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Panama City

Panama City

Overview
Panama is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

. It has a population of 880,691, with a total metro population of 1,272,672, and it is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

, in the province
Panamá Province
Panamá is a major province of the country of Panama, containing the capital city, Panama City. The governor of the province is Mayin Correa, a former mayor of Panama City and elected by President Martinelli after being sworn in on July 1, 2009.-Districts:...

 of the same name. The city is the political and administrative center of the country, and a hub for international banking and commerce. It is considered a Beta World City
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

.

With an average GDP per capita
Per capita
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per and capita . The phrase thus means "by heads" or "for each head", i.e. per individual or per person...

 of $11,700, Panama has been among the top five places for retirement in the world, according to International Living
International Living
International Living is a publishing group founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1979 as part of Agora Inc. headed by Bill Bonner. International Living monthly newsletter covers topics including retiring overseas, living abroad, international real estate, investment and travel, while a daily "IL...

magazine.
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Encyclopedia
Panama is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

. It has a population of 880,691, with a total metro population of 1,272,672, and it is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

, in the province
Panamá Province
Panamá is a major province of the country of Panama, containing the capital city, Panama City. The governor of the province is Mayin Correa, a former mayor of Panama City and elected by President Martinelli after being sworn in on July 1, 2009.-Districts:...

 of the same name. The city is the political and administrative center of the country, and a hub for international banking and commerce. It is considered a Beta World City
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

.

With an average GDP per capita
Per capita
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per and capita . The phrase thus means "by heads" or "for each head", i.e. per individual or per person...

 of $11,700, Panama has been among the top five places for retirement in the world, according to International Living
International Living
International Living is a publishing group founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1979 as part of Agora Inc. headed by Bill Bonner. International Living monthly newsletter covers topics including retiring overseas, living abroad, international real estate, investment and travel, while a daily "IL...

magazine. Panama City has a dense skyline of mostly highrise buildings, and it is surrounded by a large belt of tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest
A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator . This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall...

. It has an advanced communications system; and Panama's Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport is an international airport located from Panama City, Panama. In 2006, it underwent a major expansion and renovation program in order to modernize and improve its facilities...

, the largest and busiest airport in Central America, offers daily flights to major international destinations.

Panama City was chosen to be the American Capital of Culture
American Capital of Culture
The non-governmental organization American Capital of Culture Organization selects one city in the Americas annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year...

 for 2003 (jointly, with Curitiba
Curitiba
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

).

History



Panama was founded on August 15,1519 by Spanish conquistador
Conquistador
Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th to 16th centuries, following Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492...

 Pedro Arias Dávila. The city was the starting point of expeditions that conquered the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
The Inca Empire, or Inka Empire , was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century...

 in Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 (1532). It was a stopover point of one of the most important trade routes in the history of the American continent leading to the fairs of Nombre de Dios and Portobelo, where most of the gold and silver that Spain took from the Americas passed through. The city was destroyed by a devastating fire, when the pirate Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan
Admiral Sir Henry Morgan was an Admiral of the Royal Navy, a privateer, and a pirate who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements...

 sacked it on January 28, 1671. It was rebuilt and formally established on January 21, 1673 in a peninsula located 8 km from the original settlement. The place where the previously devastated city was located is still in ruins, and has become a tourist attraction known as "Panama Viejo
Panama Viejo
Panamá Viejo is the remaining part of the old Panama City and former capital of the country. It is located in the suburbs of the modern city. Together with the historical district of Panamá, it forms a World Heritage Site.-History:...

".

Geography



Panama is located between the Pacific Ocean and tropical rain forest. The Parque Natural Metropolitano (Metropolitan Nature Park), stretching from Panama along the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

, has unique bird species and other animals such as tapir
Tapir
A Tapir is a large browsing mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile snout. Tapirs inhabit jungle and forest regions of South America, Central America, and Southeast Asia. There are four species of Tapirs: the Brazilian Tapir, the Malayan Tapir, Baird's Tapir and the Mountain...

