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Pamphylia

Pamphylia

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In ancient geography, '''Pamphylia''' was the region in the south of [[Asia Minor]], between [[Lycia]] and [[Cilicia]], extending from the [[Mediterranean Sea|Mediterranean]] to [[Mount Taurus]] (modern day [[Antalya province]], [[Turkey]]). It was bounded on the north by [[Pisidia]] and was therefore a country of small extent, having a coast-line of only about 75 miles with a breadth of about 30 miles. Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of [[Phrygia]] and [[Lycaonia]], and in this wider sense it is employed by [[Ptolemy]]. == Name == The name ''Pamphylia'' comes from [[Greek language|Greek]] Παμφυλία, itself from πάμφυλος (''pamfulos''), literally "of mingled tribes or races", a compound of πᾶν (''pan''), neuter of πᾶς (''pas'') "all" + φυλή (''phulē''), "race, tribe". Herodotus derived its etymology from a [[Dorians|Dorian]] tribe, the Pamphyloi (Πάμφυλοι), who were said to have colonized the region. The tribe, in turn, was said to be named after Pamphulos (Greek: Πάμφῦλος), son of Aigimios. == Origins of the Pamphylians == The Pamphylians were a mixture of aboriginal inhabitants, immigrant Cilicians and [[Greeks]] who migrated there from [[Arcadia]] and [[Peloponnese]] in the 12th century BC. The significance of the Greek contribution to the origin of the Pamphylians can be attested alike by tradition and archaeology and Pamphylia can be considered a Greek country from the early [[Iron Age]] until the early [[Middle Ages]]. There can be little doubt that the Pamphylians and Pisidians were the same people, though the former had received colonies from [[Greece]] and other lands, and from this cause, combined with the greater fertility of their territory, had become more civilized than their neighbours in the interior.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} But the distinction between the two seems to have been established at an early period. [[Herodotus]], who does not mention the Pisidians, enumerates the Pamphylians among the nations of Asia Minor, while [[Ephorus]] mentions them both, correctly including the one among the nations on the coast, the other among those of the interior.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} A number of scholars have distinguished in the Pamphylian dialect important [[isoglosses]] with both Arcadian and Cypriot ([[Arcadocypriot Greek]]) which allow them to be studied together with the group of dialects sometimes referred to as [[Achaeans (tribe)|Achaean]] since it was settled not only by Achaean tribes but also colonists from other Greek-speaking regions, Dorians and [[Aeolians]]. The legend related by Herodotus and Strabo, which ascribed the origin of the Pamphylians to a colony led into their country by [[Amphilochus (brother of Alcmaeon)|Amphilochus]] and [[Calchas]] after the [[Trojan War]], is merely a characteristic myth.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} == History == [[File:Stater slinger Aspendos MBA Lyon.jpg|thumb|150px|Slinger standing left, [[triskelion]] to right. Reverse of a silver [[stater]] from Aspendos, Pamphylia.]] [[Image:Roman empire map - pamphylia.PNG|thumb|right|250px|A map showing Pamphylia's location within the Roman Empire]] [[Image:15th century map of Turkey region.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Photo of a 15th Century map showing Pamphylia.]] The region of Pamphylia first enters history in [[Hittites|Hittite]] documents.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} In a treaty between the Hittite Great King [[Tudhaliya IV]] and his vassal, the king of [[Tarhuntassa]], we read of the city "Parha" ([[Perge]]), and the "Kastaraya River" (Classical Kestros River, Turkish Aksu Çayı).{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} The first historical mention of "Pamphylians" is among the group of nations subdued by the [[Mermnad dynasty|Mermnad kings]] of [[Lydia]];{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} they afterwards passed in succession under the dominion of the [[History of Persia|Persian]] and [[Hellenistic]] monarchs. After the defeat of [[Antiochus III the Great|Antiochus III]] in [[190 BC]] they were included among the provinces annexed by the Romans to the dominions of [[Eumenes of Pergamum]]; but somewhat later they joined with the Pisidians and Cilicians in piratical ravages, and [[Side]] became the chief centre and slave mart of these freebooters. Pamphylia was for a short time included in the dominions of [[Amyntas]], king of [[Galatia]], but after his death lapsed into a district of a Roman province. The Pamphilians became largely hellenized in [[Roman Empire|Roman]] times, and have left magnificent memorials of their civilization at [[Perga]], [[Aspendos]] and [[Side]].{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} As of 1911 the district was largely peopled with recent settlers from Greece, Crete and the Balkans, a situation which changed considerably as a result of the disruptions attendant on the fall of the [[Ottoman Empire]] and the war between Greece and [[Turkey]] in the 1920s.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} ==List of Pamphylians== *[[Diodorus of Aspendos]] Pythagorean philosopher (4th c.BC) *[[Apollonius of Perga]] astronomer, mathematician (ca. 262 BC–ca. 190 BC) *Artemidorus of Perga [[proxenos]] in [[Oropos]] (ca. 240-180 BC) *Aetos (son of Apollonius) from Aspendos ,Ptolemaic commander,founder of [[Arsinoe (Cilicia)]](~238 BC) *Mnaseas (son of Artemon) from [[Side]] (sculptor) end 3rd BC *Orestas (son of Erymneus) from Aspendos [[proxenos]] in [[Dreros]] (Crete) (end 3rd-beg. 2nd BC) *[[Thymilus]] of [[Aspendos]], [[Stadion (ancient sports)|stadion]] race Olympics 176 BC *Apollonios (son of Koiranos) [[proxenos]] in [[Argyroupoli (Rethymno)|Lappa]] (Crete)(1st half 2nd BC) *Asclepiades (son of Myron) from Perga physician honoured by the demos of [[Seleucia (Pamphylia)]] *Menodora (daughter of Megacles) from [[Sillyon]] magistrate and benefactor (ca.2nd c. AD) *Apollonius of Aspendos poet (2nd/early 3rd c. AD) *[[Saint Matrona of Perge]] (late 5th, early 6th c.AD) == Archaeological sites == * [[Antalya]] * [[Perga]] * [[Side]] * [[Sillyon]] * [[Eurymedon Bridge (Aspendos)|Eurymedon Bridge]] at [[Aspendos]], a [[Roman bridge]] which was reconstructed by the Seljuks and follows a zigzag course over the river * [[Eurymedon Bridge (Selge)|Eurymedon Bridge]] at [[Selge, Pisidia|Selge]], a Roman bridge == External links == * [http://www.livius.org/paa-pam/pamphylia/pamphylia.html Livius.org: Pamphylia] * [http://www.asiaminorcoins.com/gallery/index.php?cat=17 Asia Minor Coins: Pamphylia] ancient Greek and Roman coins from Pamphylia {{Historical regions of Anatolia}} {{Roman provinces AD 117}} {{Late Roman Provinces}} {{1911}} {{Coord missing|Turkey}}