came in large numbers. Today they are around 95% of the community, and live in all the cities of the state. The other 5% are Muslim Lebanese, who arrived in the last three decades, and basically live today in the city of Foz do Iguaçu, near the border of Argentina.

The Pardos, a definition created by government agencies in the forties, are still today a controversial category, as it is any perception of race and ethnicity in the extremely diverse and mixed Brazil. But pardos are generally perceived as somebody born from parents of two or more races, or ethnic groups. The general idea is a mix between Whites, Blacks and/or Indians. The blacks, although a small group, can be found everywhere in the state, specially in larger cities. The Amerindians are a very small group, and are concentrated in Reservations at the central part of the state, around the city of Guarapuava.

The main cities of the state are:
  • Curitiba
    Curitiba
    Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...

     (Capital and main city, east)
  • Londrina
    Londrina
    Londrina is a city located in the northern region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and is 369 km away from the capital, Curitiba. Londrina was originally founded by British settlers. The city exerts great influence on Paraná and Brazil's south region...

     (north)
  • Maringá
    Maringá
    Maringá is a city in southern Brazil that was founded on May 10, 1947. Maringá is the third largest city in the state of Paraná. The city has a population of 357,117 , 612,617 in its metropolitan area...

     (northwest)
  • Ponta Grossa
    Ponta Grossa
    Ponta Grossa is a city in the state of Paraná, Brazil. With a population of over 315,000 inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous city of Paraná.It is the second industrial pole of the State, exceeded only by Curitiba—the State's capital and largest city...

     (center-east)
  • Cascavel
    Cascavel
    Cascavel is a city and municipality in western Paraná state, Brazil. The population is 296.975 inhabitants.The city is on a plateau 781 meters above sea level...

     (west)
  • Foz do Iguaçu
    Foz do Iguaçu
    Foz do Iguaçu is the 7th largest city in Paraná state, Brazil, with a population of 255,900 inhabitants. It is located approximately 650 km west of Curitiba, Parana's capital city, being the westernmost city in that state...

     (west)
  • Guarapuava
    Guarapuava
    Guarapuava is a city in the mid south of Paraná state in Brazil. It is the largest city in that state by area.Guarapuava is located at 25°23'36" south and 51°27'19" west. The region is known as the centre of the state of Paraná, in the third plateau, also called of the Plateau of Guarapuava...

     (center)
  • Paranaguá
    Paranaguá
    Paranaguá is a city in the state of Paraná in Brazil. Founded in 1648, it is Paraná's oldest city.It is known for its excellent port facilities, being the sea port for Curitiba, the capital of Paraná....

     (east-coast)
  • Apucarana
    Apucarana
    Apucarana is a municipality in the state of Paraná in Brazil, located at coordinates . The municipality covers at an elevation of above mean sea level. Its 2008 population was estimated as 120,133.- Transportation :The city is served by Cap...

     (north)
  • Arapongas
    Arapongas
    Arapongas is a municipality in Paraná. The population was estimated at 103,186 in 2007.It is served by Alberto Bertelli Airport.- Notable natives :*Luciano Pagliarini - Brazilian cyclist....

     (north)
  • Cianorte
    Cianorte
    Cianorte is a city in northwest Paraná, Brazil, with a population of 68,629, as measured by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in 2009.- History :...

     (northwest)
  • Umuarama (northwest)
  • Campo Mourão
    Campo Mourão
    Campo Mourão is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Its population in 2009 was 90,460 inhabitants. The people from Campo Mourão are called mourãoenses....

     (northwest)
  • Paranavaí
    Paranavaí
    Paranavaí is a city in southern Brazil that was founded on December 14, 1952. Paranavaí is located in the Northwest part of the state of Paraná and has a population of 95,470 . It constitutes a medium regional centre, where its main activities include commerce, services, and agro-industries...

