Palapa

Palapa

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Palapa is a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat
Indosat
PT Indosat Tbk., formerly known as PT Indonesian Satellite Corporation Tbk. is a provider of telecommunication services in Indonesia. It is the third largest telecommunication company for mobile services in Indonesia after defeat by XL Axiata...

, an Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

n telecommunication
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

 company.

The name Palapa also alludes to "Sumpah Palapa" the oath taken by Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada was, according to Javanese old manuscripts, poems and mythology, a powerful military leader and mahapatih or prime minister of the Majapahit Empire, credited with bringing the empire to its peak of glory...

, a 14th century Prime Minister of the Javanese Majapahit Empire
Majapahit Empire
Majapahit was a vast archipelagic empire based on the island of Java from 1293 to around 1500. Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia. His achievement is also credited to his prime...

 described in the Pararaton
Pararaton
The Pararaton, also known as the Book of Kings, is a manuscript in the Kawi language. The comparatively short text of 32 folio-size pages contains the history of the kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in eastern Java...

(Book of Kings). Gajah Mada swore that he would not taste any spice, as long as he had not succeeded in unifying Nusantara
Nusantara
Nusantara is an Indonesian word for the Indonesian archipelago. It is originated from Old Javanese and literally means "archipelago".The word Nusantara was taken from an oath by Gajah Mada, as written on an old Javanese manuscript Pararaton and Negarakertagama...

 (the Indonesian archipelago).

As the first developing country to operate its own domestic satellite system in the mid seventies, Indonesia has consistently taken the steps necessary for developing its existing geostationary satellite system for multiple services, safeguarding its global orbital allocation on an equitable first come first served basis, and embracing emerging satellite communication systems (including non-geostationary ones) expected to yet emerge from their lingering stage.

The program was started in February 1975, when the government of Indonesia awarded the contract for two satellites to Boeing. The name Palapa was chosen by president Suharto and means 'fruits of labor'.

The purpose of the system was to unify the telecommunication
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

s of the nation. Many years of operation have shown that satellite technology is the best solution for improving telecommunications in Indonesia. The system was started with 2 (two) satellites, each with 12 transponder
Transponder
In telecommunication, the term transponder has the following meanings:...

s (for a total of 24), and 40 earth stations.

Now the system has 3 (three) satellites, each with 24 transponders (for a total of 72 transponders), and thousands of earth stations. The services have been extended to satisfy the requirements of the region as well as the original objectives. The use of satellite transponders in the region is increasing rapidly. In the next ten years, opportunities in the satellite communications business will become even more attractive. The next generation Palapa-C will incorporate improvements in capacity, quality, and coverage. The new frequency bands (ku- and Extended-C Band) will be used to meet the new transponder.

Application


The generations of Palapa satellites has been launched to fulfill the communication needs of Indonesia that keeps increasing day by day. The Palapa satellite continually becomes a foundation for the communications system of the biggest archipelago country in the world. To make this satellite last longer, high quality is needed. The type of microelectronic technology in this satellite determines the work of Palapa to run its task.

One of the applications is news broadcasting by digital satellite (DSNG). This technology has been developed for five years so that news, both in audio and video form, would be broadcast from one place to another. The development of technology is affected by the advancement of satellite technology. To use the DSNG application, a TV broadcaster must rent a minimum of 9 MHz to allow a video program or audio stereo to be broadcasted on a delayed basis.

Indonesia registered the connection line for Broadcasting Satellite Services in the early 1990s to ITU. IndoStar-1
IndoStar-1
IndoStar-1, which also known as Cakrawarta-1, is a communication satellite that was launched the evening of November 12, 1997 at 21:48 GMT aboard an Ariane 44L-3 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana, as the first direct broadcasting satellite in Asia, IndoStar-1 would initiate a new communication...

 is a Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS) system operating since 1997.

Series A


Two identical satellites were built by Hughes (now Boeing Satellite Systems). Each of the HS-333 weighed 574 kg.
Palapa A1 July 8, 1976 Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River.It is part of a region known as the...

, Pad LC-17A
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17 , previously designated Launch Complex 17 , was a launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida used for Thor and Delta rocket launches between 1958 and 2011....

Delta-2914
Delta rocket
Delta is a versatile family of expendable launch systems that has provided space launch capability in the United States since 1960. There have been more than 300 Delta rockets launched, with a 95 percent success rate. Two Delta launch systems – Delta II and Delta IV – are in active use...

