Orders of magnitude (pressure)

# Orders of magnitude (pressure)

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This is a tabulated listing of the orders of magnitude in relation to pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

expressed in pascals
Pascal (unit)
The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength, named after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and philosopher Blaise Pascal. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square metre...

.
Magnitude Pressure lbf/in2
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units...

or dB
Item
10 Pa 0.1 pPa Interstellar space
Interstellar medium
In astronomy, the interstellar medium is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, dust, and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space...

pressure (approximate)
10 Pa 1 pPa Lowest pressure obtained in laboratory conditions.
10 Pa
40 pPa Atmosphere of the Moon
Atmosphere of the Moon
For most practical purposes, the Moon is considered to be surrounded by vacuum. The elevated presence of atomic and molecular particles in its vicinity , referred to as 'lunar atmosphere' for scientific objectives, is negligible in comparison with the gaseous envelope surrounding Earth and most...

at lunar day, very approximately (4×10−11 Pa)
10 Pa 100 pPa Atmosphere of Mercury, very approximately (1×10−10 Pa)
800 pPa Atmosphere of the Moon
Atmosphere of the Moon
For most practical purposes, the Moon is considered to be surrounded by vacuum. The elevated presence of atomic and molecular particles in its vicinity , referred to as 'lunar atmosphere' for scientific objectives, is negligible in comparison with the gaseous envelope surrounding Earth and most...

at lunar night, very approximately (80×10−11 Pa)
10 Pa 1 nPa Vacuum expected in the beam pipe of the Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. It is expected to address some of the most fundamental questions of physics, advancing the understanding of the deepest laws of nature....

's Atlas experiment
ATLAS experiment
ATLAS is one of the six particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider , a new particle accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Switzerland...

10 Pa 10 nPa Pressure inside a vacuum chamber for laser cooling of atoms (Magneto-optical trap
Magneto-optical trap
A magneto-optical trap is a device that uses both laser cooling with magneto-optical trapping in order to produce samples of cold, trapped, neutral atoms at temperatures as low as several microkelvins, two or three times the recoil limit.By combining the small momentum of a single photon with a...

) experiments
10 Pa 100 nPa Upper limit of ultra high vacuum
Ultra high vacuum
Ultra-high vacuum is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7 pascal or 100 nanopascals . UHV requires the use of unusual materials in construction and by heating the entire system to 180°C for several hours to remove water and other trace gases which adsorb on the...

10 Pa 1 µPa Reference pressure for sound in water.
1 µPa Pressure inside a vacuum tube
Vacuum tube
In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube , or thermionic valve , reduced to simply "tube" or "valve" in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum...

(approximate, varies).
10 Pa 10 µPa Radiation pressure
Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. If absorbed, the pressure is the power flux density divided by the speed of light...

of sunlight on a perfectly reflecting surface at the distance of the Earth.
20 µPa 0 dB Reference pressure for sound in air.
20 µPa 0 dB Threshold of human hearing – the smallest RMS pressure fluctuation that the human ear
Ear
The ear is the organ that detects sound. It not only receives sound, but also aids in balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system....

can hear in a noiseless environment, at frequencies
Frequency
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency.The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency...

between 1 kHz and 5 kHz.
10 Pa 100 µPa Near Earth outer space
Outer space
Outer space is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles: predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, and neutrinos....

pressure (approximate)
500 µPa Atmospheric pressure on Pluto
Pluto
Pluto, formal designation 134340 Pluto, is the second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun...

(1988 figure; very roughly)
10 Pa
10 Pa
10 Pa 100 mPa Upper limit of high vacuum
1 Pa 1 Pa Pressure exerted by a US dollar bill resting flat on a surface
1 Pa Upper limit of molecular distillation, where the mean free path
Mean free path
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance covered by a moving particle between successive impacts which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.-Derivation:...

of molecules is larger than the equipment
10 Pa 10 Pa Pressure increase per millimeter of a water column at Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

mean sea level.
10 Pa Pressure inside an incandescent light bulb
Incandescent light bulb
The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe makes light by heating a metal filament wire to a high temperature until it glows. The hot filament is protected from air by a glass bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated. In a halogen lamp, a chemical process...