     (northwest)
  • Francisco Beltrão
    Francisco Beltrão
    Francisco Beltrão is the largest town in the southwest region of Paraná state in Brazil. It was established on December 14, 1952. According to the official The population is about 72,000 inhabitants, which 85% live in the city and 15% in the land. Francisco Beltrão is very close to two another...

     (south-west)
  • Pato Branco
    Pato Branco
    Pato Branco is a city in the southwest part of the Brazilian state Paraná. The municipality covers 537,8 km² and has a population of 66,680 . Pato Branco started off as a village in 1942 and was given status as a city December 14th 1952...

     (south-west)
  • Toledo
    Toledo
    - Places :Belize:*Toledo District*Toledo SettlementBrazil:*Pedro de Toledo, São Paulo*Toledo, ParanáColombia:*Toledo, Norte de SantanderPhilippines:*Toledo City, CebuSpain:*Toledo, Spain *Kingdom of Toledo...

     (west)

Economy


Since the 1950s Paraná is one of Brazilian agriculture powerhouses. First as the biggest producer of coffee, the main product that dominated the state agriculture, specially in the higly cultivated northern part of the state. That situation remained until a big natural disaster, the big frost of 1975, that destroy most of the coffee trees. After that, the sector diversified its plantations, and soybeans, corn, sugarcane, cattle, pork and chicken became the main products, coffee lost most of the land dedicated to its production, but remain an important item of the state exports. Today the Paraná state production of all this commodities ranks among the top three, or five, biggest state producers in the country. That's a great achievement knowing that Brazil is the biggest or second world producer of all of then, except pork, in which the country ranks number five.

The state industry at first was created based in agrobusiness: meat, coffee, dairy, lumber, mate tea and chicken processing were responsible for the first industries created in the state, some already in the end of 19th century, but most after the 1940s. Still today they are responsible for a large part of the industrial production. But the 1970s inauguration of the Volvo Factory in Curitiba, stated the car manufacturing, which today is huge. Plants of several different brands and industries installed around the metropolitan Curitiba, producing around 450.000 cars, buses, and trucks a year. The whole industry today is very diversified, the Curitiba Metropolitan Area has a whole range of industries some of then the top in the country, like computers, freezer and cosmetics. There are also several industries around several main cities, specially Ponta Grossa (Soybean products), Londrina (Coffee and Cattle), Maringá (Soybeans and Cattle), Telemaco Borba (Lumber and Cellulose) and Cianorte (Textiles and Clothing).

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 38.6%, followed by the industrial sector at 36%. Agriculture represents 25.4% of GDP (2008).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 5.9% (2005).

Its per capita GDP in 2005 was R$12,339, or US$5,400, 8th in Brazil and comparable to that of Turkey.

Statistics

  • Vehicles: 3,808,298 (March 2007)
  • Mobile phones: 12 million (August 2011)
  • Telephones: 2.7 million (April 2007)
  • Cities: 399 (2007)

Education



Educational institutions


Federal universities:
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
    Universidade Federal do Paraná
    Federal University of Paraná is a university headquartered in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.Established on December 19, 1912 and initially named as Universidade do Paraná , the Universidade Federal do Paraná – UFPR is regarded as the oldest Brazilian university.In 1920, the federal government split...

     (UFPR) (Federal University of Paraná);
  • Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR);


State universities:
  • Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO) (State University of West Center);
  • Universidade Estadual de Londrina
    Universidade Estadual de Londrina
    Universidade Estadual de Londrina is one of the public universities of the State of Paraná, Brazil....

     (UEL) (State University of Londrina);
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM) (State University of Maringá);
  • Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná (UENP) (State University of North of Paraná);
  • Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (Unioeste) (Western Paraná State University)
  • Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG) (State University of Ponta Grossa);
  • Universidade Estadual do Paraná
    Universidade Estadual do Paraná
    The Univesidade Estadual do Paraná , UNESPAR, is an institution of higher learning maintained by the Government of the State of Paraná, with headquarters in Curitiba. It has campuses in the cities of Curitiba, Apucarana, Campo Mourão, Paranaguá, Paranavaí and União da Vitória....

