Oscar class submarine

Oscar class submarine

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The Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
The Soviet Navy was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy would have played an instrumental role in a Warsaw Pact war with NATO, where it would have attempted to prevent naval convoys from bringing reinforcements across the Atlantic Ocean...

/Russian Navy cruise missile
Cruise missile
A cruise missile is a guided missile that carries an explosive payload and is propelled, usually by a jet engine, towards a land-based or sea-based target. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high accuracy...

 submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s (NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

s: Oscar-I and Oscar-II respectively).

Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service, until the Ohio class
Ohio class submarine
The Ohio class is a class of nuclear-powered submarines used by the United States Navy. The United States has 18 Ohio-class submarines:...

 SSGN
SSGN
A cruise missile submarine is a submarine that can launch guided missiles. SSGN is the United States Navy hull classification symbol for a nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine. The SS denotes "Ship, Submersible" , the G denotes "guided missile," and the N denotes "nuclear powered"....

 cruise missile submarine converted from SSBN and returned to service on October 15, 2007. They are the fourth largest class of submarines in terms of displacement and length. Only the Typhoon
Typhoon class submarine
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s...

class Soviet/Russian submarines, the American Ohio class ballistic missile submarines and the Russian Borei class submarines are larger.

History


The first submarine of the Project 949 was laid down in the mid 1970s and was commissioned in 1980. In 1982 an updated and larger version (Project 949A) replaced the earlier version. In total thirteen submarines were constructed. In the financial problems that followed the fall of the Soviet Union the Oscar class was prioritized by the Russian navy and when many older submarines classes were retired the Oscar class remained active in both the Northern and Pacific fleets.
In 2011, five submarines are currently active with several more in reserve or waiting for repairs.

Project 949 Granit



Two Project 949 Granit submarines were built at Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk is a city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina River, west of Arkhangelsk. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance . Municipally, it is incorporated as Severodvinsk Urban Okrug. The city was founded as...

 and assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet:

Project 949A Antey



Eleven Project 949A Antey submarines were completed at Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk is a city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina River, west of Arkhangelsk. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance . Municipally, it is incorporated as Severodvinsk Urban Okrug. The city was founded as...

.
Five were assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet:

At one stage it had been planned to develop a new fourth-generation follow-on to the Project 949A, but this plan was later scrapped.
Northern Fleet
Northern Fleet
The Red Banner Northern Fleet is a unit of the Russian Navy that has access to the Barents and Norwegian Seas, the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, and is responsible for the defense of northwestern Russia. It was established in 1937 as part of the Soviet Navy...

 Oscar class submarines
# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-525 Arkhangelsk 949 25 July 1975 3 May 1980 30 December 1980 Scrapped in 2004
K-525 Murmansk 949 22 April 1979 10 December 1982 30 November 1983 Scrapped in 2004
K-148 Krasnodar 949A 22 July 1982 3 March 1985 30 September 1986 Scrapped in 2011
K-119 Voronezh 949A 25 February 1986 16 December 1988 29 December 1989 Active, after overhaul finished in November 2011
K-410 Smolensk 949A 9 December 1986 20 January 1990 22 December 1990 Inactive, in overhaul from November 2011 to 2014
K-266 Orel 949A 19 January 1989 22 May 1992 30 December 1992 Active
K-141 Kursk
Russian submarine K-141 Kursk
K-141 Kursk was an Oscar-II class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine of the Russian Navy, lost with all hands when it sank in the Barents Sea on August 12, 2000...

949A 22 March 1992 16 May 1994 30 December 1994 Lost 12 August 2000
Russian submarine Kursk explosion
On 12 August 2000, the Russian Oscar II class submarine Kursk sank in the Barents Sea after an explosion. The investigation showed that a leak of hydrogen peroxide in a torpedo led to explosion of its fuel, causing the submarine to hit the bottom which in turn triggered the detonation of further...


Pacific Fleet
Pacific Fleet (Russia)
The Pacific Fleet is the part of the Russian Navy that is stationed in the Pacific Ocean, which formerly secured the Far Eastern borders of the Soviet Union. The fleet headquarters is located at Vladivostok and a number of fleet bases are located in the Vladivostok area...

 Oscar class submarines
# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-173 Krasnoyarsk 949A August 4, 1983 March 27, 1986 December 31, 1986 Inactive, future plans unclear
K-132 Irkutsk 949A May 8, 1985 December 27, 1987 December 30, 1988 Inactive, overhaul from 2008
K-442 Chelyabinsk 949A May 21, 1987 June 18, 1990 December 28, 1990 Inactive from 1998
K-456 Tver 949A February 9, 1988 June 28, 1991 August 18, 1992 Active
K-186 Omsk 949A July 13, 1989 May 10, 1993 July 20, 1996 Overhaul 2007-2008
Active
K-150 Tomsk 949A August 27, 1991 July 20, 1996 December 30, 1996 Overhaul from 2008


Three more Project 949A Antey submarines were planned.
Unfinished Oscar class submarines
# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-139 Belgorod 949A July 24, 1992 Construction halted
K-135 Volgograd 949A September 2, 1993 Construction stopped
launched incomplete
K-165 Barnaul 949A April 1994 Construction stopped
launched incomplete

Like other Soviet submarine designs, the Project 949 not only has a bridge open to the elements on top of the sail
Sail (submarine)
In naval parlance, the sail or fin of a submarine is the tower-like structure found on the dorsal surface of submarines...

 but, for use in inclement weather, there is an enclosed bridge forward and slightly below this station in the fin/sail.

A distinguishing mark is a slight bulge at the top of the fin. A large door on either side of the fin reaches this bulge. These are wider at the top than on the bottom, and are hinged on the bottom. The Federation of American Scientists
Federation of American Scientists
The Federation of American Scientists is a nonpartisan, 501 organization intent on using science and scientific analysis to attempt make the world more secure. FAS was founded in 1945 by scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project to develop the first atomic bombs...

http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/theater/949.htm reports that this submarine carries an emergency crew escape capsule; it is possible that these doors cover it.

The Oscar Class is commonly referred to as Mongo by crews of U.S. patrol aircraft in reference to their massive size.

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