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Ottoman Turkish alphabet

Ottoman Turkish alphabet

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Encyclopedia
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet ( elifbâ ) was the version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language
Ottoman Turkish language
The Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively from Arabic and Persian, and was written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script...

 during the time of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 and in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, until the adoption of the new Turkish alphabet
Turkish alphabet
The Turkish alphabet is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy...

, derived from the Latin script, on November 1, 1928.

As with Arabic and Persian, texts in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet are written right-to-left. The appearance of a letter changes depending on its position in a word: isolated (in a one-letter word); final (in which case it is joined on the right to the preceding letter); medial (joined on both sides); and initial (joined on the left to the following letter). Some letters cannot be joined to the left and do therefore not possess separate medial and initial forms; in medial position the final form is used, and in initial position the isolated form is used.
Isolated Final Medial Initial Name Modern Turkish alphabet
Turkish alphabet
The Turkish alphabet is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy...

IPA
elif a, e a, e
hemze
be b b
pe p p
te t t
se s s
cim c d͡ʒ
çim ç t͡ʃ
ha h h
h x
dal d d
zel z z
re r ɾ
ze z z
je j ʒ
sin s s
şın ş ʃ
sad s s
dad d, z d
t t
z z
ayn ', h (or omitted) ʔ
gayn g, ğ ɣ
fe f f
kaf k k
kef k, g, ğ, n k
gef1 g, ğ ɡ
nef, sağır kef n ɲ
lam l l
mim m m
nun n n
vav v, o, ö, u, ü v, o, œ, u, y
he h, e, a h, æ
ye y, ı, i j, ɯ, i


1A correct Ottoman variant of gef will have the "mini-kaf" of ﻙ and the doubled upper stroke of گ. This feature is surely rare in current fonts.

Numerals


Ottoman Turkish used the Eastern Arabic numerals
Eastern Arabic numerals
The Eastern Arabic numerals are the symbols used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Arab world....

. The following is the list of basic cardinal numerals with their spelling in the modern Turkish alphabet.
Arabic Form Number Ottoman Modern Turkish Spelling
٠ 0
sıfır
۱ 1
bir
۲ 2
iki
٣ 3
üç
٤ 4
dört
٥ 5
beş
٦ 6
altı
٧ 7
yedi
٨ 8
sekiz
٩ 9
dokuz
۱٠ 10
on