Pantanal

Pantanal

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The Pantanal is a tropical wetland
Wetland
A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with water either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands are categorised by their characteristic vegetation, which is adapted to these unique soil conditions....

 and one of the world's largest wetland of any kind. Most of it lies within the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

, but it extends into Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest in area, located in the western part of the country.Neighboring states are Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. It also borders Bolivia to the southwest...

 and portions of Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

 and Paraguay
Paraguay
Paraguay , officially the Republic of Paraguay , is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the...

, sprawling over an area estimated at between 140000 square kilometres (54,054.3 sq mi) and 195000 square kilometres (75,289.9 sq mi). Various subregional ecosystems exist, each with distinct hydrological, geological and ecological characteristics; up to 12 of them have been defined (RADAMBRASIL 1982).

About 80% of the Pantanal floodplains are submerged during the rainy seasons, nurturing an astonishing biologically diverse
Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions...

 collection of aquatic plant
Aquatic plant
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments. They are also referred to as hydrophytes or aquatic macrophytes. These plants require special adaptations for living submerged in water, or at the water's surface. Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is...

s and helping support a dense array of animal
Fauna
Fauna or faunæ is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora.Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess shale fauna"...

 species.

The name "Pantanal" comes from the Portuguese word pântano, meaning wetland, bog, swamp or marsh. By comparison, the Brazilian highlands are locally referred to as the planalto, plateau or, literally, high plain.

Geology, geography and ecology



The Pantanal is a huge, gently-sloped basin that receives runoff from the upland areas (the Planalto highlands
Mato Grosso Plateau
The Mato Grosso Plateau is a plateau in central Brazil occupying most of the state of Mato Grosso. It contains mostly savannah and woodland. It is an ancient erosional plateau that extends from the border of Goiás state westward to the Serra dos Parecis, which lies near the Bolivian border. In the...

) and slowly releases the water through the Paraguay River
Paraguay River
The Paraguay River is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina...

 and tributaries. The formation is a result of the large, concave pre-Andean depression of the earth's crust, related to the Andean orogeny
Orogeny
Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a severe structural deformation of the Earth's crust due to the engagement of tectonic plates. Response to such engagement results in the formation of long tracts of highly deformed rock called orogens or orogenic belts...

 of the Tertiary
Tertiary
The Tertiary is a deprecated term for a geologic period 65 million to 2.6 million years ago. The Tertiary covered the time span between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary...

. It constitutes an enormous internal river delta
River delta
A delta is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river. Deltas are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river...

, in which several rivers flowing from the surrounding plateau merge, depositing their sediments
Sedimentation
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained, and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration...

 and erosion residues, which have been filling, throughout the years, the large depression area of the Pantanal. This area is also one of the distinct physiographic provinces of the larger Parana-Paraguay Plain area.

The Pantanal is bounded by the Chiquitano dry forests
Chiquitano dry forests
The Chiquitano dry forests is a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion in Bolivia and Brazil.-Setting:The Chiquitano dry forests cover an area of . The ecoregion lies east of the Andes Mountains, in the lowlands of eastern Bolivia and the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia. The tropical...

 to the west and northwest, by the Arid Chaco dry forests to the southwest, and the Humid Chaco to the south. The Cerrado
Cerrado
The Cerrado, is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Gioas and Minas Gerais...

 savannas lie to the north, east and southeast.
The Pantanal has an average yearly rainfall of 1000–1400 mm (39.4–55.1 in), but is fed by the upper Paraguay River. Its average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F), but temperatures can fluctuate from 0 to 40 °C (32 to 104 F).

During the rainy season, the water in the Pantanal basin rises between two and five meters. Just as the Nile
Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...

 delta is fertile, arable land, so too are the Pantanal plains. The dramatic increase of water during the rainy season nourishes the producers of Pantanal, which in turn nourishes all the other species, as well. Humans have taken advantage of this so much that it has become a problem.

Hydrodynamics



Floodplain ecosystems such as the Pantanal are defined by their seasonal inundation and desiccation
Desiccation
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a moderately sealed container.-Science:...

. They shift between phases of standing water and phases of dry soil, when the water table can be well below the root region. Soils range from high levels of sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

 in higher areas to higher amounts of clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

 and silt
Silt
Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between sand and clay whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as suspended sediment in a surface water body...

 in riverine areas.

