Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria

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'''Ottoman Syria''' is a European reference to the area that during European [[Renaissance]] from the late 15th to early 18th century was called the [[Levant]] within the [[Growth of the Ottoman Empire|early period]] of the [[Ottoman Empire]], the [[Orient]] until the early 19th century, and [[Greater Syria]] until 1918. Territory of the Greater Syria under the Ottoman rule in its [[Decline of the Ottoman Empire|final]] historical period included modern [[Syria]], [[Lebanon]], [[Israel]], the [[West Bank]], [[Gaza Strip]], [[Jordan]], and parts of [[Turkey]] and [[Iraq]]. ==History== {{Seealso|Timeline of Ottoman Syria}} Before 1516, historical or [[Greater Syria]] was part of the [[Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)|Mamluk Empire]] centered in [[Egypt]]. The Ottoman Sultan [[Selim I]] conquered Syria in 1516 after defeating the Mamlukes at the [[Battle of Marj Dabiq]] near [[Aleppo]] in northern Syria. Selim carried on his victorious campaign against the Mamlukes and conquered [[Egypt]] in 1517 following the [[Battle of Ridanieh]], bringing an end to the Mamluk Sultanate. ==Administrative divisions== {{Seealso|Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire}} When he first seized Syria in 1516, Selim I kept the administrative subdivisions of the Mamluk period unchanged. After he came back from Egypt in July 1517, he reorganized Syria into one large province or [[eyalet]] named ''Şam'' (Arabic/Turkish for "Syria"). The eyalet was subdivided into several districts or [[sanjaks]]. ===1516=== The [[Principality of Lebanon]] was awarded to Prince Fakhr al-Din I of the Maan dynasty after aiding the Sultan defeat the Mamluks at the [[Battle of Marj Dabiq]]. The principality consisted mainly of today's Lebanon with the exception of the cities of Tripoli and Saida. It was a Constitutional Monarchy ruled by a prince first from the Maan Dynasty followed by the Chihabs. The Principality remained as a semi-independent entity within the Ottoman Empire until 1860 when it was replaced by another semi-independent regime known as the [[Mutasarrifate]]. ===1549=== In 1549, Syria was reorganized into two eyalets. The northern Sanjak of [[Aleppo]] became the center of the new Eyalet of Aleppo. At this time, the two Syrian Eyalets were subdivided as follows: *The [[Eyalet of Aleppo]] ({{lang-ar|إيالة حلب}}) **The Sanjak of Aleppo **The Sanjak of [[Adana]] (أضنة) **The Sanjak of [[Elbistan|Ablistan]] ([[Marash]] (مرعش)) **The Sanjak of [[Aintab]] (عينتاب) **The Sanjak of [[Birejik]] (البيرة) ([[Urfa]] (أورفة)) **The Sanjak of [[Kilis Province|Kilis]] (كلس) **The Sanjak of [[Ma'arrat al-Numan|Ma'arra]] (معرة النعمان) **The Sanjak of [[Hama]] (حماة) **The Sanjak of [[Salamiya]] (سلمية) **The Sanjak of [[Homs]] (حمص) *The [[Eyalet of Damascus]] ({{lang-ar|}}إيالة العرب) **The Sanjak of Damascus **The [[Sanjak of Tripoli]] **The Sanjak of [[Safad]] **The Sanjak of [[Nablus]] **The Sanjak of [[Jerusalem]] **The [[Lajjun|Sanjak of Lajjun]] **The Sanjak of [[Salt, Jordan|Salt]] **The [[Sanjak of Gaza]] ===1579=== In 1579, the [[Eyalet of Tripoli]] was established under the name of ''Tripoli of Syria'' (Turkish:''Trablusşam'') (Arabic: طرابلس الشام). At this time, the eyalets became as follows: The [[Eyalet of Aleppo]] included the Sanjaks of Aleppo, [[Adana]], [[Marash]], [[Aintab]], and [[Urfa]]. The [[Eyalet of Tripoli]] included the Sanjaks of Tripoli, [[Latakia]], [[Hama]] and [[Homs]]. The [[Eyalet of Damascus]] included the Sanjaks of Damascus, [[Beirut]], [[Sidon]], [[Acre]], [[Safad]], [[Nablus]], [[Jerusalem]], [[Gaza]], [[Hauran]] and [[Ma'an]] ===1586=== [[Image:Syria,-detail-from-Ottoman-Empire- by Jaillot.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Ottoman Syria in 1600.]] In 1586, the [[Eyalet of Raqqa]] was established in eastern Syria. It lasted until the Egyptian invasion in 1831 and included [[Eyalet of Raqqa]] ({{lang-ar|}} إيالة الرقة), Sanjak of [[Urfa]], Sanjak of [[Marash]], Sanjak of Dayr Rahba, Sanjak of Khabour, Sanjak of Jamasa and Sanjak of Bani Rabi'a. ===1660=== The [[Eyalet of Safad]] was established in 1660. It was later renamed the [[Eyalet of Sidon]], and later, the [[Eyalet of Beirut]]. ===1861=== Following the massacre of thousands of Christian civilians during the [[1860 Lebanon conflict]], and under a growing European pressure, mainly from France, an Ottoman edict issued in 1861 transformed "Al Kaimaqumyateen," the former regime based on religious rule that led to civil war, into the ''Mutesarrifiyyet'' governed by a ''[[Mutasarrıf]]'' who according to law had to be a non-Lebanese Christian . ===1864=== As part of the [[Tanzimat]] reforms, an Ottoman law passed in 1864 provided for a standard provincial administration throughout the empire with the Eyalets becoming smaller ''Vilayets'' governed by a ''Wali'' or governor still appointed by the [[Ottoman Porte|Porte]] but with new provincial assemblies participating in administration. ===1877=== [[Image:Ottoman Syria 1918.png|thumb|right|250px|Ottoman Syria in 1918]] [[Image:OETA Syria.png|thumb|right|250px|Allied Occupied Territories in 1918's Syria]] In 1877, the subdivisions of Syria were [[Aleppo Vilayet]] (Arabic: ولاية حلب), [[Deir ez-Zor Vilayet]] (Arabic: ولاية دير الزور), [[Beirut Vilayet]] (Arabic: ولاية بيروت), [[Damascus Vilayet]] (Arabic: ولاية سورية); Mutesarrifiyyet of Mount Lebanon (Arabic: متصرفية جبل لبنان); Mutesarrifiyyet of Jerusalem (Arabic: متصرفية القدس الشريف) ==See also== *[[History of Syria]] *[[Roman Syria]] *[[Sykes-Picot Agreement]] *[[Arab Kingdom of Syria]] *[[French Mandate of Syria]] *[[Southern Syria]] ==External Links== [http://www.ottomanhistorypodcast.com/2011/09/state-and-society-in-ottoman-syria.html Ottoman History Podcast: History of Ottoman Syria] {{Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire}} {{Provinces of the Ottoman Empire}} {{Syria topics}} {{coord missing}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Syria, Ottoman}}