, puma, alligators, etc. At the Pacific entrance of the canal is the Centro de Exhibiciones Marinas (Marine Exhibitions Center), a research center for those interested in tropical marine life and ecology. Centro de Exhibiciones Marinas is managed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, the only bureau of the Smithsonian Institution based outside of the United States, is dedicated to understanding biological diversity. What began in 1923 as small field station on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal Zone has developed...

.

Tropical forests around Panama are vital for the functioning of the Panama Canal. These forests provide the canal with the water required for its operation (a rare example of a vast engineering project in the middle of the forest which actually helped preserve that forest). Due to the importance of the Canal to the Panamanian economy, tropical forests around the canal have been kept in an almost pristine state. Along the western side of the Canal is the Parque Nacional Soberania (Sovereignty National Park) which includes Summit botanical gardens and a zoo. In this national park, the best known trail is the Pipeline Road, popular among birdwatchers.

Climate


Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, Panama City has a tropical wet and dry climate. Panama City sees 1900 mm of precipitation annually. The dry season
Dry season
The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year...

 spans from January to April the wet season
Wet season
The the wet season, or rainy season, is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region occurs. The term green season is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the...

 spans the remainder of the year. Temperatures remain constant throughout the year averaging around 27 °C (80.6 °F).

Architecture


Panama's old quarter features many architectural styles, from Spanish colonial buildings to French
French architecture
The history of French architecture runs in parallel with its neighbouring countries in Europe, with France being home to both some of the earliest pioneers in many architectural styles, and also containing some of the finest architectural creations of the continent.-Roman:The architecture of...

 and Antillean townhouses built during the construction of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

. The more modern areas of the city have many high-rise buildings, which together form a very dense skyline
Skyline
A skyline is the overall or partial view of a city's tall buildings and structures consisting of many skyscrapers in front of the sky in the background. It can also be described as the artificial horizon that a city's overall structure creates. Skylines serve as a kind of fingerprint of a city, as...

. There are currently more than 110 high-rise projects being constructed, with 127 high-rise buildings already built. The city holds the 39th place in the world by highrise buildings count.

The Centennial Bridge
Centennial Bridge, Panama
Panama's Centennial Bridge is a major bridge crossing the Panama Canal. It was built to supplement the overcrowded Bridge of the Americas, and to replace it as the carrier of the Pan-American Highway; upon its opening in 2004, it became only the second permanent crossing of the canal.-...

, that crosses the Panama Canal earned the American Segmental Bridge Institute prize of excellence together with seven other bridges in the Americas.

Neighborhoods


The city is located in the Panama District
Panamá District
Panamá District is a district of Panamá Province in Panama. The population according to the 2000 census was 708,438.The district covers a total area of 2561 km²...

, although its metropolitan area also includes the San Miguelito District, and some other populated areas from the opposite side of the Panama Canal. As in the rest of the country, districts are divided into corregimiento
Corregimiento
Corregimiento is a term used in Colombia to define a subdivision of Colombian departments. According to the Colombian Constitution of 1991 and Decree 2274 of October 4, 1991, Corregimiento is an internal part of a Department or province, which includes a population core...

s
, in which there are many smaller boroughs.
The old quarter, known as Casco Viejo, is located in the corregimiento of San Felipe. Twelve other corregimientos along with San Felipe form the urban centre of the city, including Santa Ana, El Chorrillo, Calidonia, Curundú, Ancón
Ancón, Panama
Ancón is a "corregimiento" in central Panama , northeast of the [town-]limits of the town of Balboa. Ancon Hill is also the name of a large hill that overlooks Panama City, and served as a form of protection from pirates, and sea invasion...

, Bella Vista, San Francisco, Parque Lefevre y Río Abajo.