Elevation of the Pantanal ranges from 80 metre above sea level. Annual rainfall over the flood basin is between 1000 millimetre, with most rainfall occurring between November and March. In the Paraguay River
Paraguay River
The Paraguay River is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina...

 portion of the Pantanal, water levels rise between two meters to five meters seasonally; water fluctuations in other parts of the Pantanal are less than this. Flood waters tend to flow slowly (2 centimetre per second) due to the low gradients and high resistance offered by the dense vegetation.

When rising river waters first contact previously dry soil, the waters become oxygen-depleted, rendering the water environs anoxic
Hypoxia (environmental)
Hypoxia, or oxygen depletion, is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments as dissolved oxygen becomes reduced in concentration to a point where it becomes detrimental to aquatic organisms living in the system...

. Many natural fish kill
Fish kill
The term fish kill, known also as fish die-off and as fish mortality, is a localized die-off of fish populations which may also be associated with more generalised mortality of aquatic life...

s can occur if there are no oxygenated water refuges available (the reason for this remains speculative: it may be due to the growth of toxin
Toxin
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded...

-producing bacteria in the deoxygenated water rather than as a direct result of lack of oxygen (McClain 2002)).

Flora



The vegetation of the Pantanal, often referred to as the "Pantanal complex
Complex system
A complex system is a system composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties not obvious from the properties of the individual parts....

", is a mixture of plant communities typical of a variety of surrounding biome
Biome
Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a...

 regions: these include moist tropical Amazonian rainforest plants, semiarid woodland plants typical of northeast Brazil, Brazilian cerrado
Cerrado
The Cerrado, is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Gioas and Minas Gerais...

savanna plants and plants of the Chaco savannas of Bolivia and Paraguay. Forests usually occur at higher altitudes of the region, while grasslands cover the seasonally inundated areas. The key limiting factors for growth are inundation and, even more importantly, water-stress during the dry season. The Pantanal ecosystem is home to 3500 known plant species.

Fauna



The Pantanal ecosystem
Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving , physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight....

 is also thought to be home to 1000 bird species, 400 fish species, 300 mammalian species, 480 reptile species and over 9000 different subspecies of invertebrates.

Among the rarest animals to inhabit the wetland of the Pantanal are the marsh deer
Marsh Deer
The Marsh Deer, Blastocerus dichotomus , is the largest deer species from South America reaching a length of and a height of at the rump. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay...

 (Blastocerus dichotomus) and the giant river otter
Giant Otter
The giant otter is a South American carnivorous mammal. It is the longest member of the Mustelidae, or weasel family, a globally successful group of predators. Unusually for a mustelid, the giant otter is a social species, with family groups typically supporting three to eight members...

 (Pteroneura brasiliensis). Parts of the Pantanal are also home to the following endangered or threatened species: the hyacinth macaw
Hyacinth Macaw
The Hyacinth Macaw , or Hyacinthine Macaw, is a parrot native to central and eastern South America. With a length of about 100 cm it is longer than any other species of parrot...

 (Anodorhyncus hyacinthinus) (a bird endangered due to smuggling), the crowned solitary eagle
Crowned Solitary Eagle
The Crowned Solitary Eagle , typically known simply as the Crowned Eagle is an endangered bird of prey from eastern and central South America...

, the maned wolf
Maned Wolf
The maned wolf is the largest canid of South America, resembling a large fox with reddish fur.This mammal is found in open and semi-open habitats, especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in south, central-west and south-eastern Brazil The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the...

 (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bush dog
Bush Dog
The bush dog is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru , Ecuador, the Guianas, Paraguay, northeast Argentina and Brazil...

 (Speothos venaticus), the South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris), the giant anteater
Giant Anteater
The Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, is the largest species of anteater. It is the only species in the genus Myrmecophaga. It is found in Central and South America from Honduras to northern Argentina...

 (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) and the yacare caiman
Yacare Caiman
The Yacare caiman is a species of caiman found in central South America, including northeastern Argentina, Uruguay eastern Bolivia, central/south-west Brazil, and the rivers of Paraguay...

 (Caiman yacare). The Pantanal is home to one of the largest and healthiest jaguar
Jaguar
The jaguar is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only Panthera species found in the Americas. The jaguar is the third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, and the largest in the Western Hemisphere. The jaguar's present range extends from Southern United States and Mexico...