     (UNESPAR) (State University of Paraná);


Private universities:
  • Centro Universitário Curitiba (UNICURITIBA);
  • Centro Universitário Franciscano do Paraná (UNIFAE);
  • Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC) (College of Technology);
  • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná
    The Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná is a private, not-for-profit Catholic university. The main campus is located in Curitiba, the capital city of the State of Paraná, Brazil, and four other campuses are located in the cities of Londrina, Maringá, São José dos Pinhais and Toledo...

     (PUC-PR);
  • Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR)
  • Universidade Positivo (Positivo University);
  • Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná (UTP) (Tuiuti University of Paraná);
  • Faculdades Opet (OPET) ;
  • and many others.

Infrastructure




International airports

  • Curitiba
    Curitiba
    Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...


Afonso Pena International Airport
Afonso Pena International Airport
Afonso Pena International Airport is the main airport serving Curitiba, Brazil, located in the adjoining municipality of São José dos Pinhais. It is named after Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena , the 6th President of Brazil....

 is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport. It is integrated into Curitiba's transportation system, with rapid buses and executive buses connecting the airport to the city.
Small aircraft may also use the Bacacheri airport, which today hosts a flight school and a national airbase.
  • Foz do Iguaçu
    Foz do Iguaçu
    Foz do Iguaçu is the 7th largest city in Paraná state, Brazil, with a population of 255,900 inhabitants. It is located approximately 650 km west of Curitiba, Parana's capital city, being the westernmost city in that state...


Foz do Iguaçu International Airport
Foz do Iguaçu International Airport
Foz do Iguaçu/Cataratas International Airport , is the airport serving Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. It is named after the Iguazu Falls .It is operated by Infraero.-Airlines and destinations:-Accidents and incidents:...

. Brazil's main airlines serve the city daily, connecting it with the rest of the country and foreign cities. Regional routes also serve local traffic.
The airport is equipped for both visual and instrument operations, and has received charter flights from various continents. Its runway can serve jumbo jets
Wide-body aircraft
A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a widebody aircraft or twin-aisle aircraft. The typical fuselage diameter is . In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers...

 such as the Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 747/100 and 747/200.
At Foz do Iguaçu
Foz do Iguaçu
Foz do Iguaçu is the 7th largest city in Paraná state, Brazil, with a population of 255,900 inhabitants. It is located approximately 650 km west of Curitiba, Parana's capital city, being the westernmost city in that state...

 there are currently four daily flights by Varig, two by Vasp, two by Tam and one by Ocean Air.
The combination of transport by highway, air, river and railway makes Foz do Iguaçu an excellent, perhaps unique, location in the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
Southern Cone is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Although geographically this includes part of Southern and Southeast of Brazil, in terms of political geography the Southern cone has traditionally comprised Argentina,...

 of the Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

.
Its geographic location makes it a natural port for Mercosur
Mercosur
Mercosur or Mercosul is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people,...

. In the future it also will be an obligatory port of entrance and exit of the bi-ocean central corridor.

Highways


BR-116,
BR-153,
BR-158,
BR-163
BR-163
BR-163 is a highway in Brazil, going from Cuiabá, the capital city of Mato Grosso state, to Santarém in the state of Pará. It runs through in the heart of the Amazon Basin. Currently, only 44% of the road are paved. Most parts of the road are muddy and impassable in the wet season. Lorries can get...

,
BR-272,
BR-277,
BR-280,
BR-369,
BR-373,
BR-376,
BR-467,
BR-469,
BR-476,
BR-487.

Social care


Paraná has one of the highest standards of living in Brazil with relatively low crime levels, a special attention given to education and health and a Human Development Index
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate "very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries...

 of ~0.820, the 5th highest in Brazil.