Palapa A2 March 3, 1977 Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17A Delta-2914

Series B



Four satellites of the second series were built. They were all of the type Hughes HS-376. When the launch of Palapa B2 failed, a third satellite was ordered. Originally named Palapa B3 and scheduled for STS-61-H
STS-61-H
STS-61-H was a United States Space Shuttle mission planned to launch in 1986 using Columbia, however, it was cancelled after the Challenger disaster. The flight was scheduled to take place 24 June through 1 July.- Crew :* Commander: Michael L. Coats...

, it was finally launched as Palapa B2P. Meanwhile Palapa B2 was retrieved by STS-51-A
STS-51-A
STS-51-A was the second flight of Space Shuttle Discovery, and the 14th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center on 8 November 1984, and landed just under eight days later on 16 November....

, refurbished and relaunched later as Palapa B2R.
Palapa B1 June 6, 1983 STS-7
STS-7
STS-7 was a NASA Space Shuttle mission, during which Space Shuttle Challenger deployed several satellites into orbit. The shuttle launched from Kennedy Space Center on 18 June 1983, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on 24 June. STS-7 was the seventh shuttle mission, and was Challengers second...

Palapa B2 February 3, 1984 STS-41-B
STS-41-B
STS-41-B was the tenth NASA Space Shuttle mission, launching on 3 February 1984 and landing on 11 February. It was the fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Following STS-9, the flight numbering system for the Space Shuttle program was changed...

Palapa B2P March 20, 1987 Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17B
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17 , previously designated Launch Complex 17 , was a launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida used for Thor and Delta rocket launches between 1958 and 2011....

Delta-3920 PAM-D
Palapa B2R April 13, 1990 Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17B Delta-6925-8
Delta II
Delta II was an American space launch system, originally designed and built by McDonnell Douglas. Delta II is part of the Delta rocket family and was in service from 1989 until November 1, 2011...

Palapa B4 May 13, 1992 Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17B Delta-7925-8
Delta II
Delta II was an American space launch system, originally designed and built by McDonnell Douglas. Delta II is part of the Delta rocket family and was in service from 1989 until November 1, 2011...


Series C


Two satellites of the HS-601 type were launched in 1996. As C1 had some battery problems, it became an insurance claim and Hughes bought back the satellite. With reduced availability it was then used by several other customers.
Palapa C1 February 1, 1996 Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-36B
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 36
Launch Complex 36 , known as Space Launch Complex 36 from 1997 to 2010, is a launch complex at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Brevard County, Florida. Now operated under license by Space Florida, it was used for Atlas launches from 1962 until 2005...

Atlas-2AS
Atlas II
Atlas II was a member of the Atlas family of launch vehicles, which evolved from the successful Atlas missile program of the 1950s. Atlas II was the last Atlas to use a three engine, "stage-and-a-half" design: two of its three engines were jettisoned during ascent, but its fuel tanks and other...

Palapa C2 May 16, 1996 Kourou
Kourou
Kourou is a commune in French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.Kourou is the location of the Guiana Space Centre, France and ESA's main spaceport.-Geography:...

 ELA-2
Ariane-44L
Ariane 4
Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace. Ariane 4 was justly known as the ‘workhorse’ of the Ariane family. Since its first flight on 15 June 1988 until the last, on 15 February 2003, it...

 H10-3

Series D



The Palapa D satellite was launched aboard a Chinese Long March 3B rocket on 31 August 2009. However it failed to reach the intended orbit following a failure of the third stage of the rocket to reignite as planned. The satellite was maneuvered into the correct geosynchronous orbit by September, but this left it with only enough fuel for 10 years in orbit, a third less than contracted. This US$ 200 million satellite has more transponders than its predecessors (40 transponders, C2 only has 36). 40 % of its transponders will be used by Indosat for their own purposes while the other 60 % will be rented to others.

Indosat will use Palapa D for their broadband internet service (IM2) with Ku-band technology (12/14 GHz). In 2006, their total income increased about 12.3 %. With the new satellite coming up, the company hopes to earn more profits from the multimedia, internet, and communication businesses.

At the end of October, Palapa D started its airing operations. Only a few channels have been replaced, yet many are awaiting 11 November for the start of Palapa D's full operation. As of its release, the TV channels on Palapa C2 that have been relocated are; RCTI, SCTV, Global TV, METRO TV, TVRI, NHK, Almanhar TV and Spacetoon. Some radio channels have also surfaced which have been included from Satellindo's system.

Palapa D is currently running well with plans to include a new cable TV channel through the KU-band of the satellite which is planned to include High Definition channels. New channels have also been added and replaced as of May 2010. GlobalTV was replaced by Lejel, a home shopping channel. After the insertion of Lejel TV, Global TV received its own transponder. Recent rumors states that KBS World Indonesia will renew its position in the satellite by transferring to a horizontal transponder.

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