 (Panthera onca) populations on Earth.

Most fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

 are detritivore
Detritivore
Detritivores, also known as detritophages or detritus feeders or detritus eaters or saprophages, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus . By doing so, they contribute to decomposition and the nutrient cycles...

s, primarily ingesting fine particles from sediments and plant surfaces. This is characteristic of fish living in South American flood-plains in general. Fish migration between river channels and flood-plain regions occurs seasonally. These fish have many adaptation
Adaptation
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation....

s that allow them to survive in the oxygen-depleted flood-plain waters.

In addition to the caiman, the following reptiles inhabit the Pantanal: the yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus
Eunectes notaeus
Eunectes notaeus is a non-venomous boa species found in South America. No subspecies are currently recognized.-Description:Adults are not as large as the green anaconda, E. murinus, but nevertheless grow to an average of in length. The maximum size is almost certainly larger...

), the gold tegu
Gold tegu
The gold tegu, also known as common tegu, black tegu and Colombian tegu, is a species of tegu. Its old scientific name was Tupinambis nigropunctatus but it has since renamed to Tupinambis teguixin....

 (Tupinambis teguixin), the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) and the green iguana
Green Iguana
The Green Iguana or Common Iguana is a large, arboreal herbivorous species of lizard of the genus Iguana native to Central and South America...

 (Iguana iguana).

Threats to the Pantanal


The Pantanal region includes essential sanctuaries for migratory birds, critical nursery grounds for aquatic life, and refuges for such creatures as the yacare caiman, deer, and jaguar.

The main human activities which threaten the Pantanal ecosystems are:
  • Commercial fishing: Fishing is focused on only a few species and is probably not sustainable.
  • National and international sport fishing: The Paraguay river and its tributaries are the main focus for fishing activities.
  • Cattle-ranching:
    • Approximately 99% of the land in the Pantanal is privately owned for the purpose of agriculture
      Agriculture
      Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

       and ranching
    • There are 2500 fazenda
      Fazenda
      Fazendas were coffee plantations that spread into the interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1896. They created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.- Creation of fazendas :...

      s
      in the region and up to eight million cattle
      Cattle
      Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

      .
    • Erosion and sedimentation caused by this activity alter the soil and hydrological characteristics of Pantanal flood-plain ecosystems; consequently, native species are threatened by the change in ecosystem variables.
  • Hunting, poaching, and smuggling of endangered species
    Endangered species
    An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters...

    : Reptile, wild cat and parrot species are particularly at risk from the smuggling industry due to their high value on the black market.
  • Uncontrolled tourism and overuse of natural resources
  • Deforestation
    • Deforestation is more relevant to elevated areas of the Pantanal which contain forest stands than lowland grassy areas.
    • Silt run-off from deforested highlands alters soil hydrology and is a significant threat to the Pantanal.
  • Pollution from gold mining
    Gold mining
    Gold mining is the removal of gold from the ground. There are several techniques and processes by which gold may be extracted from the earth.-History:...

     operations and agro-industry
    • The Pantanal is a natural water treatment
      Water treatment
      Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use as drinking water, industrial processes, medical and many other uses. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the...

       system as it removes chemicals, including pollutants, from water. Overpollution from industrial development (especially gold mining) can harm native flora and fauna.
    • However, water quality in the Pantanal was not significantly impacted as of 2002.
    • Recent high flooding has caused inundation of cultivated areas surrounding the park. The receding flood waters carried large amounts of pesticides back into the rivers and lakes, killing a great number of fish .
  • Pollution from sewage systems and pesticides
  • Infrastructure development (shipping canals, raised roads, pipelines): The proposed plan to dredge the Paraguay and Paraná River
    Paraná River
    The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina for some . It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language...

    s to allow oceangoing ships to travel 3442 kilometres (2,138.8 mi) inland is of particular concern and could affect the hydrology (flooding and drainage cycles) of the region, and therefore impact the ecosystem.

Pantanal Matogrossense National Park


A portion of the Pantanal in Brazil has been protected as the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park
Pantanal Matogrossense National Park
The Pantanal Matogrossense National Park is a national park of Brazil, in the southern state of Mato Grosso.The park is in the Pantanal, a World Heritage Site and a Ramsar Convention significant wetlands habitat. The Cuiabá River runs through Pantanal Matogrossense National Park....