Sports


Paraná provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. There are several soccer clubs based in Paraná, such as:
  • Clube Atlético Paranaense
    Clube Atlético Paranaense
    Clube Atlético Paranaense is a Brazilian football team from Curitiba in Paraná, founded on March 26, 1924. The club won the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A in 2001.-History:...

     (Curitiba);
  • Coritiba Foot Ball Club
    Coritiba Foot Ball Club
    Coritiba Foot Ball Club, commonly known as Coritiba, is a Brazilian football team from Curitiba, Paraná. It's the state's oldest football team and the best classified in the CBF and FIFA classifications. Coritiba has been champion in Paraná State for 35 times, more times than the sum of all the...

     (Curitiba);
  • Paraná Clube
    Paraná Clube
    Paraná Clube is a Brazilian football team. It was established on December 19, 1989, in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Its uniform is composed of a blue/red shirt, white shorts and white socks....

     (Curitiba);
  • Atlético Clube Paranavaí
    Atlético Clube Paranavaí
    Atlético Clube Paranavaí, usually known simply as Paranavaí, is a Brazilian football team from the city of Paranavaí, Paraná state, founded on March 14, 1946.-History:On March 14, 1946, Atlético Clube Paranavaí was founded...

     (Paranavaí
    Paranavaí
    Paranavaí is a city in southern Brazil that was founded on December 14, 1952. Paranavaí is located in the Northwest part of the state of Paraná and has a population of 95,470 . It constitutes a medium regional centre, where its main activities include commerce, services, and agro-industries...

    );
  • Arapongas Esporte Clube
    Arapongas Esporte Clube
    Arapongas Esporte Clube, commonly known as Arapongas, is a Brazilian football club based in Arapongas, Paraná state.-History:The club was founded on June 6, 1974. The club's main investor since 2007 is Adir Leme da Silva...

     (Arapongas
    Arapongas
    Arapongas is a municipality in Paraná. The population was estimated at 103,186 in 2007.It is served by Alberto Bertelli Airport.- Notable natives :*Luciano Pagliarini - Brazilian cyclist....

    );
  • Cianorte Futebol Clube
    Cianorte Futebol Clube
    Cianorte Futebol Clube, usually known simply as Cianorte, is a Brazilian football team from the city of Cianorte, Paraná state, founded on February 13, 2002.-History:...

     (Cianorte
    Cianorte
    Cianorte is a city in northwest Paraná, Brazil, with a population of 68,629, as measured by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in 2009.- History :...

    );
  • Cascavel Clube Recreativo
    Cascavel Clube Recreativo
    Cascavel Clube Recreativo, commonly known as Cascavel, is a Brazilian football club based in Cascavel, Paraná state.-History:The club was founded on December 17, 2001, after Cascavel Esporte Clube, SOREC and Cascavel S/A merged.-Stadium:...

     (Cascavel
    Cascavel
    Cascavel is a city and municipality in western Paraná state, Brazil. The population is 296.975 inhabitants.The city is on a plateau 781 meters above sea level...

    );
  • Toledo Colônia Work
    Toledo Colônia Work
    Toledo Colônia Work, commonly known as Toledo, is a Brazilian football club based in Toledo, Paraná state. They competed in the Série C once.-History:...

     (Toledo
    Toledo, Paraná
    The city of Toledo is located in the Western region of Paraná state, a state located in the south of Brazil.The city is bordered by the following towns/cities:* North: Maripá e Nova Santa Rosa;* South: Santa Tereza do Oeste e São Pedro do Iguaçu;...

    );
  • Iraty Sport Club
    Iraty Sport Club
    Iraty Sport Club, or Iraty as they are usually called, is a Brazilian football team from Irati in Paraná, founded on April 21, 1914.Home stadium is the Coronel Emílio Gomes stadium, capacity 8,000.-History:...