Economy



Being the economic and financial center of the country, Panama City's economy is service-based, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce, and tourism. The economy is dependent, to a significant extent, on trade and shipping activities, associated to the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

, and port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 facilities located in Balboa
Balboa, Panama
Balboa is a district of Panama City, located at the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal.- History :The town of Balboa, founded by the United States during the construction of the Panama Canal, was named after Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the Spanish conquistador credited with discovering the Pacific Ocean...

. The city has benefited from significant economic growth in the latest years, mainly due to the ongoing expansion of the Panama Canal, an increase in real estate investment, and a relatively stable banking sector. There are around eighty banks in the city, with at least fifteen of them being national.
Panama City is responsible for the production of about 55% of the country's GDP. This is because most Panama businesses and premises are located in the city and its metro area. It is a stopover for other destinations in the country as well as a tourist destination in its own right.

Tourism is one of the most important economic activities in terms of revenue generation. Hotel occupancy rate has always been relatively high for the city, having reached the second highest for any city outside the United States in 2008; after Perth
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

 and followed by Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

. However, hotel occupancy rates have dropped since 2009, probably due to the opening of many new luxury hotels. Several international brands, such as Le Méridien
Le Méridien
Le Méridien is an international hotel brand with a European perspective, formerly headquartered in the United Kingdom, with 130 properties. It is owned by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide....

, Radisson
Radisson Hotels
Radisson Hotels is one of the leading, full-service global hotel companies with more than 420 locations in 73 countries. The first Radisson Hotel was built in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1909, and was named after the 17th-century French explorer Pierre-Esprit Radisson...

 and RIU
RIU Hotels
RIU Hotels & Resorts is a hotel chain founded by the Riu family as a small holiday firm in 1953 . The RIU Hotels & Resorts chain is still owned by the Riu family's third generation . RIU Hotels & Resorts offer all-inclusive board basis. RIU Hotels & Resorts has more than 100 hotels in 19 countries ...

, have opened or plan to open new hotels in the city; along with the previously operating ones under Marriot
Marriott International
Marriott International, Inc. is a worldwide operator and franchisor of a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by son J.W. Marriott, Jr...

, Sheraton
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts is Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide's largest and second oldest brand . Starwood's headquarters are in White Plains, New York.-Sheraton history:...

, InterContinental
InterContinental Hotels Group
InterContinental Hotels Group plc is a global hotels company headquartered in Denham, United Kingdom. It is the largest hotels company in the world measured by rooms , and has over 4,500 hotels across over 100 countries...

, and many other foreign and local brands. Also, the Trump Organization
Trump Organization
The Trump Organization is a limited liability corporation conglomerate based in Trump Tower in Manhattan, New York. The organization owns, operates, and develops hotels, resorts, residential towers, and golf courses in different countries, as well as owning several pieces of high-end real estate in...

 is currently building the Trump Ocean Club
Trump Ocean Club International Hotel and Tower
Trump Ocean Club is a mixed-use, 70 floor, sail shaped development in Panama City, Panama of Real estate developer Donald J. Trump of the Trump Organization and Mr. Roger Khafif, President of the K Group projected to cost $400 million. As planned, it will be a waterfront condominium tower...

, their first investment in Central America
Central America
Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

; and Hilton Worldwide plans to open The Panamera, the first Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in all Latin America
Latin America
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages  – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 21,069,500 km² , almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area...

.

Demographics


The City proper has around 813,097 inhabitants in the 23 Panama City boroughs. The city, like all of Panama, is ethnically mixed, with mestizos, mulattos, Whites
White Latin American
White Latin Americans are the people of Latin America who are white in the racial classification systems used in individual Latin American countries. Persons who are classified as White in one Latin American country may be classified differently in another country...

, and Asians all living together.

Panamá Viejo



Panamá Viejo
Panama Viejo
Panamá Viejo is the remaining part of the old Panama City and former capital of the country. It is located in the suburbs of the modern city. Together with the historical district of Panamá, it forms a World Heritage Site.-History:...