. This 1350 square kilometres (521.2 sq mi) park, established in September 1981, is located in the municipality of Poconé in the State of Mato Grosso, between the mouths of the Baía de São Marcos and the Gurupi River
Gurupí River
The Gurupí River is a river in north-central Brazil which forms the boundary between Maranhão and Pará states. The Gurupí rises in the low hills which separate its basin from that of the Tocantins River to the south, and flows north into the Atlantic Ocean...

s.

This park has been designated a Ramsar Site of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e., to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural,...

 since May 24, 1993.

SESC Pantanal Private Natural Heritage Reserve


The SESC Pantanal Private Natural Heritage Reserve (Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural SESC Pantanal) is a privately owned reserve in Brazil, established in 1998 and 878.7 km² (339.3 sq mi) in size. It is located in the north-eastern portion, known as "Poconé" Pantanal, not far from the Pantanal National Park. It is a mix of permanent rivers, seasonal streams, permanent and seasonal floodplain freshwater lakes, shrub-dominated wetlands and seasonally flooded forests, all dedicated to nature preservation, and was designated a Ramsar Site of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention.

Main cities located within the Pantanal region

  • Aquidauana
    Aquidauana
    Aquidauana is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul.Aquidauanense Futebol Clube is the municipality football club....

    , MS
    Mato Grosso do Sul
    Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

  • Barão de Melgaço
    Barão de Melgaço
    Barão de Melgaço is a town and municipality in the state of Mato Grosso in the Central-West Region of Brazil.-References:...

    , MT
    Mato Grosso
    Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest in area, located in the western part of the country.Neighboring states are Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. It also borders Bolivia to the southwest...

  • Cáceres
    Cáceres, Mato Grosso
    Cáceres is an important town in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. It lies on the Paraguai River. Cattle ranching and fishing are the two most important economic activities of the town, and it is a popular tourist attraction during Festival Internacional de Pesca...

    , MT
    Mato Grosso
    Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest in area, located in the western part of the country.Neighboring states are Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. It also borders Bolivia to the southwest...

  • Corumbá
    Corumbá
    Corumbá is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, 425 km northwest of Campo Grande, the state's capital. It has a population of approximately 96,000 inhabitants, and its economy is based mainly on agriculture, animal husbandry, mineral extraction, and tourism, being the...

    , MS
    Mato Grosso do Sul
    Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

  • Coxim
    Coxim
    Coxim is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Its population was 33,021 and its area is 6,412 km².. It was founded in 1729....

    , MS
    Mato Grosso do Sul
    Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

  • Ladário
    Ladário
    Ladário is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The municipality of Ladário is surrounded by the municipality of Corumbá in all directions....

    , MS
    Mato Grosso do Sul
    Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

  • Miranda
    Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul
    Miranda is a city and municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, named for its location on the river by the same name. Its population was 24,781 and its area is 5,479 km².-References:www.explorepantanal.com...

    , MS
    Mato Grosso do Sul
    Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising...

  • Poconé
    Poconé
    Poconé is a town and municipality in the state of Mato Grosso in the Central-West Region of Brazil.-References:...

    , MT
    Mato Grosso
    Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest in area, located in the western part of the country.Neighboring states are Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. It also borders Bolivia to the southwest...


In fiction

  • John Grisham
    John Grisham
    John Ray Grisham, Jr. is an American lawyer and author, best known for his popular legal thrillers.John Grisham graduated from Mississippi State University before attending the University of Mississippi School of Law in 1981 and practiced criminal law for about a decade...

    's novel The Testament
    The Testament
    The Testament is a legal thriller by American author John Grisham. It was published in hardcover by Doubleday on February 2, 1999.-Plot summary:...

    largely takes place in the Pantanal.
  • Pantanal is the title of a Brazilian-produced telenovela
    Telenovela
    A telenovela is a limited-run serial dramatic programming popular in Latin American, Portuguese, and Spanish television programming. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão , and novela, a Spanish or Portuguese word for "novel"...

    whose setting is the Brazilian Pantanal.
  • The Jack McKinney Robotech novel Before the Invid Storm makes reference to former soldiers of the Army of the Southern Cross called the Pantanal Brigade by the character Major Alice Harper Argus.
  • The Twilight Saga: The Amazon Coven: "The Amazon coven consists of three sisters, Kachiri, Zafrina, and Senna, all natives of the Pantanal wetlands."

External links