     (Irati
    Irati
    Irati is a town in State of Paraná, Brazil with an estimated population 54,805 in 2006 based on the 2000 censusIrati sprang up in the 1890s as a railroad town along the São Paulo–Rio Grande do Sul railroad line...

    );
  • Operário Ferroviário Esporte Clube
    Operário Ferroviário Esporte Clube
    Operário Ferroviário Esporte Clube, commonly known as Operário, is a Brazilian football team from the city of Ponta Grossa, Paraná . They competed in the Série A once.-History:...

     (Ponta Grossa);
  • Rio Branco Sport Club
    Rio Branco Sport Club
    Rio Branco Sport Club, usually known simply as Rio Branco, is a Brazilian football club from Paranaguá, Paraná state.-History:On October 13, 1913, Rio Branco Sport Club was founded by Anibal José de Lima, Raul da Costa Pinto, Euclides de Oliveira, Manoel Victor da Costa, Antônio Gomes de Miranda,...

     (Paranaguá);
  • Roma Esporte Apucarana
    Roma Esporte Apucarana
    Roma Esporte de Apucarana, usually known simply as Roma, is a Brazilian football team from the city of Apucarana, Paraná state, founded on December 14, 2000.-History:...

     (Apucarana
    Apucarana
    Apucarana is a municipality in the state of Paraná in Brazil, located at coordinates . The municipality covers at an elevation of above mean sea level. Its 2008 population was estimated as 120,133.- Transportation :The city is served by Cap...

    ).


Stadiums
  • Clube Atlético Paranaense: Arena da Baixada
  • Coritiba FC: Couto Pereira
    Estádio Couto Pereira
    Estádio Major Antônio Couto Pereira, often shortened to Couto Pereira, is the home of Coritiba Foot Ball Club, located in Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. Its formal name honors the Major Antônio Couto Pereira, who was Coritiba's president in 1926, 1927, and between 1930 to 1933...

  • Paraná C: Vila Capanema
    Estádio Vila Capanema
    Estádio Durival Britto e Silva, better known as Estádio Vila Capanema , is the main stadium of Paraná Clube in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The other club stadium is Estádio Vila Olímpica, but it is currently being used for training. The stadium holds 20,000 people...

  • AC Paranavaí: Waldemiro Wagner
    Estádio Waldemiro Wagner
    Estádio Municipal Waldemiro Wagner, also known as Felipão, is a football stadium located in Paranavaí, Brazil. The stadium has a maximum capacity of 25,000 people, and it is located in the Avenida Tancredo Neves, s/n, Paranavaí, Paraná...

  • Arapongas EC: dos Pássaros (of Birds)
  • Cianorte FC: Albino Turbay
  • Toledo CW: 14 de Dezembro
  • Cascavel CR: Olímpico Regional (Olympic Regional)
  • Iraty SC: Emílio Gomes
  • Operário Ferroviário EC: Germano Krüguer
  • Rio Branco SC: Estradinha (little road)
  • Roma EA: Bom Jesus da Lapa
    Estádio Bom Jesus da Lapa
    Estádio Municipal Bom Jesus da Lapa, also known as Toca do Dragão, is a football stadium located in Apucarana, Brazil. The stadium has a maximum capacity of 13,000 people, and it is located in the Minas Gerais Avenue, s/n - Apucarana, Paraná. It was inaugurated in 1967, and it is owned by...



Curitiba is one of the 12 host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
2014 FIFA World Cup
The 2014 FIFA World Cup will be the 20th FIFA World Cup, an international association football tournament that will take place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014....

. Arena da Baixada, currently one of the most modern stadiums in South America, is the chosen venue, and is expected to host group, round of 16 and possibly quarter-final games. Even though it is far ahead of the average Brazilian stadiums in terms of safety, technology and infrastructure, it will go through a major transformation, with seating capacity expected to be nearly doubled, the pitch rotated by 90º and the arena completely closed with similar stands on all sides (today it has a much smaller single-tier stand in one side).

External links


Official Website