(approximate)
10 Pa 100 Pa ~130 dB Threshold of pain
Threshold of pain
The threshold of pain is the point at which pain begins to be felt. It is an entirely subjective phenomenon. The intensity at which a stimulus begins to evoke pain is the threshold intensity. So, if a hotplate on a person's skin begins to hurt at 42°C , then that is the pain threshold temperature...

pressure level for sound. Prolonged exposure may lead to hearing loss.
300 Pa 0.043 psi Differential air pressure for normal or easy breathing of a person. Natural outside air pressure of (or at elevation) is about , but breathing in and out may only change total air pressure 0.3%, between disp=flip abbr=on and disp=flip abbr=on. By comparison, trumpet players have been shown to push from disp=flip abbr=on up to disp=flip abbr=on (45 times harder, but still only 13% of total).
610 Pa 0.089 psi Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of water (611.73 Pa)
10 Pa 1 kPa 0.15 psi Atmospheric pressure on Mars
Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance...

, 1% of atmospheric sea-level pressure on Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

1.5 kPa Pressure of popping popcorn
2.6 kPa 0.38 psi or 20 mmHg Pressure to make water boil at room temperature
Room temperature
-Comfort levels:The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has listings for suggested temperatures and air flow rates in different types of buildings and different environmental circumstances. For example, a single office in a building has an occupancy ratio per...

(22 °C).
6.9 kPa 1 psi 1 pound-force per square inch
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units...

10 Pa 10 kPa 1.5 psi Pressure increase per meter of a water column
10 kPa 1.5 psi Drop in air pressure
Atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted into a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth . In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point...

when going from Earth sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

to 1000 m elevation
13 kPa 1.9 psi High air pressure for human lung measured in trumpet player making staccato high notes. A cough or sneeze will be notably lower, since a typical person can exert lung pressure of about 9.8 kPa (74 mmHg or 1.4 psi), though it has been noted that a healthy adult may push briefly with 19.3 kPa (2.8 psi) of pressure without injury.
17 kPa 2.4 psi Systolic blood pressure in a healthy adult (125 mmHg while at rest) with a fluctuation of about 7 kPa (50 mmHg, 1.6 psi) between systolic and diastolic pressure (10 kPa, 75 mmHg, or 1.45 psi) between heartbeats.
80 kPa 12 psi Pressure inside vacuum cleaner
Vacuum cleaner
A vacuum cleaner, commonly referred to as a "vacuum," is a device that uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors, and optionally from other surfaces as well. The dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for later disposal...

at sea level on Earth (80% of standard atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted into a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth . In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point...

)
87 kPa 13 psi Record low atmospheric pressure for typhoon/hurricane (Typhoon Tip in 1979) (only 86% of standard atmospheric pressure)
10 Pa 100 kPa 15 psi 1 bar
Bar (unit)
The bar is a unit of pressure equal to 100 kilopascals, and roughly equal to the atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level. Other units derived from the bar are the megabar , kilobar , decibar , centibar , and millibar...

(14.5 psi), approximately equal to the weight of one kilogram (1 kilopond) acting on one square centimeter
101 kPa 15 psi Standard atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted into a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth . In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point...

for Earth sea level (14.7 psi)
25 to 80+ psi Impact pressure of a fist punch (approximate). Typical force may total 150 to 500 lbf (667.2 to 2,224.1 N), applied to area of ~6 square inches (38.7 cm²). Actual impact pressure depends on strike to bone, soft tissue, padded surface, or brick wall. Also depends upon deflection or resistance of object struck. Heavyweight boxing champions have been shown to strike with over 1000 pound-forces (4,448.2 N) of force, which would imply ~170 psi (1100+ kPa) over same area.
+26 to +36 psi Air pressure in an automobile tire
Tire
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground...

relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)
+200 to +1,500 kPa +30 to +220 psi Air pressure in a bicycle tire
Bicycle tire
A bicycle tire is a tire that fits on the wheel of a bicycle, unicycle, tricycle, quadracycle, bicycle trailer, or trailer bike. They may also be used on wheelchairs and handcycles, especially for racing...

relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure).
400 to 500 kPa 58 to 73 psi Typical UK pressures for domestic mains water supply.
407 to 607 kPa 59 to 88 psi Air pressure in a champagne bottle.
517 kPa 75 psi Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of carbon dioxide.
+690 to +830 kPa +100 to +120 psi Air pressure in a heavy truck/bus tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)
10 Pa 0.8 to 2 MPa 120 to 290 psi Pressure used in boilers of steam locomotives
4.5 MPa 650 psi Military submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

max. rated pressure (est.) of SeaWolf
Seawolf
Seawolf or Sea-wolf can refer to:*Sea wolf, a common name for the South American Sea Lion*Seawolf , a marine fish-Armaments:, two Royal Navy ships...

class nuclear sub, at depth of 490m (1600 ft).
9.2 MPa 1300 psi Atmosphere of Venus
Atmosphere of Venus
The atmosphere of Venus is much denser and hotter than that of Earth. The temperature at the surface is 740 K , while the pressure is 93 bar. The Venusian atmosphere supports opaque clouds made of sulfuric acid, making optical Earth-based and orbital observation of the surface impossible...

(92 bar)
10 Pa 10 MPa 1450 psi Pressure washer
Pressure washer
A pressure washer is a high pressure mechanical sprayer that can be used to remove loose paint, mold, grime, dust, mud, and dirt from surfaces and objects such as buildings, vehicles, and concrete road surfaces. The volume of a pressure washer is expressed in Gallons Per Minute, which is designed...

s force out water at this pressure
> 10 MPa > 1500 psi Pressure exerted by a 45-kg woman wearing stiletto heels when a heel hits the floor
14 MPa 2000 psi Three unmanned robotic submarines working with the Deepwater Horizon
Deepwater Horizon
Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore oil drilling rig owned by Transocean. Built in 2001 in South Korea by Hyundai Heavy Industries, the rig was commissioned by R&B Falcon, which later became part of Transocean, registered in Majuro, Marshall...

oil spill of 2010, at 5000 feet (1,524 m). The Japanese Shinkai manned research sub has reached depths of 6500 meters, and over abbr=on 2600.
15 MPa 2200 psi Power stroke
Power stroke
Power Stroke may refer to:In motoring:*Power stroke , the stroke of a cyclic motor which generates force*Ford Power Stroke engine, Ford diesel engineOther:*In baseball, a batter who hits for extra bases is said to have a power stroke...

maximum pressure in diesel
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

truck engine when burning fuel.
20 MPa 2900 psi Pressure of a typical aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

scuba tank or pressurized gas cylinder
Gas cylinder
A gas cylinder is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure. High pressure gas cylinders are also called bottles. Although they are sometimes colloquially called "tanks", this is technically incorrect, as a tank is a vessel used to store liquids at ambient pressure and...

s (200 bar).
20 MPa 2900 psi Typical pressure used for hydrogenolysis
Hydrogenolysis
Hydrogenolysis is a chemical reaction whereby a carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom single bond is cleaved or undergoes "lysis" by hydrogen. The heteroatom may vary, but it usually is oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. A related reaction is hydrogenation, where hydrogen is added to the molecule, without...

reactions.
10 Pa 100 MPa 15000 psi Pressure at bottom of Mariana Trench
Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about long but has a mean width of only...

, about 11 km below ocean surface (1000 bar)
100 to 300 MPa 100 megapascals (14,503.8 psi)–300 megapascals (43,511.3 psi) psi Pressure inside reactor for the synthesis of high-pressure polyethylene
Polyethylene
Polyethylene or polythene is the most widely used plastic, with an annual production of approximately 80 million metric tons...