 ("Old Panama") is the name used for the architectural vestiges of the Monumental Historic Complex of the first Spanish city founded on the Pacific coast of the Americas by Pedro Arias de Avila on 15 August 1519. This city was the starting point of the expeditions that conquered the Inca Empire in Peru (1532). It was a stopover point of one of the most important trade routes in the history of the American continent leading to the famous fairs of Nombre de Dios and Portobelo where most of the gold and silver that Spain took from the Americas passed through.

The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of cultural criteria (ii), (iv) and (vi), considering that Panamá was the first European settlement on the Pacific coast of the Americas, in 1519, and the Historic District preserves intact a street pattern, together with a substantial number of early domestic buildings, which are testimony to the nature of this early settlement.

Casco Viejo or Casco Antiguo



Built and settled in 1671, after the destruction of Panama Viejo by the privateer
Privateer
A privateer is a private person or ship authorized by a government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping during wartime. Privateering was a way of mobilizing armed ships and sailors without having to spend public money or commit naval officers...

 Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan
Admiral Sir Henry Morgan was an Admiral of the Royal Navy, a privateer, and a pirate who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements...

, the historic district of Panama City (known as "Casco Viejo", "Casco Antiguo" or "San Felipe") was conceived as a walled city to protect its settlers against future pirate attacks. It was designated a World Heritage Site in 2003.

Casco Antiguo displays a mix of architectural styles, which in turn reflect the cultural diversity of the country: Caribbean, Republican, Art Deco, French and Colonial arquitecture mix in a site comprising around 800 buildings. Most of Panama City's main monuments are located in Casco Antiguo, including the Salón Bolivar, the National Theater (founded in 1908), Las Bóvedas, and Plaza de Francia. There are also many catholic buildings, such as the Metropolitan Cathedral, the La Merced
Virgin of Mercy
The Virgin of Mercy is a subject in Catholic art, showing a group of people sheltering for protection under the outspread cloak of the Virgin Mary. It was especially popular in Italy from the 13th to 16th centuries, often as a specialised form of votive portrait, and is also found in other...

 Church, and the St. Philip Neri
Philip Neri
Saint Philip Romolo Neri , also known as Apostle of Rome, was an Italian priest, noted for founding a society of secular priests called the "Congregation of the Oratory".-Early life:...

 Church. The distinctive golden altar at St. Joseph
Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph is a figure in the Gospels, the husband of the Virgin Mary and the earthly father of Jesus Christ ....

 Church was one of the few items saved from Panama Viejo during the 1671 pirate siege. It was buried in mud during the siege and then secretly transported to its present location.

Currently under an urban redevelopment
Redevelopment
Redevelopment is any new construction on a site that has pre-existing uses.-Description:Variations on redevelopment include:* Urban infill on vacant parcels that have no existing activity but were previously developed, especially on Brownfield land, such as the redevelopment of an industrial site...

 process, the old quarter has become one of the main tourist attractions of the city, second only to the Panama Canal. Both government and private sectors are working on its restoration.

Literature


According to Professor Rodrigo Miró, the first story about Panama was written by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés and published as part of the Historia General y Natural de Las Indias in 1535. Some poets and novelists born in Panamá city are Manuel María Ayala (1785–1824), Amelia Denis de Icaza (1836–1911), Darío Herrera
Dario Herrera
Dario Herrera is a former Democratic politician from Nevada. Herrera was considered a rising star in the Democratic Party until his defeat for election to the United States House of Representatives in 2002 and his subsequent convictions on federal public corruption charges.-Political...

 (1870–1914), Ricardo Miró
Ricardo Miró
Ricardo Miró , is a Panamanian writer and is considered to be the most noteworthy poet of this country....

