The P-700 Granit is a Soviet
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....
and Russian naval anti-ship
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea-skimming type, many use a combination of inertial guidance and radar homing...
A cruise missile is a guided missile that carries an explosive payload and is propelled, usually by a jet engine, towards a land-based or sea-based target. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high accuracy...
. Its GRAU
Grau is a German word meaning "gray" and a Catalan word meaning "grade". It may refer to:* BAP Almirante Grau , a De Zeven Provinciën class cruiser in service with the Peruvian Navy* Grau Käse, Tyrolean grey cheese...
designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...
. It comes in ASCM and SLCM
Submarine-Launched Cruise Missile or SLCMs are cruise missiles that deliver conventional and/or nuclear payloads and are launched from ships or submarines. Current versions are typically standoff weapons which are used to attack predetermined land targets.Four US Navy ballistic missile submarines ...
Design and building
The P-700 was designed in the 1970s to replace the P-70 Ametist
The P-70 Ametist was an anti-shipping missile carried by Soviet Charlie-I submarines and Papa class submarine...
and P-120 Malakhit
The P-120 Malakhit is a Russian medium range anti-ship missile used by corvettes and submarines. It has a range of up to . Introduced in 1972, it remains in service but has been superseded by the SS-N-22 Sunburn.-Development:...
, both effective missiles but with too short a range in the face of improving weapons of US Navy carrier battle group
A carrier battle group consists of an aircraft carrier and its escorts, together composing the group. The first naval task forces built around carriers appeared just prior to and during World War II. The Imperial Japanese Navy was the first to assemble a large number of carriers into a single...
s. The missile was partially derived from the P-500 Bazalt
The P-500 Bazalt is a liquid-fueled, rocket-powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet and Russian navies. Developed by OKB-52 MAP , its GRAU designation is 4K80. Its NATO reporting name is SS-N-12 Sandbox. It entered service in 1973 to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock...
Built by Chelomei
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey was a Soviet mechanics scientist and rocket engineer from Ukraine.-Early life:Chelomey was born in Siedlce, Russian Empire into a Ukrainian family...
/NPO Mashinostroenia, the bulging 10m missile has swept-back wings and tail, weighs around 7,000 kilograms and can be fitted with either a 750 kg HE warhead
The term warhead refers to the explosive material and detonator that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.- Etymology :During the early development of naval torpedoes, they could be equipped with an inert payload that was intended for use during training, test firing and exercises. This...
, a FAE
A fuel-air explosive device consists of a container of fuel and two separate explosive charges. After the munition is dropped or fired, the first explosive charge bursts open the container at a predetermined height and disperses the fuel in a cloud that mixes with atmospheric oxygen...
warhead, or a 500 kt nuclear
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...
warhead. A stubby cylindrical solid-fuel rocket is fitted to the rear for launch; this booster stage is released when the missile enters sustained flight using its KR-93 turbojet
engine. The P-700 has a distinctive annular air intake in the nose. Maximum speed is believed to be between Mach 1.6 and Mach 2.5. Range is estimated at 550 to 625 km. The guidance system is mixed-mode, with inertial, active terminal guidance with radar and also anti-radar homing. Mid-course correction is probable.
The missile, when fired in a swarm (group of 4-8) has a unique guidance mode. One of the weapons climbs to a higher altitude and designates targets while the others attack. The missile responsible for target designation climbs in short pop-ups, so as to be harder to intercept. The missiles are linked by data connections, forming a network. If the designating missile is destroyed the next missile will rise to assume its purpose. Missiles are able to differentiate targets, detect groups and prioritize targets automatically using information gathered during flight and types of ships and battle formations pre-programmed in an onboard computer. They will attack targets in order of priority, highest to lowest: after destroying the first target, any remaining missiles will attack the next prioritized target.
The P-700 was derived from the P-500 Bazalt, substituting the earlier missile's solid-fuel propulsion for a turbojet. The P-700 was in turn developed into the P-800 Oniks
The P-800 Oniks for export markets; "Oniks" is onyx, and "Yakhont" is ruby or sapphire in English) is a Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55...
, which uses ramjet propulsion, and the BrahMos
BrahMos is a stealth supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between Republic of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation and Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace...
missile, a joint-Indian/Russian modernization of the P-800.
Initial deployment was aboard the cruiser Kirov
Kirov, the lead ship of her class of nuclear-powered missile cruisers, is one of the major and biggest surface warships of the Russian Navy, though it was originally built for the Soviet Navy. It is similar in size to a World War II battleship...
(now the Admiral Ushakov
) in 1980. It is currently in service with the Russian Northern Fleet on the Kirov-class battlecruisers Admiral Nakhimov
and Pyotr Velikhy
, the aviation cruiser Kuznetsov
and as part of the larger guided missile submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...
s armoury (the Kursk
carried 24 missiles). However, the size of the missile limits the platforms on which it can operate and be launched from .
Long-range anti-ship cruise missile
7000 kg (15,432 lbs)
10 m (32.8 ft)
0.85 m (33.5 inches)
750 kg (1654 lbs) HE (unknown composition, probably RDX
RDX, an initialism for Research Department Explosive, is an explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications. It was developed as an explosive which was more powerful than TNT, and it saw wide use in WWII. RDX is also known as cyclonite, hexogen , and T4...
or similar) or 500 kt fission-fusion thermonuclear
Inertial, active radar with home-on-jam, and Legenda satellite targeting system
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19 missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGNIT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered....
(believed to be nonfunctional after the fall of the USSR)
Maximum Mach number:
550 - 625 km (342 - 388 miles)
- www.dtig.org Russian/Sovjet Sea-based Anti-Ship Missiles (pdf)