(HPPE)
400 MPa 400 megapascals (58,015.1 psi) Chamber pressure of .50 BMG
.50 BMG
The .50 Browning Machine Gun or 12.7×99mm NATO is a cartridge developed for the Browning .50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s. Entering service officially in 1921, the round is based on a greatly scaled-up .30-06 cartridge...

weapon discharge
600 MPa 600 megapascals (87,022.6 psi) Water pressure used in a water jet cutter
Water jet cutter
A water jet cutter, also known as a waterjet, is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. The process is essentially the same as water erosion found in nature but greatly accelerated...

.
10 Pa 1 GPa Extremely high-pressure chemical reactors (10 kbar).
9 GPa Pressure at which octaoxygen forms (90,000 bar)
10 Pa 18 GPa Pressure needed for the first commercially successful synthesis of diamond
Synthetic diamond
Synthetic diamond is diamond produced in a technological process; as opposed to natural diamond, which is created in geological processes. Synthetic diamond is also widely known as HPHT diamond or CVD diamond, denoting the production method, High-Pressure High-Temperature synthesis and Chemical...

24 to 110 GPa Stability range of enstatite
Enstatite
Enstatite is the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene silicate mineral series enstatite - ferrosilite . The magnesium rich members of the solid solution series are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks...

in its perovskite-structured polymorph, possibly the most common mineral inside the Earth
34 GPa Up to
5,000,000 psi
Ballistic pressure exerted as high-power bullet strikes solid (bulletproof) object. Much of the kinetic force effectively transfers to heat, as the projectile deforms and melts into the surface upon impact. In most cases, a much lower pressure is sufficient to break through a target object, and the pressure exerted is divided by the stopping distance.
40 GPa Quantum mechanical electron degeneracy pressure
Electron degeneracy pressure
Electron degeneracy pressure is a particular manifestation of the more general phenomenon of quantum degeneracy pressure. The Pauli Exclusion Principle disallows two half integer spin particles from occupying the same quantum state at a given time. The resulting emergent repulsive force is...

in a block of copper
96 GPa Pressure at which metallic oxygen forms (960,000 bar)
10 Pa 100 GPa Theoretical tensile strength
Tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength , often shortened to tensile strength or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when the specimen's cross-section starts to significantly contract...

of a carbon nanotube
Carbon nanotube
Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than for any other material...

(CNT)
130 GPa Intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene
Graphene
Graphene is an allotrope of carbon, whose structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm, who described single-layer...

300 GPa Pressure attainable with a diamond anvil cell
Diamond anvil cell
A diamond anvil cell is a device used in scientific experiments. It allows compressing a small piece of material to extreme pressures, which can exceed 3,000,000 atmospheres ....

360 GPa Pressure inside the core of the Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

(3.64 million bar)
10 Pa
10 Pa
10 Pa 530 TPa Pressure inside an Ivy Mike
Ivy Mike
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first United States test of a thermonuclear weapon, in which a major part of the explosive yield came from nuclear fusion. It was detonated on November 1, 1952 by the United States at on Enewetak, an atoll in the Pacific Ocean, as part of Operation Ivy...

-like nuclear bomb detonation (5.3 billion bar)
10 Pa 6.4 PPa Pressure inside a W80 nuclear warhead detonation (64 billion bar)
10 Pa 25 PPa Pressure inside the core of the Sun
Sun
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields...

. (250 billion bar)
57 PPa Pressure inside a uranium nucleus (8 MeV in a sphere of radius 175 pm)
1034 Pa 0.3 to 16×1034 Pa Pressure range inside a neutron star
Neutron star
A neutron star is a type of stellar remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles without electrical charge and with a slightly larger...

10 Pa 4.6×10113 Pa 6.7×10109 psi The Planck pressure (4.63x10108 bar), not reached except shortly after the Big Bang
Big Bang
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that explains the early development of the Universe. According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded rapidly. This rapid expansion caused the young Universe to cool and resulted in...

or in a black hole
Black hole
A black hole is a region of spacetime from which nothing, not even light, can escape. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that...

.