 (1883–1940), Gaspar Octavio Hernández (1893–1918), Demetrio Korsi (1899–1957), Ricardo Bermúdez (1914–2000), Joaquín Beleño (1922–1988), Ernesto Endara (1932- ), Diana Morán
Diana Moran
Diana Moran is a British model, fitness expert and journalist.In the 1960s and 1970s, Moran was a successful print and catwalk model. She also appeared as a TV announcer and newsreader for HTV West.-Career:...

 (1932–1987), José Córdova (1937- ), Pedro Rivera (1939- ), Moravia Ochoa López (1941- ), Roberto Fernández Iglesias (1941- ), Jarl Ricardo Babot (1946- ), Giovanna Benedetti (1949- ), Manuel Orestes Nieto (1951- ), Moisés Pascual (1955- ), Héctor Miguel Collado (1960- ), David Robinson Orobio (1960- ), Katia Chiari (1969- ), Carlos Oriel Wynter Melo (1971- ), José Luis Rodríguez Pittí
José Luis Rodríguez Pittí
José Luis Rodríguez Pittí is a contemporary writer and documentary photographer. He was born in Panamá.He is the author of short stories, poems and essays and published the books "Panamá Blues" , "miniTEXTOS" , "Sueños urbanos" , "Crónica de invisibles" José Luis Rodríguez Pittí (born 29 March...

 (1971- ) and Sofía Santim (1982- ).

Tourism


The city has numerous tourist attractions. Particularly interesting for tourists are sites located in the old quarter, including:
  • Las Bóvedas, literally The Vaults, a waterfront promenade jutting out into the Pacific.
  • The National Institute of Culture Building and across from it, the French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     Embassy;
  • The Cathedral on Plaza de la Catedral
  • Teatro Nacional, a performance center, with outstanding natural acoustics; It provides an intimate performance environment and seating for about 800 guests.
  • Museo del Canal Interoceánico (Interoceanic Canal Museum);
  • Numerous restaurants located near the French embassy.
  • Palacio de las Garzas
    Palacio de las Garzas
    The Palacio de las Garzas is the governmental office and residence of the President of Panama. It receives its name because of herons roamming freely in the courtyard...

    (Heron's Palace), the official name of the presidential palace, named for the numerous herons that inhabit the building.


The area immediately east of the Pacific entrance of the canal—known as the Amador Causeway—is being developed as a tourist center. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, the only bureau of the Smithsonian Institution based outside of the United States, is dedicated to understanding biological diversity. What began in 1923 as small field station on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal Zone has developed...

 operates a station and a small museum open to the public at Culebra Point on the island of Naos. A new museum, the Museum of Biodiversity or BioMuseo, is under construction on the causeway. It was designed by the American architect Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry
Frank Owen Gehry, is a Canadian American Pritzker Prize-winning architect based in Los Angeles, California.His buildings, including his private residence, have become tourist attractions...

, famous for the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, built by Ferrovial, and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. It is built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Atlantic Coast. The...

 and the Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

. Just outside the city limits is the Parque Municipal Summit
Parque municipal summit
The Parque Municipal Summit is a botanical garden and a zoo of in total area , which is located on the outskirts of Panama City at about kilometer 18 on the road leading to Gamboa.-History:...

.




Sports



Throughout the twentieth century, Panama City has excelled in boxing, baseball and football. These sports have produced famous athletes such as Roberto Durán
Roberto Durán
Roberto Durán Samaniego is a retired professional boxer from Panama, widely regarded as one of the greatest boxers of all time. A versatile brawler in the ring, he was nicknamed "Manos de Piedra" during his career....

, Rommel Fernández
Rommel Fernandez
Rommel Fernández Gutiérrez was a Panamanian footballer who played as a striker.The second Panamanian footballer to play in Europe, he played almost his entire professional career in Spain, amassing La Liga totals of 104 games and 32 goals - 162/56 both major levels combined - in representation of...

 and Rod Carew
Rod Carew
Rodney Cline "Rod" Carew is a former Major League Baseball first baseman, second baseman and coach. He played from 1967 to 1985 for the Minnesota Twins and the California Angels and was elected to the All-Star game every season except his last. In 1991, Carew was inducted into the National...

