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Out of print
refers to an item, typically a book (see: Out of print books), but can include any print or visual media or sound recording, that is in the state of no longer being published.
The abbreviation OOP
) is a more general term that encompasses craft, hobby, toy, and collectable items that are out of production
An item goes out of print when a publisher does not reprint, re-press, or reissue once all copies have been sold to retailers. Reasons may include:
- the perception of the publisher that continuing to produce the work is no longer a commercially viable venture, i.e. that there is no longer a market for the product.
- a limited print run (Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern
Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern is a literary journal, first published in 1998, edited by Dave Eggers. The first issue featured only works rejected by other magazines, but thereafter the journal began to include pieces written with McSweeney's in mind. McSweeney’s has since published works by...
- antiquation, or the obsolescence
Obsolescence is the state of being which occurs when an object, service or practice is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order. Obsolescence frequently occurs because a replacement has become available that is superior in one or more aspects. Obsolete refers to something...
of content or format (laserdisc
LaserDisc was a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium. Initially licensed, sold, and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in North America in 1978, the technology was previously referred to interally as Optical Videodisc System, Reflective Optical Videodisc, Laser Optical...
The Video Home System is a consumer-level analog recording videocassette standard developed by Victor Company of Japan ....
, compact cassette
The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. It was designed originally for dictation, but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge and reel-to-reel...
, vinyl record)
- plans for a revised or reformatted edition
- the presence of errors, flaws, fabrication, offensive content, or plagiarism
Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work, but the notion remains problematic with nebulous...
(sometimes preceded by a recall
A product recall is a request to return to the maker a batch or an entire production run of a product, usually due to the discovery of safety issues. The recall is an effort to limit liability for corporate negligence and to improve or avoid damage to publicity...
- legal obstacles, such as the expiration of a publisher's license to release content owned by another copyright holder. (For example, a novelization of a film that was released 10 years ago is likely to go OOP for this reason.) See licensing section in The Criterion Collection
The Criterion Collection is a video-distribution company selling "important classic and contemporary films" to film aficionados. The Criterion series is noted for helping to standardize the letterbox format for home video, bonus features, and special editions...
article for an example.
A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something.Bans are formed for the prohibition of activities within a certain political territory. Some see this as a negative act and others see it as maintaining the "status quo"...
thumb|[[Book burning]] following the [[1973 Chilean coup d'état|1973 coup]] that installed the [[Military government of Chile |Pinochet regime]] in Chile...
Out of print items are often pursued by collectors through aftermarket retailers such as used book stores, record shops, and online auction sites. Sellers of out of print merchandise on auction sites will typically include "OOP" or its equivalent in product descriptions. The designation is sometimes misappropriated—an example is in keyword stuffing
Keyword stuffing is considered to be an unethical search engine optimization technique. Keyword stuffing occurs when a web page is loaded with keywords in the meta tags or in content...
, where the acronym is used to generate numerous search results even as it does not apply to the items retrieved. The abbreviation is sometimes placed in descriptions of items whose publication or production status is unclear (such as DVDs said to be returning to the "Disney Vault
The "Disney Vault" is the term used by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment for its policy of putting home video releases of Walt Disney Animation Studios's animated features on moratorium...
") to affect interest in the product.