. At present, these sports have clubs and associations that manage their development in the city. Panama Metro is the city's baseball team. Boxing has its training centers in different gyms in the neighborhoods of the city. There are also many football clubs, such as
  • Alianza
    Alianza F.C. (Panama)
    Alianza F.C. is a professional soccer club located in Panama that plays in Liga Profesional de Fútbol the highest soccer league in Panama. Alianza won the Primera A championship in 1998-99 to win promotion to the Liga Panameña de Fútbol where they have been since...

  • Chorrillo
  • Plaza Amador
    Plaza Amador
    Plaza Amador is a Panamanian soccer club, that currently plays in Liga Panameña de Fútbol. It is one of the oldest teams in Panama.- History :...

  • Tauro
    Tauro F.C.
    Tauro Fútbol Club is a professional football club located in Panama City, Panama that plays in Liga Panameña de Fútbol, the top Panamanian football league. Tauro has won seven Liga Profesional de Fútbol Championships since 1988, the highest total of any team. The club has also finished second seven...

  • Chepo
    Chepo F.C.
    Chepo F.C. is a Panamanian football team playing at the Liga Panameña de Fútbol. It is based in Chepo. It was founded in 1999 under the name of Proyecto 2000 where it gathered young players from around the country aspiring to win a ticket to the Liga Panameña de Fútbol one day...

  • San Francisco
  • Atletico Veraguense
    Atletico Veraguense
    Atlético Veragüense is a Panamanian football team playing in the Liga Panameña de Fútbol. It is based in Santiago de Veraguas in Veraguas province. Its home stadium is Estadio Aristocles Castillo. The team was previously known as La Primavera...


The city has four professional teams in the country's second level league, Liga Nacional de Ascenso:
  • Atlético Nacional
    Atletico Nacional (Panama)
    Atletico Nacional was a Panamanian football team founded in 1995 and disbanded on 2001. It was based in Panama City and most of its squad was part of the national police.-History:...

  • Deportivo Genesis
  • Millenium
  • Río Abajo
    Río Abajo F.C.
    Río Abajo Fútbol Club is a Panamanian football team playing at Liga Nacional de Ascenso. The team is based in Panama City.Río Abajo is the team that has won the most championships in the Liga Nacional de Ascenso with 2 titles in 2008 and 2009 after defeating Orión twice 2-1 and 3-1 respectively...



There are two main stadiums in Panama City: the National Stadium (also known as Rod Carew Stadium) and the Rommel Fernandez Stadium, with capacities of 27,000 and 22,000 respectively. It is also important to mention the Roberto Durán gymnasium, with a capacity of 8,000 fans.



Education


The city has public and private schools, some of which are bilingual. Higher education is headed by the two major public universities the University of Panama
University of Panama
The University of Panama was founded on October 7, 1935, with a student body of 175 in the fields of Education, Commerce, Natural Sciences, Pharmacy, Pre-Engineering and Law. , it maintains a student body of 74,059 distributed in 228 buildings around the country.The University of Panama was founded...

 and the Technological University of Panama. There are private universities, such as the Universidad Católica Santa María La Antigua
Universidad Católica Santa María La Antigua
The Universidad Católica Santa María La Antigua , is a private university in Panama City, Panama. The institution was created as the first private university of Panama, starting on May 27, 1965...

, the Interamericana University, and the Universidad del Istmo
Universidad del Istmo
-External links:*...

. The University of Louisville
University of Louisville
The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains. The university is mandated by the Kentucky General...

 runs a sister campus in the city, while Florida State University
Florida State University
The Florida State University is a space-grant and sea-grant public university located in Tallahassee, Florida, United States. It is a comprehensive doctoral research university with medical programs and significant research activity as determined by the Carnegie Foundation...

 operates a broad curriculum program, located in the academic and technological park known as Ciudad del Saber
Ciudad del Saber
Panama's Ciudad del Saber is a government sponsored cluster of academic organizations, technology companies and non-governmental organizations, managed by the foundation of the same name...

.

Healthcare


Panama City is home to at least 14 hospitals and an extensive network of public and private clinics, including the Hospital Santo Tomás
Hospital Santo Tomas
Hospital Santo Tomás , is the largest Public hospital that the Panamanian Health Ministry has. Its long history goes as far as 1703.-History:...

, Hospital del Niño, Complejo Hospitalario Arnulfo Arias Madrid, Centro Médico Paitilla, Hospital Nacional
Hospital Nacional
Hospital Nacional is a private hospital in Panama city. It is located on Avenida Cuba and 38 street in Bella Vista.-History:Founded as Clinica Nacional , a small 10-bed facility with one OR, one delivery room and a small newborn unit, opened on July 9, 1973, in Justo Arosemena Avenue and 38th...

, Clinica Hospital San Fernando, and the Hospital Punta Pacifica
Hospital Punta Pacifica
Hospital Punta Pacifica is a hospital in Panama City, Panama. It is the only hospital in Central America to be affiliated with Johns Hopkins Medicine International. Attracting medical tourism is a major component of its operating plan....

.

Around 45% of the country's physicians are located in Panama City. Most Panamanian doctors receive their degrees from local universities, although some of them receive additional U.S. or foreign training. The standards at the top hospitals compare favorably to those in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Panama City is a common destination of medical tourism.




Transportation


Panama's international airport, Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport
Tocumen International Airport is an international airport located from Panama City, Panama. In 2006, it underwent a major expansion and renovation program in order to modernize and improve its facilities...

 has two runways and is located on the eastern outskirts of the city where it is easily accessible. There are direct flights between Tocumen and New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Newark
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, Houston, Dallas, Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

, Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Atlanta, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, Bogota
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

 and all major cities in the Caribbean area, Central America
Central America
Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

 and South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

, like Santiago de Chile. Panama City has a regional airport Marcos A. Gelabert, located in an area once occupied by Albrook Air Force Base
Albrook Air Force Base
Albrook Air Force Station is a former United States Air Force facility in Panama. It was closed on 30 September 1997 as a result of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties which specified that United States military facilities in the former Panama Canal Zone be closed and the facilities be turned over to the...

. Marcos A. Gelabert Airport is the main hub for regional flights within Panama and the Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands
The Pearl Islands are a group of 100 or more islands lying about off the Pacific coast of Panama in the Gulf of Panama.- Islands :...

 in the Pacific and Bocas del Toro islands in the Caribbean.

Panama has a form of public transportation consisting of colorful painted buses colloquially known as . A is usually "customized" or painted with bright colors, usually depicting famous actors, politicians or singers. It is popular for bus drivers to customize the interior and exterior of their . There is a bus terminal near the Marcos A. Gelabert airport which together with the airport serves as the main transport hub for the rest of the country.

There are frequent traffic jams in Panama City due to the high levels of private transport ownership, per mile of traffic lane. In an attempt to curb traffic jams, President Ricardo Martinelli
Ricardo Martinelli
Ricardo Alberto Martinelli Berrocal is a Panamanian politician and businessman who was elected the 49th President of Panama in 2009. He is a Panamanian of Italian descent from his father's side.- Early life :...

 has brought forward a citywide metro system
Panama Metro
The Panamá metro is a transport project in Panama City, in Panama, planned to open in January 2014.-Project:The government of Panama invited tenders for a contract to build the metro system. The Línea Uno consortium, which includes the Spanish FCC group, won the contract. The government of Brazil...

initially 14 km long, stretching across the city. This new metro system along with the Metrobus will replace the diablos rojos and also propel the city and country toward Panama's goal of entering the first world.




External links